U.S. Embassy RomeESTH SectionNewsletterVolume IVESTHnewsletterenvironment science technology healthJuly 2017 –November 2017IN THIS ISSUEG7 Science Ministerial andNSF Partner Spotlight . 1Meet the Ambassador. .2Environment . .3-5Honors. . .6Space. . . .7Science . .8-9Technology . . .10Health .11-13Going Green 14Look Ahead .15Meet your ESTH Rome team:L to R: Lee, Federica, Carlee, Caron,Elena and Sut at Bike/Walk to work dayCaron De Mars,ESTH CounselorFederica Signoretti,ESTH SpecialistMichael Lee,Office Management SpecialistSutyajeet Soneja,ESTH Science FellowElena Berg,Rome, ItalyG7 Science Ministerial and NSF Partner SpotlightThe G7 Science Ministerial took place on September 2829, in Turin, Italy. Prior to the ministerial, U.S. EmbassyRome’s Environment, Science, Technology, and Healthteam welcomed Dr. France A. Córdova and her team ofNational Science Foundation (NSF) delegates at a receptionPhoto credit: NSF.govhosted by Chargé d’Affaires Kelly Degnan. The federalagency that Dr. Córdova has led since 2014 is dedicated to supporting initiatives that"promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, andwelfare; and to secure the national defense."Many significant collaborations between American and Italian scientists are fundedby the NSF through the Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE)program, a 19 million annually funded program that awards grants to investigators,scientists, and students. In addition, U.S. researchers utilize Italian laboratories. Forexample, the NSF has significant investments in the National Institute of NuclearPhysics (INFN) and Gran Sasso Laboratories of nearly 5.5 million annually.Before the G7 meeting, the delegation, Chargé Degnan, and ESTH team went to GranSasso Laboratories, where groups of American and Italian scientists explained theirphysics experiments. En route to Turin, the delegation and ESTH team stopped atCascina (near Pisa) to tour the Virgo facility (a giant laser interferometer designed todetect gravitational waves), which collaborates with American scientists at LIGO laboratories in Louisiana and Washington.(Discover how the LIGO and Virgo facilities areconnected to the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics ina subsequent article.)G7 Science Ministerial delegates had three focal areas, including training researchers, innovation, and open science. The G7 Science Communique can be found here. We thank Dr. Córdova and her delegation for their work in Italy, Chargé, NSF delegation, ESTH, & scientistswhich advanced both science and diplomacy!at Gran Sasso Photo Credit: INFNFall‘17 InternState Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAVolume IV, Page 1

Return to home pageMeet the AmbassadorAmbassador Lewis M. EisenbergPhoto Credit: usembassy.govLewis M. Eisenberg of Florida is the new U.S. Ambassador to the Italian Republic, and the Republic of SanMarino. He is a prominent American financier, investor, and philanthropist. As Chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and a Founding Board Member of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, where he chaired its 9/11 Victims’ Families and Transportation Advisory Councils, Ambassador Eisenberg engaged with State and local governments on a number of complex issues. He is an EmeritusMember of Cornell University’s Johnson Graduate School of Management Advisory Council and Life Member ofthe Cornell University Council. He earned a B.A. at Dartmouth College and a M.B.A. at Cornell Johnson School ofBusiness. He is married to Judith Ann Eisenberg. The Eisenbergs have three married daughters and elevengrandchildren. The ESTH team introduced the Ambassador to the Italian ministers they work with most closely.Ambassador meets Education and ResearchMinister FedeliAmbassador meets Health Minister LorenzinState Dept. OESPhoto Credit: Caron De MarsAmbasciataUSAAmbassador meets Environment Minister GallettiVolume IV, Page 2

EnvironmentReturn to home pageOur Ocean Conference in MaltaPage Photo Credit: Caron De MarsScientists predict there could be more plastic than fish by weight in the ocean by 2050, at the current rates ofconsumption and disposal, according to the World Economic Forum. The fourth Our Ocean conference, held inMalta October 5-6, 2017, resulted in over 400 new commitments from governments, civil society, and the private sector to address threats (including plastic marine litter) facing the ocean and promote sustainable management of marine resources. These new commitments are valued at more than 8.5 billion. OES Acting Assistant Secretary Judith G. Garber led the U.S. delegation, which announced 12 new initiatives from USAID, NOAA, the Departmentof State, and the Department of Labor, totaling up to 75 million. The “An Ocean Free of Plastic” exhibit, which is highlighted in the following article, was one of the Department of State’s three commitments announced during the 2017Malta conference. More than 990 participants from 112 countries attended the conference, including five heads ofstate or government, and 36 ministers. A number of high-profile political and private sector representatives deliveredremarks, including the Prince of Wales, Prince Albert II of Monaco, Queen Noor of Jordan, EU High Representative Federica Mogherini, EU Commissioner Karmenu Vella, actor Adrian Grenier, and marine biologist and explorer SylviaEarle. Major companies attended the conference and announced new initiatives to combat marine pollution and unsustainable fishing and promote a sustainable blue economy, including Coca-Cola, Dow Chemical, Mars, PepsiCo, P&G DishCare, Unilever, Royal Caribbean Cruises, and Hilton. ESTH Counselor Caron De Mars, one of 13 bloggers designated bythe EU for social media outreach during the conference, highlighted U.S. commitments via Twitter, using the hashtag#OurOcean and tagging OES, Embassy Malta, and the relevant U.S. agencies, foundations, and corporations. The combined efforts of the bloggers reached 12.4 million people in 48 hours and #OurOcean was the ninth trending topic in theU.S. and the number one topic in Italy during that period. Future Our Ocean conferences will be held in Indonesia in2018, Norway in 2019, and Palau in 2020.Queen NoorState Dept. OESDr. Ayana Johnson, marine biologistAmbasciataUSAPrince CharlesVolume IV, Page 3

EnvironmentReturn to home pageGenoa Plastic Pollution ExhibitDCM Kelly DegnanAs a follow-up to the Our Ocean Conference held in Malta, Italy hosted the interactive “An Ocean Free ofPlastic” exhibit at the Genoa Aquarium, the largest aquarium in Italy and the second largest in Europe. Located in the old harbor of Genoa, the 33,000-square-foot aquarium welcomes more than 1.2 million visitorseach year. At the October 27 inauguration in Genoa, Deputy Chief of Mission Kelly Degnan delivered welcome remarks highlighting the risks from plastic pollution to the ocean environment, and stressed the utility of this exhibit in providing small, concrete solutions that individuals can take to address the marine litter challenge. PlasticChange’s marine biologist Malene Mohl, who provided content for the exhibit, led participants on a guided tour, whichculminated in a stop at a photo booth to make a personal pledge to combat plastic pollution. Additional participants inthe launch event included NGO representatives, officials from Italy’s National Research Council, local authorities, andthe media. The event received positive coverage on local TV and radio shows. Turin-based national newspaper LaStampa filed this report and video. Genoa hosted the largest science festival in Italy on October 26-November 5, andthe timing of the exhibit opening coincided with the well-attended annual festival (which attracted 26,000 students in2016) to leverage the reach of the exhibit’s message. Rome Public Affairs Tweeted about the event to its 150,000 followers, and the Genoa Aquarium re-Tweeted the messages. On Facebook, almost 6,000 people saw the photo-post.School Kids at ExhibitMalene Mohl and Caron De MarsState Dept. OESPage Photo Credit: Caron De Mars and Federica SignorettiAmbasciataUSAFederica SignorettiVolume IV, Page 4

EnvironmentReturn to home pageTurtle Excluder DevicesOn October 11, ESTH Counselor Caron De Mars,ESTH Specialist Federica Signoretti, and ESTH Intern Elena Berg accompanied Joseph Fette fromthe State Department’s Office of Marine Conservation to meet with Commander Vittorio Giovannone fromthe Italian Coast Guard to discuss the possible use of TurtleExcluder Devices (TEDs) in Italian fisheries. A TED is a specialized device that allows a captured sea turtle to escape whencaught in a fisherman's net. In particular, sea turtles can becaught when bottom trawling is used by the commercial shrimp fishing industry. In order to catch shrimp, a finemeshed trawl net is needed. This results in large amounts ofother marine organisms being also caught as bycatch. When aturtle gets caught or entangled in a trawl net, it becomestrapped and is unable to return to the surface. Since sea turtles are air-breathing creatures with lungs, they eventuallydrown.This innovative technology increases effectiveness in threeareas. In addition to saving sea turtles, TEDs also account fora 6% increase in overall catch. The devices help sort the catchas well, which allows fisherfolk to save time as well as fuelotherwise wasted in bringing the heavy nets to surface andsorting through unwanted catch.Joseph Fette travels often to advocate the implementation ofTEDs in fisheries around the globe. The Italian government isalready sponsoring research on TEDs, and may be interestedin sharing the positive results from U.S. and Italian TEDs research at the European level.Turtle Excluder DevicePhoto Credit: NOLA.comState Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAItalian NGO Legambiente RanksItaly’s Greenest CitiesPhoto Credit: Notizie in ControluceThe Italian NGO Legambiente has published the twentyfourth annual report of the “greenest” Italian cities, basedon 2016 data. The criteria used to draft the ranking were atotal of sixteen categories, grouped in seven macro areas:Air, Water, Garbage Disposal, Renewable Energies, Mobility, and Urban Environment. The cities are thus rankedfrom one to 105, with the city with the highest point scorebeing ranked number one. This edition added bonuspoints to cities that adopted innovative policies to improveenvironmental sustainability (e.g., car-sharing, no-trafficzones, recycling systems, efficient public transportation,etc.). The document shows an overall improvement in thegreen standards at a national level, even if most cities ofthe South still lag behind. Legambiente hopes that thecities ranked in the highest positions can serve as modelsfor the less virtuous ones.Mantua was ranked number one, followed by Trento, Bolzano, Parma and Pordenone. Catania, Palermo, Viterbo,Brindisi, and Enna were ranked 101-105.Milan, thanks in part to new car-sharing services and theArea C (a central area with a congestion charge payment),jumped 42 positions, to rank at 31. Florence remained inthe middle of the list at position 51. Rome and Naples,due to cyclical garbage emergencies, serious water leaks,and inadequate public transportation, scored very poorly,ranking at 88 and 86, respectively.Volume IV, Page 5

HonorsReturn to home pagePhysics Nobel Prize WinnersThree American physicists, KipThorne and Barry Barish of theCalifornia Institute of Technology and Rainer Weiss of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wonthe 2017 Physics Nobel Prize for their discovery of gravitational waves between black holes. The scientists are promotersand founders of LIGO (Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory).Collaboration between LIGO and theVIRGO interferometer in Italy (see page 1) led to a new observation, confirmed in August 2017, which allowed scientists tolocate the source of gravitational waves with unprecedentedprecision. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves about a century ago. The international work ongravitational wave detection has created a completely newway to study our universe.Dr. Rizzolatti receives Lombardy Science AwardGiacomo Rizzolati is an Italian emeritus professor inneurophysiology at the University of Parma (EmiliaRomagna) and at the Niguarda Hospital in Milan(Lombardy). Born in Kiev, Ukraine, he is the SeniorScientist on the research team that discovered mirror neurons inthe frontal and parietal cortex of the macaque monkey, and haswritten extensively on the topic. Rizzolatti has received many international awards for his discoveries in neuroscience. His key finding of what hedeems the “mirror mechanism” unifies brain perception and execution.Each time an individual observes anPhoto credit: Giacomo Boffiaction done by others, a set of neurons responsible for coding that action in the motor system areactivated. Because the observers are aware of the outcome oftheir motor acts, they also understand what others are doingwithout the necessity of an intermediate cognitive mediation.Rizzolati is a past president of the European Brain and BehaviorSociety. The Lombardy Region created the one-million-euroState Dept. OESAmbasciataUSATop Scientist Award in memory of Prof. Umberto Veronesi, the famous oncologist who died in 2016. Thiswas the first year the prize was awarded. 70% of thegrant will be dedicated to research projects to be carried out in the Lombardy region.Dr. Ranieri Guerra moves to WHOOn October 3, 2017, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO DirectorGeneral, appointed five members ofthe WHO senior leadership team, including Dr. Ranieri Guerra as Assistant Director General for Special Initiatives. Dr. Guerra has more than 30years of public health experience.Since 2015, he has represented Italyas a member of the StandingPhoto Credit: MinistryCommittee of the Regionalof HealthCommittee for Europe.Since 2014, he has served as Director General forPreventive Health and Chief Medical Officer of theItalian Ministry of Health. Additional roles includeserving as Scientific Attaché for the Embassy of Italyin Washington, D.C., Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre and Director of the Office of ExternalRelations at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, the research organization of the Italian Ministry of Health,and Medical Director of the United Nations Reliefand Works Agency (UNRWA). He has published extensively on humanitarian and emergency operations and health reform in developing and transitional countries. He also has worked with severalmultilateral organizations and the Italian Ministry ofForeign Affairs in these settings.Although we are very happy for Dr. Guerra’s advancement, he has been a good friend of our ESTHSection at U.S. Embassy Rome, so we will miss him.Volume IV, Page 6

SpaceReturn to home pageAspen Institute Italia holds Award Ceremony to RecognizeScientific Collaboration between Italy and the United StatesOn October 26, ESTH Embassy Science FellowDr. Sut Soneja and Intern Elena Berg attended the celebration of accomplishments ofItalian and American scientists at the AspenInstitute Italia Award ceremony. This award, establishedin December 2015, forms part of the Institute’s ongoingcommitment towards cultivating international leadership, honoring scientific cooperation, and fostering transatlantic ties. It honors a research contribution in the theoretical or applied natural sciences that is the product of collaboration betweenASPEN Institute Award PresentationPhoto credit: Sut Sonejascientists and/or research organizations in Italy and the United States. This year’swinning research was titled “Wind from the Black-Hole Accretion Disk Driving aMolecular Outflow in an Active Galaxy.” The authors demonstrated that wind coming from black holes contributes to the formation of new stars inside different galaxies. In particular, they proved that the evolution of galaxies depends on the black holes at their center.This research falls within the longstanding and well-established tradition of collaborative efforts between Italianand American scientists in the field of X-ray astronomy, pioneered in the United States by Bruno Rossi and Riccardo Giacconi (winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002). The research project was Nature’s cover story onMarch 26, 2015. The researchers currently work at the University of Maryland, College Park; University of RomeTor Vergata, Italy; the School of Physical and Geographical Sciences at Keele University in the United Kingdom;and the University of Alcalá in Spain.In addition to honoring the scientists at the ceremony who won the award, the Aspen Institute also held a paneldebate on the future of research and the economics of space exploration by three notable individuals with longhistory in space exploration and science: Samuel C. C. Ting, Nobel Laureate and Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Physics at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology; Roberto Battiston, President of the Italian SpaceAgency; and Colleen Hartman, Director of NASA’s Goddard Space FlightCenter. Both Ting and Battiston are principal investigators of the international 1.5 billion Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment, which wasinstalled on the International Space Station in May 2011. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer has thus far collected and identified nine million cosmic ray events as electrons or positrons (antimatter). The results suggestthat high-energy positrons and cosmic ray electrons may come from differNASA visitors and ESTH meet before theent and mysterious sources. Solving the origin of cosmic rays and antiawards ceremony.matter increases understanding of our galaxy.Photo Credit: Paolo MessaState Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAVolume IV, Page 7

ScienceReturn to home pageThe Inauguration of the CUORE Experimentat Gran Sasso National LaboratoryOn October 23, ESTH Embassy Science Fellow Dr. Sut Soneja and Intern Elena Berg visited the GranSasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Assergi, Province of L'Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy for the inauguration of the CUORE experiment (Cryogenic Underground Laboratory Of Rare Events). LNGS is thebiggest and potentially one of the most important underground research centers in the world; itsmain point of strength is hosting experiments that need low radioactive background. The CUORE project, whichtook 12 years for the prototype to show results and involves significant cooperation between scientists fromItaly and the United States, is an experimental observation search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Observing neutrinoless double beta decay could confirm physicist Ettore Majorana's theory of the nature of the neutrino, which would allow scientists to explain, in part, why neutrinos have mass and the prevalence of matter overantimatter in the universe. This, in turn, is the foundation physicists believe makes the creation of stars andplanets possible. Notable participants at the inauguration who have worked on the CUORE experiment included LNGS Director Stefano Ragazzi; Italian National Institute of Physics President Fernando Ferroni; ProfessorYury Kolomensky of the University of California at Berkeley; and Jehanne Gillo, Director of the U.S. Departmentof Energy’s Office of Nuclear Physics’ Facilities and Project Management Division.Intern Elena Berg and CUORE scientists. Photo Credit: Sut SonejaState Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAPhoto Credit: INFNVolume IV, Page 8

ScienceReturn to home pageEuropean Commission Announces Details for 30B in ResearchFunds Under Horizon 2020Photo Credit: Irish Research CouncilPhoto Credit: European CommissionHorizon 2020 is the financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe's global competitiveness. By coupling research and innovation, Horizon2020 aspires to achieve excellent science and industrial leadership, and tackling societal challenges. Theinitiative’s goal is to ensure Europe produces world-class science, removes barriers to innovation, andmakes it easier for the public and private sectors to work together in delivering innovation.On October 27, 2017, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars hosted the U.S. launch of the EuropeanUnion’s Horizon 2020 research program (2018-2020). The European Commission published details on the lasttranche of funding ( 30 billion) under the Horizon 2020 research program. The final three years of Horizon 2020(2018-2020) will focus on “fewer topics with bigger budgets” in fields ranging from personalized healthcare and cybersecurity to cleaner energy and the root causes of extremism. Low-carbon research has the biggest topical allocation at 3.3 billion. A pilot for the European Innovation Council intended to support top-class innovators, start-ups,small companies, and researchers, will receive 2.7 billion. Projects designed to digitize and transform European industry and services will receive 1.7 billion. A further 941 million will go toward the “circular economy,” an attemptto reduce waste and increase recycling. European Union security projects, focusing on areas such as cybersecurity,will receive 1 billion.Additionally, more than 200 million will support research on migration-related issues, such as the root causes ofmigration, “migration management,” and integrating migrants in new countries. In order to encourage participationwith international partners, approximately 1 billion will go to 30 international competitions. Examples include: cooperating with Canada on personalized medicine; collaborating with the United States, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia on road transport automation; working with India on water challenges, and teaming up with African countries on food security and renewable energies. Six new prize competitions have been confirmed, which include 10 million to develop a battery for electric vehicles; 10 million for a bench-scale prototype of an artificialphotosynthesis device that produces a synthetic liquid fuel; 5 million each for a scalable, reliable and cost-effectiveearly warning system for epidemics; a prize for “blockchain for social good”; a prize for an affordable way of launching nano- and micro-satellites into low-earth orbit; and a prize for technology to aid humanitarian work. Seen as ameans to drive economic growth and create jobs, Horizon 2020 has the backing of European political leaders, whoput it at the heart of the European Union’s blueprint for smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.State Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAVolume IV, Page 9

TechnologyReturn to home pageEU Provides Satellite Imageryto Support Harvey ResponseAt the request of the U.S. FederalEmergency Management Agency(FEMA), the EU activated its Copernicus Emergency Management Service Satellite to assist with Hurricane Harvey response efforts. As of August 31, the EU had provided six damage assessment maps covering theareas of Texas hit by Harvey. Copernicus mapsprovide helpful estimates regarding affectedpopulations and infrastructure as well as supporting search and rescue operations. This isthe fourth time the EU has provided this type ofimagery support since 2012 and is an excellentdemonstration of our trans-Atlantic cooperation. USNATO Ambassador Hutchinson, duringan August 31 interview with MSNBC and via social media, expressed gratitude to the EuropeanCommission for this support.Photo Credit: European CommissionState Dept. OESAda Lovelace is credited with being thefirst computer programmer in the 1840s. Onehundred years later, Grace Hopper created thefirst compiler. Could a major computing breakthrough be at the hands of one of Italy’s “Coding Girls” alumnae? Rome’s Public Affairs Section, which has supported Coding Girls since 2014, asked ESTH Counselor Caron De Mars toinspire the 250 Coding Girls at the opening of a day-longhackathon on November 9 at Tor Vergata University in Rome.This cadre of coders will join the 4,000 young women trainedin 2017 through a partnership between Embassy Rome’s PublicAffairs Section, Microsoft, the Fondazione Mondo Digitale, andLa Sapienza University. Earlier in the year, a Coding Girls Summer School trained more than 60 talented young Italian women to transmit their knowledge and enthusiasm to these newcoders in 20 schools in Milan, Rome, Naples, and Catania. Thisfourth edition indicates the Embassy’s continued drive to openup new opportunities in science, technology, engineering, andmath (STEM) education for girls.As De Mars said in her openingremarks, “Even if you don’t pursue computer programming, theleadership, critical thinking,teamwork, and problem-solvingabilities incidental to codinghackathons are skills that youcan transport to any endeavor.”Public Affairs Asst. Tiziana Candiloro &ESTH Caron De Mars with organizersPhoto Credit: Cecilia StajanoAmbasciataUSAVolume IV, Page 10

HealthReturn to home pageThe Global Fund’s “No One Left Behind: Global Health, Access to Care, Inequalities and Migration”On July 10, ESTH Counselor Caron De Mars and ESTH internMaria Winters DiMarco attended the “No One Left Behind:Global Health, Access to Care, Inequalities and Migration”event hosted by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs andInternational Cooperation, and the Global Fund, as well as the Friends ofthe Global Fund Europe.Speakers highlighted the importance of considering global health in relation to other issues, including access toclean water, food security, agricultural development, and climate change. Several speakers also emphasized theimportance of using definitions that are universally agreed upon, so as to streamline both communication and comprehension of the issues. This event served as an opportunity for subject matter experts in the field of global healthto discuss, debate, and question the progress the international community has made in recent years and collectivelyconsider what can be accomplished moving forward.Particular focus was placed on how countries can achieve Goal 3 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, whichreads, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.”Speakers emphasized the need to “build and sustain efficient health systems and service delivery,” and “encourageinternational cooperation and ongoing financial commitments,” all while keeping the quality of services provided inmind. Several speakers stressed that while economic growth is often a priority during development conversations,it is also important to focus on equitable solutions that will deliver services to marginalized or vulnerable communities that are often ignored or underserved, which may include the LGBT community, migrants, prisoners, and drugusers. Speakers also noted that special attention must be paid to enhancing the daily lives of women and girls—notonly through the delivery of adequate health services, but by providing access to education.Federico Soda from the Coordination Office for the Mediterranean of the International Organization for Migrationspoke of the need to focus on health solutions that are accessible to mobile populations and that are specificallymigrant-friendly. Soda held that holistic approaches to health policy that reflect the effects of climate change andthe increase in mobile migrant populations will be better able to address today’s global health challenges and meetthe goals for 2030 and beyond.State Dept. OESAmbasciataUSAVolume IV, Page 11

HealthReturn to home pageOp-Ed for World Antibiotic Awareness WeekFormer ESTH Embassy Science Fellow Dr. Sut Soneja and Dr. Ranieri Guerra, former Director General forHealth Prevention at the Italian Ministry of Health, published a joint Op-Ed on November 17, 2017 in Il Messaggero titled “Recognizing World Antibiotic Awareness Week and the United States’ and Italy’s Shared Commitment to a Healthier World.” The text read as follows:From November 13th to 19th the world will observe the 3rd annual World Antibiotic Awareness Week, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). This is especially timely in light of the G7 Health MinistersMeeting held in Milan, November 5th and 6th. As representatives of the Italian Ministry of Health and theUnited States Embassy to Italy, we jointly recognize the importance of promoting this week as we partner toaddress some of the world’s most pressing health issues.Antibiotics are medicines used to treat and prevent bacterial infections. However, the inappropriate and inconsistent use of antibiotics, in combination with a dramatic reduction in the development of new types ofantibiotics, has resulted in bacteria adapting to them. As a result, the use of first-line treatments is becomingever more ineffective. The goal of World Antibiotic Awareness Week is to spread awareness globally aboutthe growing threat of antibiotic resistance, as well as highlighting best-use practices for antibiotics across allsectors as a means to prevent the growth of antibiotic resistance. Within the United States and Europe, it isestimated that 50,000 deaths occur annually as a result of drug-resistant bacteria, with worldwide projections to be around 700,000 deaths. In addition to cutting short peoples’ lives, this also results in increasedhealth care costs and imposes an economic burden on families and society at large. Simply put, antibioticresistance places modern medicine at risk and undermines the economic potential of nations.The G7 Health Ministers met to discuss avariety of pressing global health topics,including the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Under the 2005 WHO International Health Regulations and theGlobal Health Security Agenda (launchedin 2014, and which Italy will chair in 2018),the international community has committed to prevent, detect, and respond tothe threat of antimicrobial resistance byutilizing an integrated approach spanningPhoto Credit: cdc.govhuman, animal, agricultural, food, and environmental aspects. Entities ranging fromthe WHO to the Food and Agriculture Organ

s a follow-up to the Our Ocean onference held in Malta, Italy hosted the interactive “An Ocean Free of Plastic” exhibit at the Genoa Aquarium, the largest aquarium in Italy and the second largest in Europe. Lo-cated in the old harbor of Genoa, the 33,000-square-foot aq