Transcription

Version 01Punctuation

This content is Copyright 2007 Open School BC, all rights reserved.Open School BC content and may neither be resold or distributed in whole or in part withoutpermission from Open School BC, nor be transferred to other e-learning platforms or serviceswithout prior written permission from Open School BC.AcknowledgmentsProject Manager Monique BrewerWriters: Shannon Mitchell, Leanne Baugh, Julie KellyCopy Editor: Monica Morris, Kate RestsonTeacher Reviewers: Helen Eng—School District 45, West VancouverLloy Falconer—School District 63, South Island Distance EducationProduction Technicians: Beverly Carstensen, Brian Glover, Christine RamkeesoonGraphics Coordinator: Janet BartzIllustrators: Max Licht, Cal JonesInstructional Design: Carol OromThis e-text book was originally part of the Writing On the Run! workbook that included foursections. These sections have been reproduced into four discrete e-textbooks.Print HistoryReprinted, March 2016Corrected, July 2008New, November 2007

Table of ContentsPunctuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Punctuation Checkup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Apostrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Quiz Yourself: Apostrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Challenge Yourself: Apostrophe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Quiz Yourself: Capitalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Challenge Yourself: Capitalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Colon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Quiz Yourself: Colon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Challenge Yourself: Colon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Quiz Yourself: Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Challenge Yourself: Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Hyphen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Quiz Yourself: Hyphen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Challenge Yourself: Hyphen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Parentheses, Dash, and Ellipsis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Quiz Yourself: Parentheses, Dash, and Ellipsis. . . . . . . . . 40Challenge Yourself: Parentheses, Dash, and Ellipsis . . . . . 42Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Quiz Yourself: Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Challenge Yourself: Quotation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Semicolon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Quiz Yourself: Semicolon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Challenge Yourself: Semicolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Putting It Together. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57PUNCTUATION1

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PunctuationWhen should you use a colon instead of a semicolon?Where do you place a comma in a coordinateconjunction? When do you use a dash or an ellipsis?This resource will show you the basics about properpunctuation.PUNCTUATION3

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Punctuation CheckupInstructionsThe text on the following page contains many errors pertaining to punctuation.Punctuation errors include mistakes in the use of the apostrophe, capitalization,colon, comma, hyphen, parentheses, dash, ellipsis, quotation marks, andsemicolon.Read through the text titled “Cultural Exchange Programs” and underline any wordcontaining an error or any piece of punctuation that is incorrect. If punctuation ismissing or incorrect, underline the word preceeding it.Once you have completed the Punctuation Checkup, compare your answers tothe key on page 243. If you find all the errors of a particular type, then place acheckmark in “Topic Mastered.” If you miss an error of a particular type, then placea checkmark in “Topic to Review.” You may then use this chart to guide whattopics you need to review in this section.Error TypeTopic MasteredTopic to Review1. apostrophe2. capitalization3. colon4. comma5. hyphen6. parentheses, dash and ellipsis7. quotation marks8. semicolonPUNCTUATION5

CheckupCultural Exchange ProgramsThousands of High School students around the world take part in cultural exchangeprograms. These students spend a few months, or even a full year living and going toschool in another country. Some of the most popular countries Canadian exchangestudents go to are France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. Cultural exchange students have areal-life-study of another countrys’ culture, traditions, language, and history. For example,students learn that there is more to France than french fries.Many students’ (who go to live in another country on an exchange program) havenever before lived away from home. Homesickness is a very natural experience at thebeginning. However: after students get settled in with their host family, acclimatized tothe culture, and enrolled in school, the homesickness’ usually goes away quickly.Teenagers’ who participate in cultural exchange programs can benefit on many levels.Academically: exchange students are often challenged. They are expected to take a fullslate of courses at school that is more often than not taught in -- a foreign language.Exchange students must be patient with themselves as they learn a new language. theyalso must be, flexible and adaptable to new circumstances. A student who recentlyreturned from an exchange stated, “This experience has changed my life forever.In terms of personal development -- an exchange program can be an invaluableexperience. Students can grow on many levels; cultural exchange programs offer youngpeople the opportunity to mature both personally and intellectually. The life experiencegained from exchange programs has helped many students by Boosting self-confidence,encouraging independence, and developing leadership skills.Students who embark upon a cultural exchange often come back home with excitingstories of learning, living, and experiencing-another-culture. One student commented;“Going on a student exchange to Holland opened up my world.6PUNCTUATION

ApostropheThe apostrophe has three main purposes: to replace missingletters, to form contractions, or to show possession.Use the apostrophe to take the place of a letter or letters omitted fromcontractions.has notit iscannothasn’tit’scan’tUse the apostrophe to take the place of a letter or number that has beenomitted.He yelled, “I’m takin’ the ball and goin’ home.” Do you remember the summer of ’99 when we went tubing down the FraserRiver?Use the apostrophe to show possession or ownership.Singular nouns usually take an apostrophe and s.FOmy grandmother’s houseThe student’s bookNOTOTEIf a singular noun ends with an s or z sound, you may justadd an apostrophe or an apostrophe and s. Choose theone that sounds better to your ear.Thomas’ book or Thomas’s bookIn both cases the book belongs to Thomas.PUNCTUATION7

Plural nouns take only an apostrophe if the word ends in s.my grandparents’ house(The house belongs to both my grandparents.)If a plural noun does not end in s, add an apostrophe and s.the team’s bus (The bus belongs to the team.)Shared possessives (possession is shared by more than one noun) take an apostropheand s on the last noun only, unless the nouns do not share equally.Ted and Fred’s restaurant(The restaurant belongs to Ted and Fred.)Compound noun possessives take an apostrophe on the last word in thecompound noun.my brother-in-law’s boatthe high school’s gym8PUNCTUATION

Misuses of ApostrophesDo not use the apostrophe to form plurals.When you mean more than one, simply add an s.The cats lived in the old barn.(No apostrophe is needed because there is no ownership.)There are thirty-eight thousand teachers in B.C.(No apostrophe is needed because there is no ownership.)Watch out for the most common errors of all.Do not use it’s (it is) when you mean its (possessive pronoun)Do not use who’s (who is) when you mean whose (possessive pronoun)Do not use you’re (you are) when you mean your (possessive pronoun)It’s (it is) a great day to be studying.The dog wagged its tail when the boy came home.Who’s (who is) going to the party?Whose party is it?You’re a great singer.Your grammar is improving.Match the apostrophes with acronyms.Traditionally, following an acronym with an apostrophe s to pluralize hasbeen considered grammatically incorrect. However, this usage has become socommonplace that most consider this usage now correct.There are five CD’s in the package.orThere are five CDs in the package.PUNCTUATION9

Quiz Yourself:ApostropheFor each sentence, circle the word that correctly completes the sentence.1. What is phone number?a. Tim’sb. Tims2.you hear that the exam was changed to next week?a. Didn’tb. Didnt3.a very bad idea to get into a car if the driver has been drinking.a. Itsb. It’s4. having the party tonight?a. Who’sb. Whose5.It drives me crazy when the bark all night long.a. dog’sb. dogs6. Have you made a decision whether going to go to university or gobackpacking in Europe?a. yourb. you’re10PUNCTUATION

Quiz Yourself:ApostropheContinued7. Did you know that leaving the city for good?a. theirb. they’re8.Our car is a convertible BMW.a. neighbour’sb. neighbours9.The group made decision on what to do for the chemistry project.a. it’sb. its10. Tina and apartment was robbed when they accidentally left the doorunlocked.a. Emmasb. Emma’sPUNCTUATION11

Challenge Yourself:ApostropheCorrect each sentence by adding or deleting apostrophes. In some cases you may have todelete the wrong form of a word and replace it with a new word that contains an apostrophe.1. Student’s at our high school organized a garage sale to raise money fora local charity.2.The idea for a fundraiser was originally Jennifers.3.However, it didnt take long for others to jump on board.4.Prem, Jane, and Ellen were in charge of gathering all the item’s to sell.5. Their all busy studying for their provincial exams, but somehow they foundthe time to help out.6. Sanjays grandparents were moving out of their house into an apartment, so theydonated a lot.7.All the items were stored in Molly’s parents garage before the sale.8. Jake had a question: “Whose going to collect the money and deposit it intothe bank?”9.Jennifer told Jake, “As treasurer, your the money guy.”10. Its a good thing we were organized as there’s a lot of work in organizing agarage sale.11. When we delivered the check to the charity, the executive director said, “Yourthe greatest.”12PUNCTUATION

CapitalizationCapitalize the first word of a sentence and proper nouns—the namesof people, places, and things. The following are specific examples.The first word of a sentence and the personal pronoun “I.”Do you want me to buy you a sandwich when I stop at the deli?Capitalize the first word in a direct quotation.See the tutorial titled “Quotations Marks” for more information.“Sure, I’ll get you a sandwich,” Cam said. “What kind of bread do you want?”“ Wholewheat, please,” I replied.When Grant overheard his father say, “Let me take the wheel for a while,” heshuddered.Capitalize the names of people, their initials, abbreviations, and titles.Mr. BrownNellie McClungConstable M.R. DavisDr. Raymond WuPrime Minister Lester B. PearsonCapitalize titles that indicate family relationships when these titles are used witha name or in place of a name.Family TitlesGeneral RelationshipsAunt Gertrudeher auntGrandfather Staceyour grandfatherWhere is Mother?my mother wentPUNCTUATION13

Capitalize official titles when these titles are used with a name.Official TitlesGeneral TitlesMayor Jonesthe mayorDoctor Jackthe doctorCapitalize regional names (cities, provinces, countries, sections within countries,continents) and abbreviations derived from them.KitimatThe West CoastAntarcticaBritish Columbia (BC)Capitalize names of specific bodies of water, rivers, and streams.Thompson RiverEast Barrier LakePacific OceanCapitalize common nouns used as part of a place ak StreetRocky MountainsSkeena RiverQueen Elizabeth TheatreRockridge Secondary SchoolDo not capitalize compass directions, north, south, east, or west, except whenthey are an area or section of the country or part of a street address.When jobs were scarce on the West Side, the family moved east.If you walk north on North Street, you will find the correct address.I’m lost—do we travel north or west to reach the hotel? apitalize the names of races, languages, nationalities, and the adjectivesCderived from them.First NationsJapanese14Italian cookingSpanish musicAboriginal educationPUNCTUATION

Capitalize the name of languages.Canadians speak English and French.Capitalize the names of religions, the adjectives derived from them, thefollowers of each religion, and their sacred writings.MuslimsKoranBibleChristiansBuddhist templeJewish holidaysCapitalize the names of organizations, clubs, historical events and periods oftime, and abbreviations derived from them.Middle AgesTim HortonsIndustrial RevolutionUnited Nations (UN)War of 1812Edmonton OilersCapitalize the names of months, days of the week, and holidays, but notseasons.MondayDecemberThanksgiving DaysummerCapitalize titles.Capitalize

programs. These students spend a few months, or even a full year living and going to school in another country. Some of the most popular countries Canadian exchange students go to are France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. Cultural exchange students have a real-life-study of another countrys’ culture, traditions, language, and history. For example,