AP* COMPARATIVEGOVERNMENT ANDPOLITICS:AN ESSENTIAL COURSEBOOKSEVENTH EDITIONby Ethel WoodWoodYard Publications*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board which was not involved in theproduction of and does not endorse this book.

AP Comparative Government and Politics: An Essential Coursebook, Seventh EditionPublished byWoodYard Publications285 Main StreetGermantown, NY 12526Ph. 610-207-1366Fax dyardpublications.comTABLE OF CONTENTSPREFACE.7PART ONE: CONCEPTS.11Chapter One: Introduction to Comparative Government andPolitics: A Conceptual Approach.12Questions for Concepts for Comparison.82PART TWO: COUNTRY CASES.93Advanced Democracies.94Chapter Two: Government and Politics in Britain.99Questions for Britain.157Chapter Three: The European Union.167Questions for the European Union.187Communist and Post-Communist Regimes.191Chapter Four: Government and Politics in Russia.198Questions for Russia.259Chapter Five: Government and Politics in China.270All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permissionfrom the author, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review.Questions for China.329Copyright 2015 by Ethel WoodChapter Six: Government and Politics in Mexico.350ISBN 978-0-9895395-5-5Questions for Mexico.406Newly Industrializing and Less Developed Countries.340

Chapter Seven: Government and Politics in Iran.416Questions for Iran.472Chapter Eight: Government and Politics in Nigeria.482Questions for Nigeria.534PART THREE: SAMPLE EXAMINATIONS.545Sample Examination One.546Sample Examination Two.566MASTER CHARTS.584INDEX.588Why Comparative Government and Politics?I taught social studies classes for many years, mostly at Princeton HighSchool in Princeton, New Jersey. Like most social studies teachers,my experience included classes in United States history and government. I have also published review books, textbooks, readers, andweb materials that have required me to do extensive research in various types of American studies. Needless to say, I believe that an education in these areas is incredibly important for high school students,and every secondary curriculum should include them. So why is comparative government and politics particularly significant?The 21st century has taught us that we cannot ignore the world aroundus. Happenings around the globe now directly impact our lives, andsocial studies teachers and students around the country face the challenge of interpreting complex, puzzling events. The AP comparativecourse focuses on government and politics in other countries and provides a theoretical framework to compare political systems around theworld. It is my hope that this book will help students to grasp something of the political complexities of our global environment, and gainsome understanding of both commonalities and differences amongmodern political systems. In today’s world, we cannot afford not toknow.Ethel WoodGermantown, NYOctober 2015

Other Books by Ethel WoodPREFACE: THE COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ANDPOLITICS EXAMINATIONAmerican Government: A Complete CoursebookAP European History: An Essential Coursebook, 1st and 2nd editionsAP Human Geography: A Study Guide, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd editionsAP United States History: An Essential Coursebook, 1st and 2ndeditionsThe AP Comparative Government and Politics Examination administered by the College Board in May lasts for two hours and 25 minutesand consists of the following parts: 55 multiple-choice questions (45 minutes allowed; 50% ofAP grade) a 100-minute free response section consisting of 8 questions(50% of AP grade)AP World History: An Essential Coursebook, 1st and 2nd editionsThe Immigrants: An Historical ReaderIntroduction to SociologyMultiple Choice and Free-Response Questions in Preparation for theAP United States Government and Politics Examination, editions 1-7Multiple Choice and Free-Response Questions in Preparation for theAP World History Examination, editions 1 and 2Teacher’s Guide - AP Comparative Government and PoliticsThe Best Test Preparation for the Graduate Record Examination inPolitical ScienceThe multiple-choice questions cover all the topics listed below, andtest knowledge of comparative theory, methods, and government andpolitics in Britain, Russia, China, Mexico, Iran, and Nigeria. On theexam, the College Board no longer subtracts one-fourth of the number of questions answered incorrectly from the number of questionsanswered correctly to come up with your score. Since there is nopenalty for guessing, it is advisable to answer all questions the bestthat you can.The free-response questions are of three types: Definition and description (25% of free-response grade) –Students provide brief definitions or descriptions of five concepts or terms, briefly explaining their significance. Studentsmay have to provide an example of the definition or description in one or more of the six core countries. Conceptual analysis (one question; 25% of free-responsegrade) – Students must use major concepts from comparativepolitics, explain important relationships, or discuss the causesand implications of politics and policy. Country context (two questions; 50% of free-response grade;each question 25%) – These questions focus on specific countries, and require students to use core concepts to analyzeone country or compare two countries.The Presidency: An Historical Reader

The recommended total time for definition and description terms is 30minutes; for the conceptual analysis question, 30 minutes; and for eachof the two country context questions, 20 minutes. However, there areno time divisions among the free-response questions. Instead, a totalof 100 minutes is allotted to answer all of them.Generally, multiple-choice questions are distributed fairly evenlyamong the six countries. In addition, many questions are not countryspecific, but instead test knowledge of the major concepts. Accordingto the College Board, the topics of the multiple choice questions aredistributed as follows:Introduction (methods, purpose of comparisons).5%Sovereignty, Authority, and Power.20%Political Institutions.35%Citizens, Society, and State.15%Political and Economic Change.15%Public Policy.10%This newly revised 7th Edition of AP Comparative Government andPolitics: An Essential Coursebook is designed to help you prepare forthe exam by giving you a sound footing in comparative concepts aswell as country-specific information about the six core countries. Thebook is divided into three parts: Part One – Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics: A Conceptual Approach Part Two – Country Cases: Advanced Democracies (Great Britain), Communist and Post-Communist Regimes (Russia and China), and Less-Developed and Newly-Developing Countries (Mexico, Iran, and Nigeria) Part Three – Practice Examinations: Two complete practice exams, each with 55 multiple-choice questions and 8 free-responsequestionsYour best preparation for the exam is to know your stuff. The questions do require reading and writing skills, but the surer you are of thematerial, the more likely you are to answer the questions correctly.This book provides the concepts and information, as well as plentyof practice questions that will prepare you for the exam. The mostimportant things are that you learn something about comparative government and politics, and that you learn to love it, too!


12 CONCEPTS FOR COMPARISONCONCEPTS FOR COMPARISON 13 Analyzing and interpreting basic data for comparing politicalsystemsWHAT IS COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS?Comparative government and politics provides an introduction to thewide, diverse world of governments and political practices that existin modern times. Although the course focuses on specific countries,it also emphasizes an understanding of conceptual tools and methodsthat form a framework for comparing almost any governments thatexist today. Additionally, it requires students to go beyond individualpolitical systems to consider international forces that affect all peoplein the world, often in very different ways. Six countries form thecore of the course: Great Britain, Russia, China, Mexico, Iran, andNigeria. The countries are chosen to reflect regional variations, butmore importantly, to illustrate how important concepts operate bothsimilarly and differently in different types of political systems: “advanced” democracies, communist and post-communist countries, andnewly-industrialized and less-developed nations. This book includesreview materials for all six countries.Goals for the course include: Gaining an understanding of major comparative political concepts, themes, and trends Knowing important facts about government and politics inGreat Britain, Russia, China, Mexico, Iran, and Nigeria Identifying patterns of political processes and behavior andanalyzing their political and economic consequences Comparing and contrasting political institutions and processesacross countriesMost people understand that the term government is a reference tothe leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country. However, what exactly is politics? Politics is basically all aboutpower. Who has the power to make the decisions? How did powerholders get power? What challenges do leaders face from others –both inside and outside the country’s borders – in keeping power? So,as we look at different countries, we are not only concerned about theins and outs of how the government works; we will also look at howpower is gained, managed, challenged, and maintained.College-level courses in comparative government and politics vary instyle and organization, but they all cover topics that enable meaningful comparisons across countries. These topics are introduced in thepages that follow, and will be addressed in greater depth when each ofthe countries is covered separately.The topics are: The Comparative Method Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Political and Economic Change Citizens, Society, and the State Political Institutions Public PolicyTOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHODPolitical scientists sometimes argue about exactly what countriesshould be studied and how they should be compared. One approachis to emphasize empirical data based on factual statements and statistics, and another is to focus on normative issues that require valuejudgments. For example, the first approach might compare statistics

14 CONCEPTS FOR COMPARISONCONCEPTS FOR COMPARISON 15that reflect economic development of a group of countries, including information about Gross National Product, per capita income, andamounts of imports and exports. The second approach builds on thosefacts to focus instead on whether or not the statistics bode well or illfor the countries. Empiricists might claim that it is not the role of political scientists to make such judgments, and their critics would replythat the empirical approach alone leads to meaningless data collection.The approaches give us different but equally important tools for analyzing and comparing political systems.As with research in any social science, comparative government andpolitics relies on scientific methods to objectively and logically evaluate data. After reviewing earlier research, researchers formulate a hypothesis, a speculative statement about the relationship between twoor more factors known as variables. Variables are measurable traitsor characteristics that change under different conditions. For example,the poverty level in a country may change over time. One questionthat a comparative researcher might ask is, “Why are poverty rateshigher in one country than in others?” In seeking to answer this question, the researcher want to identify which variable or variables maycontribute to high levels of poverty. In other words, the researcheris trying to discover causation – the idea that one (or more) variablecauses or influences another. So a credible hypothesis

This newly revised 7th Edition of AP Comparative Government and Politics: An Essential Coursebook is designed to help you prepare for the exam by giving you a sound footing in comparative concepts as well as country-specific information about the six core countries. The book is divided into three parts: