Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 3Polarforschung 79 (1), 3 – 10, 2009History of the Geological Research Expeditionsto the Heimefrontfjella (East Antarctica)and Chronology of the Geological Mapping Gerhard Spaeth1Abstract: In 1939, Heimefrontfjella was discovered on a photogrammetricflight of the Deutsche Antarktische Expedition 1938/39 under the leadershipof Alfred Ritscher, but it took 23 years until the first British expedition investigated the mountain range. After a short period of British topographic andgeologic surveys in the mid 1960s, systematic geological studies began withthe German 2nd Neuschwabenland-Expedition in 1985/86. In the followingyears until 2000/01 the whole range was mapped at a scale of 1 : 10,000 resulting in a number of geological maps at a 1 : 25,000 scale.Zusammenfasung: Die Heimefrontfjella wurde während der von AlfredRitscher geleiteten Deutschen Antarktischen Expedition 1938/39 bei einemfotogrammetrischen Vermessungsflug entdeckt. Es dauerte jedoch 23 Jahrebis die erste britische Landexpedition mit der Erforschung des Gebirgesbegann. Nach einer kurzen topographischen und geologischen Erkundungsphase begann die systematische geologische Erforschung 1985/86 mit derdeutschen 2. Neuschwabenlandexpedition. In den darauf folgenden Jahren bis2000/01 wurde die Heimefrontfjella im Maßstab 1:10.000 kartiert, woraus dasKartenwerk 1:25.000 resultiert.DISCOVERY OF HEIMEFRONTFJELLAIn 1938/39, the German Antarctic Expedition under theleadership of Alfred Ritscher investigated the Atlantic sectorof Antarctica east of the Weddell Sea between 10 ºW and 20 ºE(RITSCHER 1942). During the first reconnaissance flight onJanuary 20, 1939, the crew of a Dornier Wal airplane discovered several mountain ranges and isolated nunataks in thehinterland of the Kronprinsesse-Märtha-Kyst. The whole areabetween 10 ºW and 20 ºE was named “Neuschwabenland”, butis better known today as western Dronning Maud Land(DML). The northernmost parts of the mountain range at c.9º30’ W, 74º20’ S, today known as Milorgfjella, was namedKottasberge after the captain of the expedition vessel, A.Kottas. During the Norwegian-British-Swedish expedition toDML from 1949-52 a photogrammetric programme led to thediscovery of the southwestern parts of the Heimefrontfjella.The oblique aerial photographs taken during the southernsummer 1951/52 were used for the production of Norwegiantopographic maps at a scale of 1 : 250,000. The individualparts of the mountain range from NE to SW were namedMilorgfjella – XU-Fjella – Sivorgfjella – Tottanfjella on thetwo map sheets finally published in 1988.The southernmost nunatak group Tottanfjella was spottedagain in 1957 during a flight undertaken by Sir Vivian Fuchs,at that time leader of the Trans-Antarctic Expedition (TAE),1Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Geologie – Endogene Dynamik, RWTH Aachen, 52056Aachen, Germany.Manuscript received 28 January 2009; accepted in revised form 20 July 2009and D. Dalgliesh, the head of the British research stationHalley Bay. They named this part of the range Tottan Hillsafter the British research vessel “Tottan” (FUCHS 1982). ABritish overland expedition, comprising C. Johnson, the headof Halley Bay, and D. Ardus, a surveyor, set out from HalleyBay with dog sledges for the Tottan Hills. After a 400 kmtraverse they were the first people ever to reach the nunataksof Tottan Hills. They arrived on 14 November 1961 and stayedthere for four days.FIRST RECONNAISSANCE PHASEGEOLOGISTS AND SURVEYORSBYBRITISHD. Ardus was the first surveyor in the southern Heimefrontfjella but he also made biological, geomorphological andgeological observations. He reported the existence of metamorphic rocks (augen gneisses and schists) and collected anumber of rock samples in spite of the very limited transportcapacity (ARDUS 1964). Later, these rock samples weredescribed petrographically by J.W. Thomson as “some basement complex rocks”; however, she also stated that thesampling locations were too scattered to prepare a detailedgeological map (THOMSON 1968).In the three following austral summers from 1963 to 1966, thegeography and geology of Heimefrontfjella was explored.Field parties started from Halley Bay using dog sledges andtractors. The data of this survey resulted in a topographic mapat a scale of 1 : 100,000 (two sheets), which was prepared byM. Samuel and G. Lovegrove.The first geologist who worked in the Heimefrontfjella was R.Worsfold. He spent two seasons, 1963/64 and 1964/65 in thesouthern and central Heimefrontfjella (Tottanfjella and Sivorgfjella) for petrographic studies of the metamorphic basement.His first publication, however, covers the physiography andglacial geomorphology of the range (WORSFOLD 1967a). Thefirst three publications (ARDUS 1964, THOMSON 1968, WORSFOLD 1967a) are very brief summaries. They were followed bya detailed geological PhD thesis, which was never published(WORSFOLD 1967b). This thesis contains a geological overviewmap at a scale of 1 : 100,000, showing six lithological units ofmetamorphic and igneous rocks.The geological exploration was continued in the northern partof the range (XU-Fjella and Milorgfjella) by L. Juckes in thesummer seasons of 1964/65 and 1965/66. His work coverednot only the metamorphic basement, but also gave a first3

Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 4detailed description of a Palaeozoic-Mesozoic cover in thenorthern Heimefrontfjella. This cover consists of sedimentaryrocks and basaltic flows and sills. The study included petrology and geochemical whole rock analyses that formed afundamental part of his PhD thesis, but the results were alsopublished as a report of the British Antarctic Survey (JUCKES1972). This report also contained the first age determinationsbased on palaeontological and radiometrical analyses, whichproved an earliest Permian age for the sedimentary rocks and amiddle Jurassic age for the basalts. The geological map in thisreport was based on a 1 : 100,000 scale topographic mapreproduced at a 1 : 250,000 scale showing six different lithological units.In October 1965, an accident happened at Milorgknausane,later renamed Mannefallknausane, approximately 70 km westof Tottanfjella. A tractor dropped into a crevasse and threemembers of a British field party were killed (FUCHS 1982). Allattempts to recover the bodies failed and also several fieldnotes were lost. The survey of the mountain range was nevertheless completed. In the following summer 1966/67, anothertraverse was made to the Heimefrontfjella to repair a tractorthat was abandoned during the disastrous previous season.This was the last documented British activity in the Heimefrontfjella.SECOND PHASE OF GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH BYGERMAN AND SCANDINAVIAN EXPEDITIONSA second phase of geoscientific activities in the Heimefrontfjella started in the early 1980s, based on the newly establishedGerman wintering station in austral summer 1980/81 Georgvon Neumayer Station (GvN) at Atka Bay in western Dronning Maud Land. Heimefrontfjella became the major target forGerman geologists as a result of the selection of the stationsite and the research preferences of the scientists. During theGerman Antarctic Expedition 1979/80, led by H. Kohnen,several potential sites for a wintering station were investigated.The feasibility study was favourable for a site located on theFilchner-Ronne ice shelf; an alternative site was chosen at theAtka Bay in the event that the first alternative was not accessible during the forthcoming season. The investigation of theAtka Bay site, however, was less detailed due to time restrictions. KOHNEN (1982) gives a comprehensive view of the siteselection and the dramatic events that occurred during theconstruction of the station.Western Dronning Maud Land was well chosen as a researcharea for three reasons:(i) Relatively easy access from South Africa and/or SouthAmerica.(ii) Only a few other Nations had stations in this area.(iii) A variable topography with mountain ranges in the hinterland, grounded ice sheets and sea-ice would keep scientists ofvarious disciplines occupied over a certain period.Historical reasons may also have played a role, since thisAtlantic sector had already been a target area for the secondand third German Antarctic expeditions by Wilhelm Filchnerin 1911/12 and Alfred Ritscher in 1938/39, respectively.The German Science Foundation (DFG) invited interested4scientists to a round-table meeting in March 1980 to planfurther activities at or in the surrounding area of the newstation. Taking into account that the new station should bebuilt on the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf, W. Buggisch (Darmstadt), G. Kleinschmidt (Darmstadt) and G. Spaeth (Aachen)considered field research in the Shackleton Range, the Pensacola and the Ellsworth Mountains. H. Behr and K. Weber (bothfrom Göttingen) also expressed their interest in these regions,however, along with W. Schubert (Würzburg), they preferredthe mountains of western and central Dronning Maud Land astheir primary scientific target.In a compilation of the already established priority programme(Schwerpunkt) of the DFG from January 1981, the ShackletonRange and the Ellsworth Mountains were suggested the firstkey-target areas for geological investigations. Neither WesternDronning Maud Land nor the Heimefrontfjella were specifically included at that stage since it was considered that theGerman wintering station would be located on the FilchnerRonne ice shelf. Scope for further geoscientific studies wasoutlined. Within the frame of the same programme, it was alsostated that large-scale topographic maps would soon beneeded for the presentation of geoscientific results, which wasa call for surveyors and cartographers to make contributions tothese geoscientific filed studies.At the same time, however, a message arrived in Germany thatthe new station was under construction at the alternative siteon the Ekström ice shelf near Atka Bay. Prevailing difficultsea-ice conditions in the region of Gould Bay at the FilchnerRonne ice shelf made the construction at the preferred siteimpossible. So the expedition leader decided to establish thenew station at the site of “second choice” in a very narrowtime window. The basic construction of the station, namedGeorg von Neumayer Station (GvN), could be completed inthis summer season so that the first wintering of a small scientific crew was possible in 1981. However, additional work atthe station and detailed geophysical and glaciological investigations on site were necessary in the summer season 1981/82,which didn’t allow an extensive geoscientific programme to becarried out in the surrounding area.During the DFG Colloquium on Geoscientific Antarctic Research in Frankfurt/M. in October 1981, new preferences had tobe restated by taking into account the new site of the station inwestern Dronning Maud Land (DML). Research in this regionwas given preference in intermediate terms. The main focus ofgeoscientific research, “Structure and Dynamic of the PacificMargin of Gondwana”, was not changed, but a new key topicwithin this frame was phrased “Petrology and Deformation ofthe Precambrian Basement at the Western Margin of the EastAntarctic Craton”. A direct comparison with the Ross Orogenin the Transantarctic Mountains was also emphasized sincegeologists of the Federal Institute of Geosciences and NaturalResources (BGR) have been running a geoscientificprogramme in northern Victoria Land since 1979/80. A cooperation between K. Weber, H. Behr (both Göttingen) and G.Spaeth (Aachen) on studies in western DML was agreed. W.Schubert (Würzburg), however, was more interested in centralDML. During this meeting, H. Kohnen (Bremerhaven)explained the logistical potential of the station and the newlyestablished Polar Research Institute (Alfred Wegener Institutefor Polar Research, AWI) for ground parties operating in the

Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 5surrounding areas. The outcome of the meeting was a plan foran expedition to the mountains of western DML in the1982/83 season.Four meetings were held at AWI between November 1981 andNovember 1982 in order to select some research projects froma large number of proposals for western DML and to preparethe logistics for these expeditions. Unfortunately, theicebreaker MS “Polarbjørn” chartered for the 1982/83 seasonhad only very limited transport capacity, which required reducing or dropping planned projects.The geological programme, however, continued; the fourgeologists H. Behr, M. Peters, K. Weber (all from GöttingenUniversity) and G. Spaeth (Aachen University) weresupported by a logistics crew from AWI. The main target wasthe Heimefrontfjella, and some reconnaissances to Mannefallknausane and Vestfjella (Kraulberge) were considered. Expeditions to the mountain ranges of Ahlmannryggen,Borgmassivet and Kirwanveggen, all somewhat closer to GvNStation, were not included since South African geologists hadalready been operating for some years in these ranges fromtheir station SANAE. In contrast, the Heimefrontfjella andsurrounding nunatak groups had not been visited since themid-1960s. Based on WORSFOLD’S (1967a, b) and JUCKES’(1972) first studies, the new investigations would focus ontectonic, metamorphic evolution and geochronology. The fieldstudies would be logistically supported by two helicopters andthe icebreaker MS “Polarbjørn”, operating close to the iceedge 300 km west of Heimefrontfjella. A large Bell 212 helicopter would supply the field party from the ship. The expedition leader was H. Kohnen.(Munich) combined their plans and submitted a researchproposal titled “Geological-geophysical section from Kottasberge (Heimefrontfjella) via Kraulberge (Vestfjella) to theeastern Weddell Sea (Explora Wedge)”. The programme ofthis traverse could be based on the scientific results of the1982/83 expedition, which found evidence for rift-relatedstructures. The aim was to show that western DML was thewestern margin of the East Antarctic craton, which had beenfragmented during a Mesozoic rifting process. The main targetarea for the onshore part of the expedition was the Heimefrontfjella, with a focus on the tectonic, petrological and geochronological investigation of the crystalline basement. Thishighly ambitious programme required a detailed topographicmap based on new aerial photographs. Unfortunately, theaerial photography, planned for the 1983/84 season, wascompleted much later.A planning meeting was held at AWI in March 1984 in orderto coordinate geoscientific activities in Antarctica for theperiod of 1984–1987. During this meeting the aforementionedcombined geological-geophysical research proposal wasdiscussed and it was decided that the programme would berealized in the season 1985/86. In December 1984, the nowmore advanced plans with a short project description werepresented at the meeting on Geoscientific Antarctic Research,Weddell Sea and Neuschwabenland, held in Bremerhaven.Several other studies such as an aerial photogrammetricproject were added to the geological and geophysical investigations. The tasks for the geology team were summarizedunder the topic Geological Evolution of the Kottasberge(Heimefrontfjella). It also included a detailed geologicalmapping project, which was not realistic at that time due to thelack of large scale topographic maps as base material.On January 04, 1983, MS “Polarbjørn” arrived at the edge ofthe Riiser-Larsen ice shelf. On the first reconnaissance flight,the larger of the two helicopters (Bell 212) crashed duringlanding and was irreparably damaged. With the loss of thismost important backup system, any expedition more than 450km away from the logistics base was impossible. Therefore,the plans to work in Heimefrontfjella had to be abandoned.Within a few days, the field studies were re-scheduled and theteam selected the northern Vestfjella (Kraulberge) as a targetfor the ongoing season since these nunataks are located muchcloser to the ice edge. It was the only exposed area accessibleunder the new circumstances. According to the available literature (HJELLE & WINSNES 1972), these nunataks are composedof a thick pile of basalt flows and some mafic intrusive bodies.The field work was carried out with Ski-Doos, Nansen sledgesand supported by the smaller helicopter (Bell 206). Beforeheading eastwards to the mountains, MS “Polarbjørn” had toreturn to GvN Station to obtain additional supplies andsledges. Without any further problems in the field, the geologists worked for a few weeks in Vestfjella (BEHR et al. 1983).On their way back from the field the expedition team got theopportunity to visit RV “Polarstern”, the new German researchicebreaker, anchoring at Atka Bay on its maiden voyage.The expedition to the Heimefrontfjella (Kottas traverse) inaustral summer 1985/86 was part of the AWI Antarctic Expedition ANT-IV/3 (ARNDT et al. 1987). Field campaign wascarried out within seven weeks from late December 1985 tomid February 1986, scarcely interrupted by bad weatherconditions. The whole field party comprised four geophysicists, one glaciologist, two men of the logistic staff and fivegeologists: K. Weber, N. Arndt and M. Tapfer from GöttingenUniversity (the last two only temporarily seconded toGöttingen) as well as G. Spaeth and W. Fielitz from AachenUniversity. The leader of the field party was the geophysicistHeinz Miller. The traverse to the field area was carried outwith ‘heavy’ logistics, i.e. several tractors (Pistenbulli) withaccommodation containers on skids and cargo sledges transporting most of the equipment. The tractors were accompaniedby small Ski-Doos pulling Nansen sledges. The latter wereused for geological fieldwork and for reconnaissance teamsexploring the route to the mountains. To ensure a safe returntrip, this 400 km long route was marked every 500 m withbamboo poles. To date, this route to the northern tip of theHeimefrontfjella is still used, although locally, slightly modified.In 1983, the director of AWI, G. Hempel, invited interestedgeologists to submit new proposals for scientific expeditionsto DML. Several proposals focussed on an expedition to theHeimefrontfjella to realize the failed attempt of the previousseason. K. Weber, and H. Behr (Göttingen), G. Spaeth(Aachen), H. Kohnen (Bremerhaven) and Heinz MillerThe over-snow party was temporarily supported by helicoptersand planes, especially during the reconnaissance phase for theroute. A combination of heavy and light logistics was excellentfor the purpose of an expedition with multiple tasks and led tosimilarly equipped expeditions in the following years. Themain advantages were a high transport capacity in combina5

Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 6tion with mobility and flexibility in the working area.The geological working programme covered the whole mountain range from Milorgfjella/Kottasberge in the North to Tottanfjella in the South, with even a short trip toMannefallknausane being possible in the given time. OnlyXU-Fjella was not visited. Numerous petrographical andtectonic field records and rock samples for geochronology,petrology and geochemistry were collected. The results had tobe plotted on old British topographic maps from 1963–1966(1 : 100,000, enlarged to a scale of 1 : 50,000) and on a provisional 1 : 250,000 map, based on oblique aerial photographsfrom 1951/52, drawn and provided by the “Institut für Angewandte Geodäsie” (IfAG), a small-scale map, which was neverintended to be published. For the preparation of large-scalemaps an aerial photographic program was organised by theIfAG within the same field season. Most results were howeverpublished, based on the preliminary small-scale map, whichpresented only six mapping units (e.g. SPAETH & FIELITZ 1987,JACOBS 1991).In total, approximately seven tons of rock samples werecollected for laboratory analyses, and 5000 structural measurements were recorded. The field observations and laboratoryanalyses proved that the Heimefrontfjella is part of a mediumto high grade metamorphosed orogen of late Mesoproterozoicage with polyphasse deformation. This was significant scientific progress, and a lot of information could be added to thefirst reconnaissance studies of WORSFOLD (1967a,b) andJUCKES (1972). It was no surprise then that on the return cruiseof RV “Polarstern” the expedition members discussed severalhypotheses on how this previously unknown orogen might fitinto a greater Gondwana context. Plans were made for further,more detailed mapping campaigns which would result ingeological maps at 1 : 25,000 scale as a base for additionalstudies. It was already clear at that stage that such an ambitious project would require more than just one field campaign.The next expedition to Heimefrontfjella followed in australsummer 1987/88 as part of ANT-VI/3 of AWI. It was an international field team with Swedish, Austrian and German scientists, supported by German but mainly Swedish logistics. Afterthe encouraging experiences of the 1985/86 expedition thesame combination of tractors, freight-sledges, accommodation-containers and Ski-Doos was used (Fig. 1). The team wasled by G. Patzelt, an Austrian glaciologist and mountaineerfrom Innsbruck University. The Swedish team led by O.Melander had it’s own scientific programme, focussed onglaciology, geomorphology and palaeomagnetism (JONSSON etal. 1988, LARSON & BYLUND 1988). G. Poscher from Austriastudied the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the late Palaeozoic cover (POSCHER 1988, 1989), B. Jäger (Göttingen)collected field data and samples for his ore petrological PhDthesis (JÄGER 1991), and J. Jacobs (also Göttingen) investigatedmylonitic rocks from Sivorgfjella and Kottasberge. G. Patzeltwas not only an expedition leader, he also found some time forglaciological and glacimorphological studies in XU-Fjella andSivorgfjella, respectively (PATZELT 1988). It should be notedthat for the latter studies the first contour map 1 : 25,000 basedon the aerial photogrammetry of 1985/86 was made availableby IfAG. The Swedish summer station SVEA was built inSivorgfjella, which was, together with numerous stocksalready deposited there, a base for further Swedish campaigns6in central Heimefrontfjella.Fig. 1: Heavy logistical equipment with tractors (Pistenbulli) and freight sledges with mounted living containers was the preferred transportation mode during the expeditions 1985/86 and 1989/90. Here, the traverse at the start fromGeorg von Neumayer Station in December 1985.Abb. 1: Schwere Logistik mit Pistenbullis und Wohncontainern auf Schlittenwurde während der Expeditionen 1985/86 und 1989/90 bevorzugt. Hier diebereitgestellte Traverse beim Start von der Georg-von-Neumayer-Station imDezember 1985.THE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING PROGRAMMEDuring the Swedish expedition SWEDARP 1988/89 (SwedishAntarctic Research Program), SVEA station was used by twoGerman guest scientists, J. Jacobs, Göttingen and S. Kreutzer,Aachen (JACOBS & KREUTZER 1990). The expedition startedfrom the edge of the Riiser-Larsen ice shelf via the northernpart of Vestfjella, where another Swedish summer station wasestablished. The logistics were based on tractors, sledges andalso helicopters. One helicopter transported the German scientists to SVEA but they returned by sledge traverse. Within ashort three-week campaign, geological fieldwork was carriedout in northern and southern Sivorgfjella. It was the firstcampaign that was expressly focussed on detailed geologicalmapping, but with such a small number of participating geologists it was more a pilot phase for the following seasons.Geological mapping was based on three new (preliminary)topographic maps at a scale of 1 : 25,000, produced by IfAGby processing of the 1985/86 aerial photographs. In the field,enlarged copies at a scale of 1 : 10,000 were used to record2200 field observations at 250 localities. Most of northernSivorgfjella could then be mapped at the envisaged scale (Fig.2).The next mapping campaign was part of “Polarstern” expedition ANT-VIII/5 in austral summer 1989/90, and it wascombined with an extensive geophysical programme (MILLER& OERTER 1991). The number of participants and duration ofthe expedition made it the largest ever to Heimefrontfjella,which attracted public interest. A journalist accompanied theexpedition and wrote an article for the popular journal GEOWissen (PIETSCHMANN 1990).Among the geological mapping team (J. Jacobs and G. Zarskefrom Göttingen University, S. Kreutzer and G. Spaeth fromAachen University, U. Schnellbach and P. Schulze fromBremen University) were three “newcomers” to Antarctica,

Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 7Fig. 2: Map of Heimefrontfjella showingthe areal coverage of the four geologicalmapping cam-paigns between 1988/89 and2000/01.Abb. 2: Karte der Heimefrontfjella mitden geologischen Kartierungsgebieten derExpeditionen zwischen 1988/89 und2000/01.therefore several training and preparation meetings had to beheld in 1988 and 1989, the most important ones having been: July 1988: Meeting at IfAG, Frankfurt/M., to obtain necessary topographic maps; November 1988: Meeting in Göttingen to discuss scientificprogramme and prepare topographic base material; Coordination meeting at AWI Bremerhaven for the wholeANT-VIII/5 expedition; Preparation workshop with all involved geologists inGöttingen to discuss mapping units and present additionalresearch projects.During the preparation phase in 1989, the 1 : 25,000 topographic contour maps, issued by IfAG, were edited, using orthophotographs of the same scale to transfer the outline ofice-free areas like nunataks, debris, or moraines. The mapsproduced were enlarged to a scale of 1 : 10,000 in order toobtain field slips. The final geological manuscript maps werealso drawn at that scale. An important task during the preparation meetings was the presentation of rock specimens to definemapping units for the newcomers. This was to ensure someconsistency in nomenclature and avoid problems that had beenexperienced by different expeditions over the years. This led toa preliminary description and definition of approximately 20mapping units. In this context, it should be mentioned that thefinal geological maps at 1 : 25,000 scale show, dependant onsize of outcrops and geological complexity, 6 to 18 differentrock units, and on average about 13. The total number of rockunits in the whole Heimefrontfjella map series accumulated to32.The field team under the leadership of G. Patzelt left GvNStation at the end of December 1989 and returned to thestation at the end of February 1990 (PATZELT 1991). Withinthat period, weather was extremely favourable so that onlythree days were lost due to snow-drift and white-out conditions. The journey to the mountains followed the, by then wellknown, route of 1985/86 with the same logistics (Pistenbulli,freight sledges, accommodation containers) transporting 21team members in total plus the voluminous equipment for thegeophysicists. In the mountains the geologists worked in twoperson teams with Ski-Doos and Nansen sledges.The first target of the expedition was southern Sivorgfjellawith a base camp at the entrance of Kibergdalen, a large,glacier-filled valley. The position of the base camp alsoallowed working in northern Tottanfjella. After two-thirds ofthe field campaign, the base camp was moved to the Swedishstation SVEA in Scharffenbergbotnen; from this base, northern Sivorgfjella was mapped. Except for a few inaccessiblecliffs, the whole central region of Heimefrontfjella could bemapped (JACOBS et al. 1991). The main task of the geologistswas to visit all accessible nunataks, identify the exposed rocks,classify them into mapable units, to follow geological contactsand record tectonic elements. Some participants collected rocksamples for additional research projects: P. Schulze for hisPhD thesis on the petrology of metamorphic rocks, U. Schnellbach for fission-track studies to resolve the exhumationhistory and J. Jacobs for his PhD thesis on the structural evolution of Heimefrontfjella and also for apatite fission-trackanalyses to describe the cooling history of the basement.After a three years break in scientific expeditions, partly dueto extensive logistic work in the area of GvN Station related tothe construction of a new German wintering station, the nextmapping campaign was planned for the1993/94 season.In 1993, the first map sheet “Scharffenbergbotnen” was7

Umbruch 79-104.11.2009 16:20 UhrSeite 8published (JACOBS & WEBER 1993), which appeared incontrast to the other sheets as an aerial photographic geological map. However, this cost-intensive result was not completely satisfying – e.g. large areas with dark shades – so thislayout was not chosen for the other sheets.The mapping campaign was part of RV “Polarstern” expedition ANT-XI/3. The first planning meeting was held inDecember 1991 at AWI and the final coordination meeting todiscuss the logistics also took place at AWI in July 1993.The main task was the geological mapping of central andsouthern Tottanfjella, Kottasberge (Milorgfjella) and XUFjella using the same methodology as the previous expedition.This campaign would complete the geological mapping of thewhole mountain range. The geological team included J. Jacobs(now at University of Bergen), G. Spaeth (Aachen), and K.Weber (Göttingen), and the three newcomers W. Bauer(Aachen), S. Siegesmund (Göttingen), and R.J. Thomas (CGSPietermaritzburg, RSA). The expedition was again led by theexperienced mountaineer and glaciologist G. Patzelt,supported by H. Wohltmann, an AWI technician. The geologists worked in the field in three teams of two.Fig. 3: The first base camp of the 1994 expedition at the Cottontoppen, Tottanfjella. This expedition was equipped only with Ski-Doos and Nansen sledges.Abb. 3: Das erste Basiscamp am Cottontoppen/Tottanfjella im Januar 1994.Diese Expedition war nur mit Ski-doos und Nansenschlitten ausgerüstet.Regarding the logistics, this expedition was quite an experiment b

GEOLOGISTS AND SURVEYORS D. Ardus was the first surveyor in the southern Heimefront- . 1 Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Geologie – Endogene Dynamik, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen, Germany. . land,