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“ Consume more than you needThis is the dreamMake you pauperOr make you queenI won’t die lonelyI’ll have it all prearrangedA grave that’s deep and wide enoughFor me and all my mountains o’ thingsLyrics from “Mountains o’ Things” by Tracy Chapman12A method of stimulating consumer demandby designing products that wear out orbecome outdated after limited use.”average numberof minutes a plasticbag is used beforebeing thrown awayof plastic1,000,000,000,000 numberbags used globallyeach year1,000Plannedobsolescence (n.)minimum numberof years beforea plastic bagdecomposeshttp://www.earth-policy.org/plan b owse/planned-obsolescence“ Before [World War II], plastic playeda very limited role inmaterial life. After the war,[surplus] oil became the driving forcebehind the American economy, andplastics, which are made frompetroleum, became ubiquitous, used ineverything from dry cleaning bags and disposable pens to Styrofoam and shrink-wrap. An array of disposable products from plastic silverware to paper cups, meanwhile, enshrinedcleanliness and convenience Excerpt from Down to Earth: Nature’s Rolein American History by Ted Steinberg”

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“ I am convinced that if we are to get on the rightside of the world revolution, we as a nation mustundergo a radical revolution of values. We mustrapidly begin the shift from a ‘thing-oriented’society to a ‘person-oriented’ society.When machines and computers, profit motives,and property rights are considered more importantthan people, the giant triplets of racism,materialism, and militarism are incapableof being conquered.”Excerpt from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “A Revolution of ds/2009/10/21king revolution.pdfEastside Online http://bit.ly/2pT2l5I“ Men and women are sacrificed to the idols of profitand consumption: it is the ‘culture of waste’ .Yet these things become the norm: that somehomeless people die of cold on the streets is not news.In contrast, a ten point drop on the stock markets ofsome cities is a tragedy. [.] Thus people are disposedof, as if they were trash. ”Excerpt from Pope Francis’s Weekly Addressduring World Environment Day on June 3, iences/2013/documents/papa-francesco 20130605 udienza-generale.htmlPopa Matumula, Tanzanian cartoonistThrow Away Society

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Polyp, a British rism/polyp cartoon Rat Race.jpgConsumerism (n.)1. The protection or promotion ofthe interests of consumers.2. The preoccupation ofsociety with the acquisitionof consumer goods.Oxford English DictionaryThis panoramic image, titled “99 Cent,” depicts a 99 Cents Only store in Los Angeles. Itwas taken by German photographer Andreas Gursky in 1999. Andreas Gursky / 2017 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst,Bonn / Courtesy Sprüth Magers Berlin London

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CAPS SEURAT201160x90” in one panel,and 88x132” in 3 panels400,000plastic bottle caps,are depicted in Caps Seurat. That isequal to the average number of plasticbottles consumed in theUnited States every minute.Chris Jordan, Running the Numbers tn/#caps-seurat

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“Everyday, garbagetrucks needlessly travel thousands ofmiles throughout New York City polluting ourair with diesel fuel, clogging our streets, and diminishing ourquality of life. These impacts are greatest in thosefew low-income and communities of color”where old truck-dependent transfer stations are clustered,and along the truck routes used to haul garbage.Excerpt from a Testimony to the New York City Council (2/13/15)Steve Greenberg, cartoonist April 15, 2010 VCReporterTitle: The poor get.http://www.nyc-eja.org/public/newsroom/NYC-EJA TestimonytoCityCouncil CapacityReduction ns,%20Environ/PoorGet.htmlEnvironmental justice is thefair treatment and meaningful involvement“ NYC Parksof all people regardless of race, color, national origin, orincome with respect to the development, implementationand enforcement of environmental laws, regulations andpolicies. No group of people should bear theimpact of negative environmental consequences,and all people should have the opportunity toparticipate in decisions about things that may affecttheir environment and health.On a windy day, fumes and debris can blow intoBarretto Point Park from [nearby waste transfer]stations. Private transfer stations are sometimesopen to the elements.Definition from the United States Environmental Protection tice”

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Every day, nearly6,000 tons of trash arehauled in and out of the South Bronx, requiring about1,400 diesel truck trips. This means two to threetruck tripsevery minute overa typical eight to ten hour day.Photo Credit: Photographer: Jenny LabalmeProtesters lying in front of dump trucks taking soil contaminated with PCB to the onx-is-breathing/In 1973, the Ward Transformers Company dumped 31,000gallons of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on the side ofroadways in 14 North Carolina counties. NC devised a planto build a landfill to deposit the contaminated soil.The site of the landfill was Shocco, a rural town in WarrenCounty that was 75% African American, with neithera mayor nor a city council. Warren County had the highestmajority of African Americans and out of North Carolina’s100 counties, it was ranked 97th in GDP.Fishermen have to navigate plastic debris to catch theseafood they hope to 6/url12.jpgResidents feared that their groundwater wouldbe contaminated by PCB, so local leadersorganized protests against the construction ofthe landfill which attracted the support of civil rightsgroups nationwide.https://sites.duke.edu/docst110s 01 s2011 sb211/what-is-environmental-justice/history/

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“ A 2009 NYU-Wagner study reported that‘rates of death from asthma are aboutthree times higher in the Bronx thanthe national average. Hospitalization rates are”about five times higher.’Neighborhoodresidents playingbasketball at a courtlocated near theShell Oil Refineryin Norco, Louisiana. Mark is-breathing/The orange lines on thismap are train cars loadedwith NYC’s waste headedto out-of-state landfills,blocking access to thewaterfront and contributingto noise and air ogy/image-bank/kottak/chap14/kot37055 1409ta.jpgAsthmaHospitalizationsAge Group: 0 to 14 years;UHF District; Number; 2014(2010, United Health Fund Districts)Source: Citizens’ Committee forChildren of New York (2013)New York State Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) Deidentified Hospital DischargeData, retrieved from New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene NYC Tracking Program: Environmentand Health Data Portal. [Asthma Hospitalizations (Children under 15); 2000-2014]. : Google Maps screen capture oor-housing-conditions/

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“last treeOnly when thehas been cutdown, the last fish been caught, and the last streampoisoned, will we realize we cannot eat money.”3 timesas much water isused to make theplastic water bottlethat you drink from.Cree Indian Prophecyhttp://bit.ly/2qz0Bx0Amount of oilneeded to make1 plastic bottle 2013 Walter SiegmundThe timber industry deforests land and replaces it with a monoculture tree farm, meaning all trees are the same type and sameage. This patchwork forest is near Clatsop County, Oregon.This pattern of land use displaces and diminishes native floraand fauna, and releases greenhouse wis and Clark River 2148s.JPGhttp://bit.ly/2qz0Bx0

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Non-renewableresource (n.)A resource that does not renew itself at a rate fastenough for human extraction (i.e., millennia and millions ofyears vs. years or decades).Examples include mineralsand metal ores, fossilfuels (coal, petroleum,natural gas) and groundwater in certain aquifers.“ damageto Mother Earth.I see a lot ofI see water being taken from creeks wherewater belongs to animals,not to oil ewableresourceAerial view of strip mine with heavy machinery - Stuart Hall - Photographer’s Choice Getty Images.Winona LaDuke, an environmentalist, activist, and member of the Ojibwe nation“Fracking”by Kap ing environmental facts and statistics/resources extracted from D {1A1B8453-1909-4BC4-B360-86F950D1D4F5}

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“ Like that famous ship [the Titanic], [society’s] infrastructure ispowered by brutish and artificial sources of energythat are environmentallydepleting. It pourswaste into the water and smoke into the sky. It attempts towork by its own rules, which are contraryto thoseof nature. And although, it may seem invincible,the fundamental flaws in its design”presage tragedy and disaster.“Running on Empty” by David Horsey n-empty-2383756.php“ Every year there are more people on the planet,and every year more of them move to cities. Since 1950,the world’surban population has balloonedExcerpt from “Cradle to Cradle” by William McDonough & Michael BraungartNatural resourceextractionis the set of activities thatinvolve removing materialsfrom the environment.to over 3.9 billion from 746 million.“ Logging is one exampleof resource extraction.If not done in a sustainablemanner, logging extracts trees and theirremoval causes other changes that can resultin soil and nutrient removal from the loggedarea. Even if it is accomplished sustainably,logging changes an environment.To build those cities, people are pulling untold amounts of sand outof the ground. Usable sand is afinite resource.Desert sand, shaped more by wind than by water,generally doesn’t work for construction. To getthe sand we need, we are stripping”riverbeds, floodplains and /the-worlds-disappearing-sand.htmlDefinition from Encyclopedia.com

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The fossil fuel industry has grownover the past decade by combininghorizontal drilling and fracking toextract oil & gas from shale and otherunderground rock formations.Fracking injects large quantities of water,sand and toxic chemicals under highpressure to release oil and gas that aretightly held in rock layers.The fracking boom and low-pricednatural gas have spawned aresurgence in plasticsmanufacturing — and thepollution that comes with it.Transforming ethane into plasticsand other products is inherently toxic,polluting the environment andimposing public health riskson petrochemical workers and thecommunities near the plants.Alberta Tar Sands (Canada)Tar sands are a mixture of mostly sand, clay, water, and athick, molasses-like substance called bitumen. Bitumenis made of hydrocarbons—the same molecules in liquidoil—and is used to produce gasoline and other petroleumproducts. Extracting bitumen from tar sands,and refining it into products like gasoline, issignificantly costlier and more difficult thanextracting and refining liquid t/files/ib 1702 fracking-plastic-web.pdfBy Howl Arts Collective (Flickr: tar sands, Alberta) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

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“ There ismore plasticin the ocean than fish, by weight.By 2050, there will beno such thingas ‘away.’When we throwanything awayit must gosomewhere.Annie Leonard, The Story of e-plastic-in-sea-than-fish-3-strategies/Ocean Dumping BanAct of 1988In the past, communities around the world used the oceanfor waste disposal, including the disposal of chemical andindustrial wastes, radioactive wastes, trash, munitions, sewage sludge,and contaminated dredged material.Chris Jones5 Gyres FAQ #1: What is a gyre?World Map courtesy of Wikimedia Commons This federal law made it unlawfulfor any person to dump,or transport for the purposeof dumping, sewage sludgeor industrial wasteinto ocean watersafter December 31, ng-ban-act-of-1988/

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MYECONOMYLINEARof food in the United Statesgoes KEDISPOSEDISPOSEMost ofthat foodgoes to zero-waste-want-matthew-s-hollis

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https://vimeo.com/195856946Chris Jordan, Midway Atoll F000313%2018x24Throw away (phrasal verb)Waste disposal (n.)1. To get rid of something that you no longer want2. To waste something such as an opportunity or an advantageRemoving or destroying or storing damaged,used or other unwanted domestic,agricultural or industrial productsand substances.Disposal includesburning, burialat landfill sitesor at sea, ictionary.com/waste disposal

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“ ‘It’s important to understand that ‘waste-to-energy’is not an accurate term,’ says Mike Ewall,[a veteran environmental justice advocatein the Chester, PA area].‘Incinerators are still incineratorseven if they produce electricity.’“The argument is over whether ‘waste-to-energy’plants adequately capture enough of thepollutants that are produced by trash-burning,the golden toad, the thylacine and all variationsof whale harpooned or hacked into extinction.or continue to release dangerous toxinsinto the air the same way old-fashioned incinerators did.CityLimits.org, “LIfe Near a Landfill” by Jarrett Murphy“ Most likely, you think we hated the ithnycs-trash/It must seem like we sought to leave you nothingbut benzene, mercury, thestomachsof seagulls rippled with jet fueland plastic.”Excerpt from “Letter to Someone Living Fifty Years from Now” by Matthew omeone-living-fifty-years-now

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Hudson BayIn 1987, theMobro 4000Gar-Barge)“”(also known as thetraveled from New York City to Belize and backtrying to find a place to dump its waste.Islip, NY“ In 1895, sanitary conditions had becomeintolerable. Horses were leaving an estimated2.5 million pounds of manure and 60,000gallons of urine on the streets every day.UNITED STATESIslip, NYAtlanticOc e a nGulfof MexicoUNITED STATESCUBAMEXICOHorse carcasses rotted in the streets.GulfGarbage piles reachedofaMexicofoot or two deep,”cleared only haphazardly by “ragtag army of theunemployed.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George E. Waring, Jr.MEXICOCUBAAt l ant i cO ceanBELIZE001000 MilesCaribbean Sea1000 deo-series-re-examines-garbage-barge-fiasco.html

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Landfills where New York City sends its fIncinerators where New York City sends its n

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16%100%diversion rate*in 2016diversion rate*goal by 2030* diversion rate (n.)New York City’s recycling law-- which providedresidents with curbside collection of recyclables-- took effect on July 14, 1989.Voluntary recycling collections, which hadalready begun in some neighborhoods,were now becoming mandatory citywide.the percentage of waste diverted from traditional disposal(i.e., landfilling, incineration) to be recycled, composted,or re-usedhttps://www1.nyc.gov/assets/dsny/docs/about dsny-non-dsny-collections-FY2016.pdfFood waste is a major environmental and social problem in the UnitedStates, and in New York City, foodwaste leads to unsightly streets,smelly sidewalks, and large rat awturns-25-years-old-part-iStreet litter ultimately ends up in our waterways, as seen in this image of the Bronx ide-im-going-can/

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Barge NYC’s GarbageFair ShareAt New York City’s 58 waste transferstations (WTS), waste collection vehiclestransfer their loads to tractor-trailertrucks, railcars, or marine barges forexport. Because WTS are not evenlydistributed throughout the City andbecause most WTS use tractor-trailersfor export, disposing of NYC’s wastegenerates unnecessary truck traffic andpollution. By utilizing marine and railtransfer stations in closer proximity to collection vehicle routes, the City can alleviateenvironmental impacts for the whole City and in neighborhoods inundated by morethan their fair share of the City’s noxious infrastructure.36%Rest ofNYC38%NewtownCreek23%SouthBronx3% JamaicaCurrently, the South Bronx and the neighborhoods surrounding Newtown Creek hosta combined 32 waste transfer stations.Collectively, these WTS handle over 60% ofthe 12 million plus tons of waste movingthrough WTS in NYC annually.The waste transfer stations located inJamaica, Queens handle a smaller slice ofNYC’s total waste. However, due to irregular zoning, these four WTS are locateddirectly next to residential neighborhoods,magnifying their impact on the health andwell-being of the surrounding community.“Pizza Rat” might have been a funny viral video, but rats are a seriousproblem in New York City. They nest 100 feet from a food source, andwith piles of trash all over the city’s aginginfrastructure, it is a perfect rat habitat. Rats causestructural damage and carry diseases that can be fatal to humans.Legendtruck transferstationrail transferstationmarine transferstationCreated by HabitatMap in partnership with the Organization of Waterfront NeighborhoodsFacts: Rat Academy, NYC Department of atmap docs/BargeNYC’sGarbage FairShare.pdf

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Oxford English Dictionary. WASTE DEEP Issue Cards WASTE DEEP Issue Cards WASTE DEEP Issue Cards WASTE DEEP Issue Cards RCP WASTE DEEP 09-17 . (SPARCS) Deidentified Hospital Discharge Data, retrieved from New York City Department of Heal