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AD-A142 784PROCEEDINGS PAPERS OF THE AFSC (AIR FORCE SYSTEMSSYSTEMS DIVAERONAUTICALSTAND.(U)COMNfAND)AVIONICSAFB0.OH DIRECTORATEWRIGHT-PATTERSONUNCLASSIFIEDC A PORUBCANSKY NOV 82F/G E-Is""EIIIII"I iIIONI"'Un

1111.01 145L.L2111.1.2.8NATIONAL 13UREAUOf STANDARS19 3 A611.

AID(NA Th.e-O081VOLUM ENI)IX2nd AFSCSTANDARDIZATIONCONFERENCECOMBINED PARTICIPATION BY:DOD-ARMY-NAVY-AIR FORCE-NATO30 NOVEMBER - 2 DECEMBER 1982TUTORIALS: 29 NOVEMBER 1982DAYTON CONVENTION CENTERDAYTON, OHIOSPONSORED BY:HOSTED BYNAVY CASE STUDYC)IMPLEMENTATION OF MILITARY STANDARDSApprovoed for P9p6110 nIooot**Osletltion UliamltoedA9406 Ci.121

NOTICEWhen Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purposeother than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation,the United States Goverment thorbV incurs no responsibility nor any obligationwhatsoever; and the fact that the governient my have formulated, furnished, or inany way supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data, is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or anyother person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to manufactureuse, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto.This report has been reviewed by the Office of Public Affairs (ASD/PA) and isreleasable to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).At NTIS, it willbe available to the general public, including foreign nations.This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication.JEFFERY L. PESLERVice Chairman2nd AFSC Standardization Conference-CERWIN C. GANGL.Chief, Avionics Systems DivisionDirectorate of Avionics EngineeringFOR THE COMMANDERROBERT P. LAVOIE, COL, USAFDirector of Avionics Enc'neerlngDeputy for Engineering"If your address has changed, if you wish to be removed from our mailing list,orif the addressee is no longer employed by your organization please notify ASD/ENASh-PAFB, ON 45433 to help us maintain a current mailing list".Copies of this report should not be returned unless return is required by securityconsiderations, contractual obligations, or notice on a specific document.

UNCLASSI FIEDSECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (*heDoaEntered).REPORT DOCUMENTA:TION PAGEI. REPOR7 NUMBER4.BEFORE COMPLETING FORM.GOVT ACCESSION No. 3,TITLE (and Subtitle)SProceedings Papers of the Second AFSC AvionicsStanaardi zat ion Conference-7.9.gEOT&PRO-OEE2 December 19826.PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBERB.CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s)Cynthia A. PorubcanskyPERFORMING ORGANIZATIONNAME AND ADDRESS10.PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERSHQ ASD/ENASWright-Patterson AFB OH 4543311.YEO29 NovemberAUTMOR(s)Editor:RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBERCONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS12. REPORTDATENovember 1982HQ ASD/ENAWright-Patterson AFB OH 45433111. NUMBER OFPAGES14. MONITORING15. SECURITY CLASS. (ofthisgAGENCY NAME & AOORESS(It different frrnt Controllig Office)ISame as AboveUnclassifiedISo. GRADINGSTATEMENT (of this Report)Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.17.DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered in Block 20, if different fromt Report)N/AIS.SUPPLEMENTARY NOTESN/A19.KEY WORDS (Continue atn reverseside ifnecessary and identlty by block nuotbor)Computer Instruction Set Architecture, Multiplexing, Compilersp Support Software,Data Bus, Rational Standardization, Digital Avionics, System Integrationo StoresInterfaceir Standardizationr MIL-STD-1553P MIL-STD-1589 (JOVIAL), MIL-STD-1750,MIL-STD-1760P MIL-STD-1815 (ADA). MIL-STD-1862 (NEBULA).20.AS5TRACT (Continue on reverse sde it necessarSv onentity by block number)This is a collection oft UNCLASSIFIED papers to be distributed to the attendeesof the Second AFSC Avionics Standardization Conference at the Convention Center,Dayton. Ohio. The scope of the Conference incLudes the compLete range of DoDapproved embedded computer hardware/software and related interface standards asweLL as standard subsystems used within the Tri-Servicp community and NATO. Thetheme of the conference is""RationaL Standardizationr:- Lessons Learned as wellas the pros and cons of standardization are highlighted.DD1A1473COITION OFNOV 66 IS ONSOLIETE.UN LASSIFIEDSECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TISIPAGE (When Date Entered)

This Is Volume 9volue 1VolumeVolumeVolumeVolueVolume23456proceedigp pp. 1-560Prooedins pp. 561-1131Governing DocumentsMIL-STD-1553 TutorialMIL-SD-1589 TutorialTutorialMI r-S'TD-1679Volume 7Volume aML-STD-1750 Tutorialvolume 9Navy Case Study Tutorial1815S TutorialmI-STD-sPROCEEDINGS OF THE2nd AFSCSTANDARDIZATION CONFERENCE30 NOVEMBER - 2 DECEMBER 1982DAYTON CONVENTION CENTERDAYTON, OHIOSponsored by:Hosted by:Air Force Systems CommandAeronautical Systems Division1111111151

FOREWORDTHE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE HAS COMMITTED ITSELF TO "STANDARDIZATION."THE THEME OF THIS YEAR'S CONFERENCE IS "RATIONAL STANDARDIZATION," AND WEHAVE EXPANDED THE SCOPE TO INCLUDE US ARMY, US NAVY AND NATO PERSPECTIVESON ONGOING DOD INITIATIVES IN THIS IMPORTANT AREA.WHY DOES THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND SPONSOR THESE CONFERENCES?BECAUSE WE BELIEVE THAT THE COMMUNICATIONS GENERATED BY THESE GET-TOGETHERSIMPROVE THE ACCEPTANCE OF OUR NEW STANDARDS AND FOSTERS EARLIER, SUCCESSFULIMPLEMENTATION IN NUMEROUS APPLICATIONS. WE WANT ALL PARTIES AFFECTED BYTHESE STANDARDS TO KNOW JUST WHAT IS AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT THEM: THEHARDWARE; THE COMPLIANCE TESTING; THE TOOLS NECESSARY TO FACILITATE DESIGN,ETC. WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT FEEDBACK FROM PEOPLE WHO HAVE USED THEM ISESSENTIAL TO OUR CONTINUED EFFORTS TO IMPROVE OUR STANDARDIZATION PROCESS.WE HOPE TO LEARN FROM OUR SUCCESSES AND OUR FAILURES; BUT FIRST, WE MUSTKNOW WHAT THESE ARE AND WE COUNT ON YOU TO TELL US.IiAS WE DID IN 1980, WE ARE FOCUSING OUR PRESENTATIONS ON GOVERNMENTAND INDUSTRY EXECUTIVES, MANAGERS, AND ENGINEERS AND OUR GOAL IS TOEDUCATE RATHER THAN PRESENT DETAILED TECHNICAL MATERIAL. WE ARE STRIVINGTO PRESENT, IN A SINGLE FORUM, THE TOTAL AFSC STANDARDIZATION PICTURE FROMPOLICY TO IMPLEMENTATION. WE HOPE THIS INSIGHT WILL ENABLE ALL OF YOU TOBETTER UNDERSTAND THE "WHY'S AND WHEREFORE'S" OF OUR CURRENT EMPHASIS ONTHIS SUBJECT.MANY THANKS TO A DEDICATED TEAM FROM THE DIRECTORATE OF AVIONICSENGINEERING FOR ORGANIZING THIS CONFERENCE; FROM THE OUTSTANDING TECHNICALPROGRAM TO THE UNGLAMOROUS DETAILS NEEDED TO MAKE YOUR VISIT TO DAYTON, OHIOA PLEASANT ONE. THANKS ALSO TO ALL THE MODERATORS, SPEAKERS AND EXHIBITORSWHO RESPONDED IN SUCH A TIMELY MANNER TO ALL OF OUR PLEAS FOR ASSISTANCE.Accession ForNTISROBERT P. LAVOIE, COL, USAFDIRECTOR OF AVIONICS ENGINEERINGGRA&I.TCTBj u-tfOts-DEPUTY FOR ENGINEERINGiiiI

CEARTMENT OF THE1.'.":""-,%--R;.%S -A,R P'C-.ZfMNR FORCE:- 5'" iZiiiC-34 2'*TOFAUG 1982SCI'Second AFSC Standardization Conference0ASD/CC1. Since the highly successful standardization conference hosted by ASD in1980, significant technological advancements have occurred. Integration ofthe standards into weapon system has become a reality. As a result, we havemany "lessons learned" and cost/benefit analyses that should be shared withinthe tri-service comunity. Also, this would be a good opportunity to updatecurrent and potential "users." Terefore, I endorse the organization of theSecond WPSC Standardization Conference.2. This conference should cover the current accepted standards, results ofrecent congressional actions, and standards planned for the future. We shouldprovide the latest information on policy, system applications, and lessonslearned.The agenda should accommodate both goverme nt and industry inputsthat criticize as well as support our efforts. Experts from the tri-servicearena should be invited to present papers on the various topics. Our AFSCproject officer, Maj David Hawiond, HQ APSC/AR, ATO"ON 858-5731, is preparedto assist.ROBERT M. BOND, V Gen, ULWCommanderV

NAVY CASE STUDYIMPLEMENTATION OF MILITARY STANDARDSInstructor: Marshall R. PotterNaval Electronics System CommandABSTRACTA brief overview of the Navy approach to the life cycle management ofembedded computer resources will be provided. The role of softwareengineering as a problem solving discipline involving engineering, computerscience and management will be applied to all phases of the life cycle asdefined in DODD 5000.1. A case study of a major Navy acquisition initiated in1974, subsequently deployed and currently under maintenance, will be coveredand analyzed. The purpose of the case study is to investigate a systemacquisition that utilized the most up-to-date technology practical, includingrecommended software development tools, techniques, and methodologies. Theusefulness and shortfall of good tools and techniques, employed during theacquisition of a complex system, will be discussed illustrating that thingsdont always turn out right, even when prosecuted in accordance with the bestexpertise and guidance available.BIOGRAPHYMarshall PotterHead, Software Engineering BranchNaval Electronics System CommandWashington D. C. 20360BSEEUniversity of Maryland1971MSEEMSCSUniversity of MarylandUniversity of Maryland19741979Experience15 years with the Department of Defense, including the following assignments:Naval Ship Research and Development CenterDefense Comnunications Engineering CenterNaval Electronics System CommandCurrent Assignment: Head, Software Engineering Branch, Computer ResourcesDivision, Naval Electronics System CommandResponsible for developing procedures and policy for the design andimplementation of systems that use embedded computer resources.Vii.

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SPECIFICATION SHEETNAVAL ELECTRONICS SYSTEM CASE STUDYTOPIC:Management problems and solutions associated with a Naval electronicsembedded computer software system throughout its development history.TYPE:Case Discussion,1 1/2 Hrs.OBJECTIVES:. To provide the participant with an exercise in analyzing embeddedcomputer software management activities.* To provide the participant with an opportunity to apply his own skillsand experience to a set of typical problems associated with virtually everycomplex software intensive system.* To provide the opportunity for participants to trace, in a singlethread fashion through the entire development cycle of a system as itexperiences early difficulty, periods of constant reassessment, and finally,success.125

NAVAL ELECTRONICS SYSTEMDISCUSSION:In the fall of 1974, the Navy Project Management Office - Electronics(PME) solicited an RFP for proposed system designs for a naval electronicssystem. Of the original 38 contractors who attended the initial briefing,four teams of contractors submitted proposals.Two of these contractor teamswere eliminated, primarily due to the fact that their proposals disclosed thatthe contractors did not understand the depth and complexity of the requirements. The remaining two contractors were selected to submit system specifications by April of 1975. At that time, two contenders were placed under cadretasking while their proposals were evaluated.Under the cadre tasking, thetwo contractors were directed to further refine their specifications and toIn August ofdevelop preliminary Program Performance Specifications (PPSs).1975, the PME selected one company as the prime contractor with a separatecompany as the major software developer.The software subcontractor wasdirected to continue development of the PPS and the Program Design Specification (PDS).The contract for full scale development was signed in March of1976.Under the terms of the contract, the software subcontractor was requiredto utilize a top-down modular design methodology, the CMS-2 high orderlanguage, and structured programming techniques.As top-down implementationof the design proceeded, the software subcontractor would deliver software infour basic increments resulting in a final delivery of an integrated, testedsoftware system by May 1977.System integration of software to hardware wasThisspecified for completion, with acceptance testing, by September 1977.allowed a period of only 18 months from the start of full scale development tocompletion of acceptance testing for a system composed of 18 hardware racksand associated system software; a very ambitious contract.The PME, realizing that they had a lack of computer software trainedpersonnel, negotiated with the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) to providesoftware support during the development phase of the program.NOSC is a majorNavy laboratory that is electronics-oriented. They experiment in microelectronics, radar, and satellite systems.On this program, NOSC was specificallytasked to:1. Provide support to the PME during the review and evaluation ofcontractor produced software and documentation.2. Serve as the single point of contact in the provision of softwaresupport to the prime contractor.3.Provide facilities and instruction to the computer system hardwareand software maintenance agent, the Naval Electronic Systems EngineeringCenter (NESEC).4.Install Level 2 Support Softwarecontractor development and test facilities.(CMS-2M,SDEX120)5. Perform testing and verification of incrementaldeliveries and report results to the PME.1261]at thesoftware

In support of these requirements, NOSC would partake in all design andprogram reviews, computer program regeneration, and computer programacceptance demonstrations.NESEC, San Diego was designated as the software maintenance agent.It wasrecognized that NESEC would have to participate in all phases of developmentto gain the necessary experience to undertake software support functionsupon completion of system development. NESEC personnel were to interface,primarily witn NOSC, to gain the needed hands-on experience.During the eleven-month cadre tasking period, the software subcontractorcontinued to refine the system specifications and develop the PPS and the PDS.A preliminary PPS was delivered just prior to the signing of the full scaledevelopment contract.Within 90 days of the contract signing, a preliminaryPDS was delivered.No realistic new cost or schedule reestimation wasattempted.Upon delivery, the PPS and the PDS were submitted to exhaustive designreviews. The PPS document was determined, with minor exceptions, to accurately specify system requirements but was not in the format required bySECNAV Instruction 3560.1.Rewriting of the PPS. in accordance with theinstruction, resulted in a six-month delay in delivery and acceptance of thefinal document with corresponding delay in placing the allocated oaselineunder configuration management control.The initial version of the PDS constituted well over 1000 pages and was subsequently determined by the softwarecontractor to specify design requirements at too low a level and in too greatdetail.The final document was on the order of 200-300 pages.A significantshorLcoming of the PDS was that it did not provide detailed interfacespecifications between software and hardware.The programming phase of software development commenced upon initiationof the development contract. The software subcontractor began coding beforeeither the PPS or the PDS were finalized.In July of 1976, it became apparentthat the software subcontractor was not spending funds in accordance with theCost and Schedule Control Program (as required by DODD 7000.2).This initiated an investigation that indicated that the software developer was notmeeting the scheduled requirements for delivered lines of executable code.Although reluctant to admit to development delays, the software subcontractoreventually had to acknowledge that they were experiencing significant softwareproduction difficulties when they missed delivery of the second softwareincrement in November of 1976.In December of 1976, a number of actions wererecommended to contain cost growth and to schedule a slip in the program.Among the actions taken were replacement of an IBM 370/135 support computerwith an IBM 370/145, partial delivery of the second software increment, andsignificant reorganization of the software subcontractor management.At thistime, software development was from three to four months behind schedule.With the partial delivery of the second increment of software in FebruaryIt soon became apparentof 1977, integration of software to hardware began.that significant problems existed in accomplishing the integration because ofinadequate implementation of interface controls within the software. As integration difficulties expanded, more and more resources were diverted to thetest site to contain the problem.In order to allow more time to deal withintegration problems, the hardware development began to drive the software.127

Even though software development was three to four months behind, the NavyThis resulted in abandoning incrementalrefused to relax the schedule.deliveries in favor of drop deliveries of software modules which would interface with the emerging hardware devices. This required that the softwaresubcontractor reestablish software priorities to support hardware availability. The change from incremental software deliveries to drop deliveriesseriously impacted verification and the test center's ability to provide testresults in a timely manner.At the same time, a problem of simple logistics became evident. The 400mile separation between the test site and the software development personnelwas creating additional delays in development.As a result, in December 1977,all software development personnel were relocated to the test site to optimizethe integration process.While the major software development was going on by the software subcontractor, NOSC was expending considerable resources in establishing an independent verification and test center at NESEC, San Diego.A test facility,consisting of operator consoles and AN/UYK-20 computers with supporting peripherals, was set up.Test drivers which simulated the various system hardwaredevices were written.Software increments were simultaneously delivered bythe software subcontractor to NOSC and to the main test site at the primecontractor's facility. Various tests conducted on software delivered by thesoftware subcontractor uncovered errors, especially in modules which interfaced to hardware.There was, however, no correlation performed with errorsdiscovered at the main test site so it could not be determined whichproportion of errors discovered at NOSC accurately reflected errors which werecaused by improperly coded test modules.Although NOSC's test facility wassimilar to the system configuration in computer and peripherals, the front-endwas software simulated.Errors discovered in the system were often duplicatesof errors uncovered by the prime contractor. Front-end errors were oftenattributed to the software simulation at the San Diego test site.Although the San Diego test center did perform verification functions, t',eprimary purpose of the center was to provide training to NESEC personnel.Dueto the high priority and expedited schedule of the program, there was not theusual three to four year test phase to gain knowledge.Therefore, the testactivities at NOSC provided invaluable experience for the software maintenancepersonnel from NESEC.At the present time, system deploynent is on schedule.The first systemwas fielded three years following the start of full scale development.Thesoftware subcontractor is under a maintenance contract to help clear "bugs"and provide training to NESEC personnel. Although no changes were allowedduring the initial production due to the tight schedule, approximately 100class II changes were presently in work in 1978. Most of these changes are toimprove efficiency by revisions to the display format, timing, etc.In thesummer of 1979, the Navy assumed configuration control at the code level.Alllibraries were removed from the prime contractor and assumed by the Navy.CONCLUSIONS:Given the scarcity of formal guidance and the lack of computer softwaretrained personnel, the PME did a commendable job in advance planning and128

utilization of coinputer resources for the project.State-of-tne-art designand developnent techniques were demanded of the contractor such as new hardware, new support software, top down structure, and thie latest USN standardsand specifications.The need for a maintenance support agency for postdevelopment pnases of tne software lifecycle was recognized early.Foresightwas evident in insuring that the maintenance agency would receive adequatetraining ano participate in all aspects of development.Acknowledging theirlack of software expertise, tne PME employed NOSC to assist in providing forquality assurance of the delivered product.The use of a high order language,structarea programinng, and good program documentation was specified toimprove ease of software maintenance.Personnel from the user comnmunity weretrained and incorporated into the test program.Problems in production weredetectei early and aggressively attacked by the project management group.Unforturat ely, advance planning and close program monitoring by the P14E werenot suffcieitto prevent a significant software cost overrun and schedules1 ippae .'e two Predo-inant causes of cost overrun and schedule slippage wereundero.stiniat on of the tasK complexity by the major software contractor andinadequate Mianning for the system integration by the prime contractor.Discussions with the software subcontractor disclosed that they themselvesfelt that too con)iexity of software requirements was grossly underestimateddue to the uticationof a relatively naive engineering team to initiallyscope -tne procief a.c design the system.Specifications resulting from tniseffort were not aaequrately reviewed by higher level management within thesoftware suOco-tr)tor organization and were not oalanced against preliminarycost. and time estvmaions.Software subcontractor management admitted tiatthis couls nave been accomplished by project management personnel if adequatefunds and time had been provided.The assumption that the underestimation ofprogran cnp exi' y was cmain problem is borne out oy 3rot!: in source -odeand by code prd ction figures for the project which show that lines of codeproduceu per ,ian irwere slightlyabove average for the industry.It canalso be shown that the software subcontractor's original budget for cost perexecutable Lineof code called for a production rate well above the norm.Inspite of tr.ese proobiens,

Volume 4 MIL-STD-1553 Tutorial Volue 5 MIL-SD-1589 Tutorial Volume 6 MI r-S'TD-1679 Tutorial Volume 7 ML-STD-1750 Tutorial Volume a mI-STD-s 1815S Tutorial volume 9 Navy Case Study Tutorial PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2nd AFSC STANDARDIZATION CONFERENCE 30 NOVEMBER