MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20IiiMEMACMARINE HAZARDOUS NOXIOUSSUBSTANCES (HNS)MANUALFirst published in 2013By: Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC)0

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20ForewordThe Kuwait Regional Convention (23rd April 1978) is a comprehensive umbrella agreement forprotection of the marine environment. By ratifying the Protocol (24th April 1978) concerningRegional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases ofEmergency, the States of the Region introduce (24th April 1978) more specific obligations tocontrol pollution from a discrete source, or to co-operate in various aspects of environmentalmanagement.This comprehensive Manual has been prepared in accordance with the Marine EmergencyMutual Aid Centre functions set by the Protocol Article III – 3 (c) and all the informationprovided herewith is based on the Protocol and the ROPME Council Decisions.The HNS Manual contains information needed for joint pollution combating operations, and tobe used as a guideline concerning incident management, policy and strategy. The manual hasbeen tailored to the needs of the Region avoiding duplications and repetition of standardinformation which already exists and fulfills the requirements.MEMAC, the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre, is responsible for regional co-operation onmarine pollution preparedness and response in the region, has also the responsibility to develop,update and maintain this plan as it deem appropriate.With technical support from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), MEMAC iscurrently functioning as secretariat and Expert Meeting, Competent National AuthoritiesMeeting (Oil and HNS Spill Response Officer) for RSA Regional Oil Spill Contingency Planmeeting. The centre also carries out other special activities including the management of aregional information system, organization of training and exercise, capacity building, coordination of research and development on the technical aspects of oil and Hazardous & NoxiousSubstances (HNS) spills.1

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Tables of ContentsChapter 1. Introduction 41.2.The Aim of the Manual . . 81.3.Manual Preparation Method . 81.4.Date of the Manual . . 91.5.Updating the Manual . 91.6.The Geographical Coverage . . 91.7.Member States Coastal Line Length 101.8.The Protocol . 111.9.ROPME Council Decision .12Chapter 2. First actions in case of spill of chemical transported in bulk . 13Chapter 3. Assessment of potential risk. 173.1. Classification of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) . . .173.2. Properties of HNS 203.3. Behavior in environment . 243.3.1. The drift and spread of chemical spills . 243.3.2. Models for forecasting behavior of HNS. . 293.4. Impact of spill. 35Chapter 4. Monitoring. 364.1. Gas monitoring by portable instruments . . 36Chapter 5. Sampling . . 41Chapter 6. Body protection. . . 47Chapter 7. Selection of response measures . . . 507.1. Decision making . . 507.2. Response methods . 547.3. Sources of information on response methods. . 58ANNEX A. Property glossary. . 59ANNEX B. LIST CEDRE’s Operational Manual . . 662

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Chapter1.IntroductionThe OPRC-HNS Protocol follows the principles of the International Convention on Oil PollutionPreparedness, Response and Co-operation, known as the OPRC Convention. The OPRC-HNSProtocol was formally adopted by IMO member States, who were already signed up to the OPRCConvention at a Diplomatic Conference held at the IMO headquarters in London in March2000.ncLike the OPRC Convention, the HNS Protocol aims to provide a global framework forinternational co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution fromHazardous and Noxious Substances. Countries that sign up to the HNS Protocol will be requiredto establish National, Regional and International preparedness, response and cooperationmeasures for dealing with HNS pollution incidents. Similar to the OPRC Convention, shipscarrying HNS will be required to carry a shipboard pollution emergency plan to deal specificallywith incidents involving HNS, in a similar way that they have shipboard pollution emergencyplans for dealing with oil pollution.For the purpose of the OPRC-HNS Protocol, HNS means any substance other than oil, which, ifintroduced into the marine environment is likely to create hazards to human health, to harmliving resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses ofthe sea.The IMDG Code gives more than 3000 United Nations Numbers for the purpose of substanceidentification, about 200 of these are for „Generic‟ or „Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)‟substances, and these numbers are the most commonly used when goods are being transported.For all goods shipped as „NOS‟, a recognised chemical name in current use and readily availablein scientific and technical handbooks should be given, while trade names alone should not beused.In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the transportation of HNS. If allowed to escape,these substances can present a significant danger to the vessel, its crew, coastal and harbourpopulations, and the surrounding environment.3

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20There are many types of ships that can and do carry HNS:· Dry bulk carriers: solid bulk cargoes, e.g. ores, fishmeal, manufactured powders.· Oil/bulk/ore or combo carriers: multi-purpose carriers of solid or liquid cargoes.· Containerships: boxes for dry cargo, powders and/or liquids in portable ISO tanks.· General cargo ships: cargo in consignments e.g. crates, boxes, drums, sacks, bags.· Roll-on/roll-off ferries: road vehicles carrying internally unitised, packaged or bulk cargoes.· Chemical carriers: specialised vessels designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk.· Gas carriers: specialised vessels designed to carry liquefied gas.The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code describes how to pack, label,document, transport, stow and segregate dangerous goods in packages.Many incidents involving HNS are relatively minor: leaking drums, broken glass, failedpackaging and similar. In cases such as these, there is a tendency to call upon the local firebrigade or response contractor to make the site safe, contain the suspect package and thenremove it in an overdrum or tranship it into another suitable package.HNS is also mentioned in another convention, known confusingly as the HNS 1996 Convention,which as the date suggests was adopted earlier than the OPRC 200 Protocol, but it too has not yetcome into force.The International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with theCarriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) by sea, known as the HNS 1996Convention, provides for a compensation and liability regime for incidents involving HNS.The simple difference is that the HNS Convention deals with compensation from HNS, whilstthe HNS Protocol deals with preparedness and response measures for dealing with HNS spills.Similarly there is compensation for oil pollution incidents that are covered by an InternationalCivil Liability Convention for Oil Pollution Damage, and by an International Fund Conventionfor Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, both in turn are supplemented by Protocols.A major difference is that HNS can kill and be radically more harmful and toxic than oil. A 100litre spill of toxic chemical can do more harm than a 100 litre heavy fuel oil spill.Another difference is that oil is in a liquid form, although of varying viscosities, whilst HNS cancome in solid, liquid or gas forms. Therefore consideration in the different types of operational4

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20handling and modes of transport of HNS will impact upon considerations of how to handle aHNS incident.HNS incidents do not necessary have to be an uncontrolled release of cargo from a ship onto thewater as an oil spill is invariably considered. The HNS incident can be during cargo handling ortransportation of a HNS which is a liquid, solid or gas form, and either stays immobile or movesor changes state.The HNS can start out in one form and evolve into another form by changing conditions actingupon the released or contained HNS, which in turn has implications on the surroundingcommunity, workers and response personnel.The risk of an uncontrolled release of a HNS is one or more of the following:Explosion, Fire, Reactivity, ToxicityOrganisations must therefore make every EFRT (said as effort) to prevent an HNS incident fromhappening, and should it do so, to have in place a level of preparedness to be able to take theright action to minimise the immediate and long-term effects on the community and surroundingproperty. As in all response matters, preparation, preparation and preparation in that order will bethe most effective tools for dealing with an HNS incident.International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates that more than half of packaged goods andbulk cargoes transported by sea today can be regarded as dangerous, hazardous, or harmful to theenvironment. A great deal of these substances, materials and articles are also dangerous orhazardous from a human safety point of view.ROPME Sea Area is an area with intensive marine transport of HNS. It is understood that eachHNS spill presents its own particular problems for Government and industry, depending on suchthings as weather, type of substance, and its location. It is not possible to provide turn-keysolutions that are ready to be retrieved from the guideline right at the scene of the accident, butdocument containing general recommendations and information will be very useful. Due to highlevel of hazards at chemical spills, it is necessary to have uniform policy to respond to them. Asone of main outcomes of MEMAC activities, the RSA Regional Oil Contingency Plan weredeveloped and officially came into effect as being signed by all RSA Member states. Thepurpose of the RSA RCP is to provide an operational mechanism for mutual assistance through5

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20which the member states will co-operate during major marine oil pollution incidents in the regionIn order to provide practical and technical guidelines to promptly and effectively respond tomajor marine pollution accidents within the framework of the RSA RCP, it was also agreed todevelop the Regional HNS Contingency Plan and also Regional HNS Manual in order to tailorthe need of the region to be prepared and response effectively to the HNS incident as well, takinginto consideration the rapid grow of the HNS transportation in Region. The MEMAC carry outthe series of Specific Projects related to oil spill prediction model, minimum level ofpreparedness for response to oil spill in the RSA region, HNS response operation training.MEMAC has prepared a regional guideline with the aim to give general recommendations andprovide information needed for proper decision making when responding to accidents in themarine environment involving chemicals and dangerous goods.This, however, is not a substitute for the national guidelines and manuals on HNS spills responseexisting in RSA Member States. The guideline is based on provisions of existing regional andnational RSA Member States manuals and recommendations. The contents of the guideline mustbe thoroughly reviewed beforehand. The contents are primarily aimed for personnel who arefamiliar with the area.The content of MEMAC HNS Manual was based on international and other regional HNSmanuals. Hazards, classification, behavior, response options, and safety measures of HNS are themain compounds.6

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 20151.2OSRO 10/20The Aims of the ManualThe Manual is to enable the Member States to establish prompt and effective response measuresto HNS and any other harmful substances spilled at sea at National or Regional level.The manual is also the practical tool intended to assist:Provide timely information to the decision makers and various Command levels.The On-Scene Commanders in the execution of response operations.Providing instant and adequate information reference to the decision makers in theexecution of a joint combating operation involving other Member States.Provide an overview of practical response measures which are available to deal withHNS spills.1.3Manual Preparation Methodi)The Pollution Manual has been prepared in a number of subjects and indicated byreference numbers and sub reference numbers.ii) Each page footer indicates the Manual name and year on the left-hand side, and pagenumber on the right-hand side.iii) Whenever there is any update for the existing information, the pages will be changediv) In case of replacing any of the existing pages or adding extra pages to the Manual, thereplaced pages or the additional pages should take the existing number or the sequencenumber of the new added pages correspondingly. i.e. 6/1, 6/2 . and so on.v) Whenever any new information or data provided, the new sector should be insertedwithin its relative category of information and will follow the existing sequences of subnumbering.7

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 20151.4OSRO 10/20Date of the ManualThe Manual has been prepared by MEMAC and revised by the Member States Oil SpillResponse Officers according to the data available up to 2013.1.5Updating the ManualThe updating of the Manual will take place according to the data and information received fromthe Member States and whenever necessary. Further, the update and the additional informationneeded for this Manual should be discussed and recommended by the Oil Spill ResponseOfficers and to be approved by the ROPME Council.1.6The Geographical CoverageThe coverage area is the ROPME Sea Area as identified by the Kuwait Regional Convention forCo-operation on the protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution, Article II (a).Article II(a) The present Convention shall apply to the sea area in the Region bounded in the south by thefollowing rhumb lines: from Ras Dharbat Ali (l600' N, 53N, 60ooo39' N, 5325‟ E; thence through the following positions: 1700' E to Ras Al-Fasteh (25o04' N, 61Area".)8ooo3‟ 30‟‟ E, to a position l600' N, 56o30' E and 20oo30'25' E). (Hereinafter referred to as the "Sea

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 20151.7OSRO 10/20Member States Coastal Line LengthStatesKmn. milesStatesKmn. milesK. Bahrain183.5100S. Oman23861300I. R. Iran27821516Qatar642350R. Iraq6636K. Saudi Arabia21601560Kuwait569310UAE1246900Note: The length of the coasts is given approximately, where the coast length of some of theMember States may increase due to reclamation.9

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 20151.8OSRO 10/20The ProtocolIn accordance with the provision of the Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation inCombating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency Article II andXI, Where Article II states that:1.The Member States shall co-operate in taking the necessary and effectivemeasures to protect the coastline and related interests of one or more of the States fromthe threat and effects of pollution due to the presence of oil or other harmful substances inthe marine environment resulting from marine emergencies.2.The Member States shall endeavour to maintain and promote, either individuallyor through bilateral or multilateral co-operation, their contingency plans and means forcombating pollution in the Sea Area by oil and other harmful substances. These meansshall include, in particular, available equipment, ships, aircraft and manpower preparedfor operations in cases of emergency.And Article XI states that:1.Any Member State requiring assistance in a marine emergency response may callfor assistance directly from any other Member State or through the Centre. Where theservices of the Centre are utilized, the Centre shall promptly transmit requests received toall other Member States. The Member States to whom a request is made pursuant to thisparagraph shall use their best endeavours within their capabilities to render the assistancerequested.2.The assistance referred to in paragraph 1 above may include:(a) Personnel, material, and equipment, including facilities or methods for thedisposal of recovered pollutant;(b) Surveillance and monitoring capacity;(c) Facilitation of the transfer of personnel, material, and equipment into, out of, and10

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20through the territories of the Member States.3.The services of the Centre may be utilized by the Member States to co-ordinateany marine emergency response in which assistance is called for pursuant to paragraph Iabove.4.Any Member State calling for assistance pursuant to paragraph 1 above shallreport the activities undertaken with this assistance and its results to the Centre. TheCentre shall promptly transmit any such report to all other Member States.5.In cases of special emergencies, the Centre may call for the mobilization ofresources made available by the Member States to combat pollution by oil and otherharmful substances.1.9ROPME Council DecisionFurthermore and according to Article III – (b)/(iii), the ROPME Council at its NinthMeeting decided to approve the regional Guideline of the Loan and Transboundary Movement ofPersonnel, Equipment and Materials in Cases of Emergency (See Decision 24 of theMeeting).11

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Chapter 2.First actions in case of spill of chemical transported in bulkWhen ship accidents and spills involving chemicals occur the incidents must be reported to allrelevant bodies according to “Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for HNS” (SMPEP),required by regulation 17 Annex II MARPOL or by national and international agreements andregulations. Persons on board shall take immediately actions to reduce or control the discharge ofHNS and establish procedures and point of contact on the ship. This action is to ensurecoordination of actions onboard the ship with national and local authorities in combating thepollution at sea. When responding to accidents at sea involving chemicals or dangerous goods,general first steps, at times, must be taken by responders (Figure 1). This is true for manyaccidents, no matter the circumstances, even if chemicals are involved.12

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Figure 1. Flow diagram of general approach to spills involving HNS.In case of HNS spill “Never rush into a chemical incident, but try to use yourcommon sense and assess the situation carefully (use principle “Think beforeyou act”). It is best to plan for the worst possible scenario. Realize that eachchemical is different and that a new incident is not going to be the same as anearlier one. There is no such thing as a typical incident.13

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20The following list of advices includes general routines that often should be applied in case ofHNS spills at sea. In minor incidents, it is not necessary to follow all of the advices. It is enoughto limit the extent of use. For major accidents, it might be necessary to apply the advices to thefullest possible extent. See also “Example of a checklist” in Table 1. Get as much information as possible about the situation and a rapid general view of it. Andthen, judge the need for the most urgent actions to be taken, such as medical care for victims,restriction of access, evacuation, reduction of leakages, etc. Inform appropriate authorities, agencies, and mass media. Identify all the involved chemicals. Note the volume, as well as the size of spill or discharge. Assess the risk of fire, explosion, and leakage as well as health risks and risks for adjacentareas (utilize e.g. Health risk safety, Chemical safety Class, Chemical Information Databases). Establish restriction areas (risk zones) and restrict access to these areas. Make preparations for procedures regarding decontamination, relieving, and replacement ofpersonnel, materials and equipment. Make appropriate arrangements like restriction of access or right to use for beaches,swimming areas, fishing grounds, fresh water intakes, etc. Continuously use monitoring devices for fires, explosions, and health risks. Assess emission rates, volumes, properties, and reactivity for involved chemicals. Assess initial drift, spread and evaporation (direction, distance, volumes), and calculate thesebehaviors by modeling programs and making forecast maps. Continuously monitor drift and spread in order to assess the risk, and continuously takeappropriate actions based on the assessment. Take appropriate steps to stop or reduce damage to environment and property. Contact, as soon as possible, relevant National and Regional concerned bodies and plan forappropriate handling of the hazardous waste associated with response operations.In an operation at sea involving a chemical accident, it is important to follow a checklist wheresteps can be marked off one by one during the course of operation. The list below can be used asan example. This is from the First actions in case of spill of chemical transported in bulkNational Strike Force of the United States Coast Guard and is called Hazardous ChemicalEmergency Response Checklist.14

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Table 1. Example of checklist1. Risk assessment completed.2. PPE* selection completed.3. Emergency Response Procedures completed.4. Work zones established.5. PPE* checks completed.6. Decontamination line assembly completed.7. Instruments calibrated.8. Communication plan completed.9. Pre-entry medical monitoring completed.10. Initial entry objectives established.11. Action levels established.12. Sampling plan completed.13. Pre-entry brief completed.14. Practice run through decontamination line.15. Communications check.16. Authorization for entry.17. Post-entry medical monitoring completed.18. Entry team debrief completed.19. Emergency Response and Site Safety Plan modifications.20. Equipment decontamination/inventory completed.21. Contaminated materials disposed.22. Potential Exposure Record forms completed.23. Debrief conducted with OSC.*PPE Personal Protection Equipment15

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Chapter 3.Assessment of potential riskRisk assessment is a very important part of HNS spill response. All decisions should be madebased on results from the risk assessment. The following information relates to this. Classification of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS). Properties of HNS and its behavior in the environment. The drift and spread of chemical spills. Information about valuable ecosystem components, water intakes, Desalination Plant andrecreational places.3.1. Classification of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS)The Manual is based on the accepted and used by IMO. The system is based on the physicalbehaviors in water (solubility, density, vapor pressure), which could therefore be responded to ina similar way. The system is comprised of 12 property groups (G, GD, E, ED, etc.) of substancesand 3 groups of packages (PF, PI and PS). A schematic of the flow chart of a system forclassification of chemical spills in water used to define the property groups is shown on Fig. 2and table 2.Table 2. Property Group Designations for spilled chemicals in ssolverFED olverSdissolver/evaporatorsinkerDividing the chemicals into different subcategories (E, ED, FE, F, FD, FED, DE, D, SD, and S)can lead to a need for a relatively small number of generally applicable response options in theevent of an accident. It is important to be aware of the hazards that chemicals can cause when16

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20released into the marine environment. The most important aspect of situation analysis isdetermining the hazards of an accidental spill, in order to prepare a plan of action.In the event of an accident at sea, pollutants may contaminate the air, the water surface, the watercolumn and/or the sea floor, and all the organisms in Assessment of potential risk thesecompartments and other users of these compartments. The degree of seriousness depends onother properties of the substance released and the fate and transport of the substance in themarine environment.17

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Figure 2. Flow chart used to assign property groups in the Classification system.18

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/203.2. Properties of HNSDuring a response to accidents involving hazardous and noxious chemicals, it is crucial to haveall possible information concerning toxicity, reactivity, solubility, evaporation, corrosiveness andexplosiveness of spilt substances.This could be done by compiling the most important data from different sources into informationsheets. Example is shown in Table 319

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/2020

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20The above mentioned information should be easily available in a handy way.21

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/20Other sources of informationOne of the comprehensive sources of information for chemical spills responders is CAMEO canbe used to access, store, and evaluate information critical for developing emergency plans. Overthe last 15 years.Over the past two decades, the software CAMEO suite has brought first responders from an erain which they gleaned emergency response information from maps and reference books spreadout on the hoods of their trucks to a time when up-to-date, comprehensive information onchemical plumes, toxicity risks, and susceptibility of chemical mixtures to burn or explode canbe displayed with a few strokes on a computer keyboard. CAMEO Chemicals is the latestaddition to this innovative software line. CAMEO Chemicals is an online, easier-to-use versionof the most popular components of the CAMEO program, the chemical database and thereactivity prediction tool.CHRISThe Chemical Hazards Response Information System. It is a free online information sourcedeveloped and maintained by the US Coast Guard (CHRIS) ( Thesystem is designed to provide information needed for decision-making during emergencies thatoccur during the water transport of hazardous chemicals. CHRIS contains information forapproximately 1,000 chemical products.Transport Oriented Database on Chemical Substances (TROCS) was developed to assist inmaking decisions related to marine pollution emergencies caused by hazardous and noxioussubstances (HNS) and certain crude and refined oils. The database contains a number of usefulcase histories and can be downloaded from the web-site of the Regional Marine EmergencyPollution Centre for the Mediterranean Sea ( Reactivity Worksheet. A database of reactivity information for more than 6,000 commonhazardous chemicals is produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Theworksheet can be downloaded from

MEMAC HNS Manual – Jan 2015OSRO 10/203.3. Behavior in EnvironmentCertain actions should be taken when accidents involving chemicals and dangerous goods occur.These actions are often the same for most types of accidents, regardless of the circumstances andmaterials involved. When responding to a chemical spill at sea, it is important that the measuresare adjusted for the chemical‟s physical behavior in water. Chemicals spilt in water canevaporate rapidly when in contact with water, float on the surface, dissolve rapidly in water, orsink to bottom. A chemical spill may exhibit more than one of these properties at the same time.For example, it may float on the surface of water and at the same time evaporate and/or dissolve.It may also react with water.3.3.1. The drift and spread of chemical spillsThe drift and spread of a chemical spill in the aquatic environment (fig.3) should, as early aspossible after the start of the release, be assessed or calculated so as to form the basis for a riskanalysis. A simple, rough estimation is often tim

preparedness for response to oil spill in the RSA region, HNS response operation training. MEMAC has prepared a regional guideline with the aim to give general recommendations and provide information needed for proper decision making when responding to accidents in the ma