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AP2 I0 S81PISA 2018 Released Field Trialand Main Survey New ReadingItemsDoc.:CY7 TST PISA2018 Released New REA Items V2.docxUpdated: October 2019Produced by ETS, Core APISA 2018 Released FT and MS Reading Literacy Items1

ContentsA Note on this Update . 4Reading Literacy – Overview . 4Cognitive Processes. 4Texts . 5Scenarios . 6Released Items . 7Unit CR551: Rapa Nui . 8Rapa Nui Scenario . 8Rapa Nui Released Item #1 . 10Rapa Nui Released Item #2 . 12Rapa Nui Released Item #3 . 14Rapa Nui Released Item #4 . 15Rapa Nui Released Item #5 . 17Rapa Nui Released Item #6 . 18Rapa Nui Released Item #7 . 19Unit CR548: Chicken Forum . 21Chicken Forum Scenario . 21Chicken Forum Released Item #1 . 23Chicken Forum Released Item #2 . 25Chicken Forum Released Item #3 . 26Chicken Forum Released Item #4 . 27Chicken Forum Released Item #5 . 28Chicken Forum Released Item #6 . 29Chicken Forum Released Item #7 . 31Unit CR557: Cow’s Milk . 33Cow’s Milk Scenario . 33Cow’s Milk Released Item #1 . 35Cow’s Milk Released Item #2 . 36Cow’s Milk Scenario Update. 37Cow’s Milk Released Item #3 . 38Cow’s Milk Released Item #4 . 39Cow’s Milk Released Item #5 . 41Cow’s Milk Released Item #6 . 42Cow’s Milk Released Item #7 . 43Untested Unit: The Galapagos Islands. 46PISA 2018 Released FT and MS Reading Literacy Items2

The Galapagos Islands Scenario. 46The Galapagos Islands Stimulus 1 . 48The Galapagos Islands Stimulus 2 . 49The Galapagos Islands Stimulus 3 . 50The Galapagos Islands Stimulus 4 . 51The Galapagos Islands Released Item #1 . 52The Galapagos Islands Released Item #2 . 53The Galapagos Islands Released Item #3 . 54The Galapagos Islands Released Item #4 . 55The Galapagos Islands Released Item #5 . 56The Galapagos Islands Released Item #6 . 57The Galapagos Islands Released Item #7 . 59Reading Fluency . 61Reading Fluency: Introduction . 62Reading Fluency: Static Examples . 63Reading Fluency: Dynamic Practice . 64Reading Fluency: Dynamic Practice Item 1 . 64Reading Fluency: Dynamic Practice Item 2 . 65Reading Fluency: Dynamic Practice Item 3 . 66Reading Fluency: End of Practice . 67PISA 2018 Released FT and MS Reading Literacy Items3

A Note on this UpdateIn 2018, prior to the Main Survey, this report was written to describe items from two units that were notselected for the Main Survey (Chicken Forum and Cow’s Milk). Additionally, this report contained itemsfrom a unit that had been developed for, but was not administered in, the Field Trial (The GalapagosIslands).This updated report addresses three areas. First, it presents updated difficulty information for the itemsassessed in the Field Trial. Second, it expands the number of released items to include the items fromRapa Nui, a unit that was administered in the Main Survey but was not taken forward to the next cycleof PISA. Third, it incorporates a description of the fluency task, a measure of reading components thatwas tested in the Field Trial and administered in the Main Survey.Reading Literacy – OverviewSeven items from the Main Survey, fourteen items from the 2018 Field Trial, and seven items from aunit that was not administered in the Field Trial were approved by the Reading Literacy Expert Groupfor release as sample items. The items are presented within their units as they were designed and inthe case of three units, as they were administered in either the Main Survey or the Field Trial. Thecognitive process is provided for each released item, showing how the item was classified according tothe construct categories in the 2018 Reading Literacy framework that will be used for scaling. Eachcognitive process is explained more fully in the framework. A summary from the framework is providedhere for reference. 1Cognitive ProcessesSuccessful reading, whether reading a single text or reading and integrating information across multipletexts, requires an individual to perform a range of processes. The 2018 Reading Literacy frameworkdefines several cognitive processes that span a range of difficulty. Each cognitive process is assignedto a superordinate category which will be used for the final scaling of the 2018 Main Survey data:Locate information, Understand, and Evaluate and Reflect. The cognitive processes within eachcategory are briefly defined below.Locate information Access and retrieve information within a text – scanning a single text in order to retrieve targetinformation consisting of a few words, phrases or numerical values.Search for and select relevant text – searching for information among several texts to select themost relevant text given the demands of the item/task.For additional information, please consult the PISA 2018 Reading -draft-frameworks.pdf1PISA 2018 Released FT and MS Reading Literacy Items4

Understand Represent literal information – comprehending the literal meaning of sentences or shortpassages, typically matching a direct or close paraphrasing of information in the question withinformation in a passage.Integrate and generate inferences – going beyond the literal meaning of information in a text byintegrating information across sentences or even an entire passage. Tasks that require thestudent to create a main idea or to produce a summary or a title for a passage are classified as“integrate and generate inference” items.Integrate and generate inferences across multiple sources – integrating pieces of informationthat are located within two or more texts.Evaluate and Reflect Assess quality and credibility – evaluating whether the information in a text is valid, current,accurate, unbiased, reliable, etc. Readers must identify and consider the source of theinformation and consider the content and form of the text or in other words, how the author ispresenting the information.Reflect on content and form – evaluating the form of the writing to determine how the author isexpressing their purpose and/or point of view. These items often require the student to reflect ontheir own experience and knowledge to compare, contrast or hypothesize different perspectivesor viewpoints.Detect and handle conflict – determining whether multiple texts corroborate or contradict eachother and when they conflict, deciding how to handle that conflict. For example, items classifiedas “detect and handle conflict” may ask students to identify whether two authors agree on thestance of an issue or to identify each author’s stance. In other cases, these items may requirestudents to consider the credibility of the sources and demonstrate that they accept the claimsfrom the more reliable source over the claims from the less reliable source.TextsTexts can be classified along four different dimensions described in the framework: source,organization and navigation, format, and type. Each dimension is briefly described below.Source Single – a single unit of text that has an author or a group of authors, a time of writing orpublication date and a reference title or number.Multiple – multiple units of texts where each has a different author, different publication times orhave different titles or reference numbers.Organization and Navigation Static – texts with simple organization and a low density of navigation tools; typically texts withone or several pages organized in a linear way.Dynamic – texts with a more complex, non-linear organization and a higher density ofnavigation tools.PISA 2018 Released FT and MS Reading Literacy Items5

Format Continuous – texts formed by sentences that are organized into paragraphs.Non-continuous – texts composed of a number of lists or elements such as tables, graphs,diagrams, advertisements, schedules, catalogues, indexes, forms, etc.Mixed – texts containing both continuous and non-continuous elements.Type Description – texts with information that refers to properties of objects in space. Descriptiontexts provide an answer to “what” questions. Examples include a depiction of a place in atravelogue, a catalogue or a process in a technical manual.Narration – texts with information that refers to objects in time. Narration texts provide answersto “when” or “in what sequence”. Examples include a report, a news story, a novel, a short storyor a play.Exposition – t