Republic of the PhilippinesDepartment of EducationDepEd Complex, Meralco AvenuePasig CityStandards and Competenciesfor Five-Year-Old FilipinoChildrenMay 2016

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMI.INTRODUCTION“The first years of life are important because what happens in early childhood can matter in a lifetime.”(Harvard, 2009)Republic Act 10157, or "The Kindergarten Education Act" made Kindergarten the compulsory and mandatory entry stage to basic education. Section 2 ofthis Act provides that all five (5)-year old children shall be given equal opportunities for Kindergarten Education to effectively promote their physical, social,emotional, and intellectual development, including values formation, so they will be ready for school. The Department of Education (DepEd) believes thatKindergarten is the transition period from informal to formal literacy (Grades 1–12), considering that age five (5) is within the critical years in which positiveexperiences must be nurtured to ascertain school readiness. Extensive research has shown that this is the period of greatest growth and development,during which the brain continuously develops most rapidly and almost at its fullest. It is also the stage when self-esteem, vision of the world, moralfoundations are established, and their mind’s absorptive capacity for learning is at its sharpest. Teachers/parents/caregivers/adults should therefore beguided to facilitate explorations of our young learners in an engaging, creative, and child-centered curriculum that is developmentally appropriate and whichimmerses them in meaningful experiences. Provision of varied play-based activities leads them to becoming emergent literates and helps them to naturallyacquire the competencies to develop holistically. They are able to understand the world by exploring their environment, as they are encouraged to create anddiscover, which eventually leads them to becoming willing risk takers and ready to tackle formal school work.Section 5 of said Republic Act also state the adoption of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). Therefore, the mothertongue of the learner shall be the primary medium of instruction for teaching and learning in kindergarten.K to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 2 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMII.FRAMEWORKThe Kindergarten Curriculum Framework (KCF) draws from the goalsof the K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework and adoptsthe general principles of the National Early Learning Framework (NELF).Kindergarten learners need to have a smooth transition to the contentbased curriculum of Grades 1 to 12.The items in rectangles in Figure 1 show the theoretical bases forteaching-learning in the early years, which are founded on inquiry–based, and reflective teachingin play-based approaches with application of the Developmentally AppropriatePractices (DAP); these support the principles of child growth anddevelopment, and the learning program development and assessment.The circles, on the other hand, signify the system of how KindergartenEducation is to be employed. The interlocked ellipses represent the learningdomains that have to be nurtured and equally imparted to holistically developchildren. It also forms a flower that portrays the gradual unfolding but steadydevelopment, as is expected of every child. The child is seen as being in theprocess of blossoming – like a flower bud whose development should not beforced lest it lose its chance to fully mature. The domains are enclosed bythe Learning Areas children will meet in Grade One onward, for which they arebeing prepared. The outermost layer indicates the Curricular Themes uponwhich the Kindergarten Curriculum Guide (KCG) or the Teacher’s Guide isdesigned. It has been crafted using the thematic or integrative approach toFigure I. The Kindergarten Curriculum Frameworkcurriculum development in a spiralling learning process. This approachemploys integerative and interactive teaching-learning strategies as well aschild-centered learning experiences.K to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 3 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMIII.GENERAL GUIDING PRINCIPLESThe following are the general guiding principles of the National Early Learning Framework (NELF):A. On Child Growth and Development1. Every child is unique. Growth and development vary from child to child, for whom the first eight years of life are most vital. He/she has an innate desire to learn,and this is best done through meaningful and real experiences.2. Every aspect of growth and development is interrelated and interdependent. The child needs to be nurtured in a good and caring environment that enhanceshealthy and dependable relationships with other children and most significant adults.3. The learning and development of every child involve a series of complex and dynamic processes that are best attended to in a more positive and responsivemanner.4. The child must be encouraged to aspire beyond one’s own level of achievements and to practice newly acquired competencies.5. Every child is a thinking, moving, feeling, and interactive human being able to actively participate in the learning and development of self in the context of one’sfamily and community, including cultural and religious beliefs.B. On Learning Program Development1. The learning program is child centered. It promotes the holistic way by which young children grow and develop,and recognizes the role of families and communities in supporting the child through various stages of growth and development.2. The learning program is appropriate for developing the domains, and must sustain interest in active learning of all young children including those with specialabilities, marginalized, and/or those at risk.3. The learning program is implemented by way of diverse learning activities that may be enhanced with multimedia technologies such as interactive radio,audio/video clips, and computer-enhanced activities.4. The use of learning materials and other resources that are locally developed and/or locally available is encouraged. The mother tongue shall be used as the child’slanguage of learning.C. On Learning Assessment1. Assessment is done to monitor learning, know where the child is at, and inform parents of the child’s progress.2. Assessment is crucial to identifying the child’s total developmental needs and does not determine academic achievement.3. Assessment is best conducted on a regular basis so that a timely response or intervention can be made to improve learning.4. The results of the learning assessment of a child shall be kept strictly confidential. Ratings should be more qualitative/descriptive and less numerical.5. The family and community must be informed of the general outcomes of learning so as to encourage further cooperation and partnerships.K to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 4 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMIV.DEVELOPMENTAL DOMAINS ( and what to expect in each)“Developmental domains” refers to specific aspects of growth and changes in children.These are represented by the ellipses to showinterconnectedness in the holistic development of children. The contents of each developmental domain are defined by learning expectations, as follows:1.Socio-Emotional Development (Pagpapaunlad ng Sosyo-Emosyunal at Kakayahang Makipamuhay) - Children are expected todevelop emotional skills, basic concepts pertaining to her/himself, how to relate well with other people in his/her immediate environment,demonstrate awareness of one's social identity, and appreciate cultural diversity among the school, community, and other people.2.Values Development (Kagandahang Asal) - Children are expected to show positive attitudes, self-concept, respect, concern for selfand others, behave appropriately in various situations and places, manifest love of God, country, and fellowmen.3.Physical Health & Motor Development (Kalusugang Pisikal at Pagpapaunlad sa Kakayahang Motor) - Children are expectedto develop both their fine and gross motor skills to be efficient and effective movers when engaging in wholesome physical and healthactivities. They are also expected to acquire an understanding of good health habits and develop their awareness about the importance ofsafety and how they can prevent danger at home, in school, and in public places.4.Aesthetic/Creative Development (Sining) – Children are expected to develop their aesthetic sense and creative expression throughdrawing, painting, and manipulative activities. Aesthetic development involves the love and pursuit of beauty in art, music, and movement,and creates opportunities for the creative expression of emotions, thoughts, feelings, and ideas.5.Mathematics - Children are expected to understand and demonstrate knowledge, thinking skills, and insights into patterns ofmathematics, concepts of numbers, length, capacity, mass, and time through the use of concrete objects or materials, and to apply thesemeaningfully in their daily experiences. Children are provided with varied manipulative activities to help them see relationships andinterconnections in math and enable them to deal flexibly with mathematical ideas and concepts.6.Understanding of the Physical and Natural Environment - Children are expected to demonstrate a basic understanding of conceptspertaining to living and nonliving things, including weather, and use these in categorizing things in his/her environment. They are alsoexpected to acquire the essential skills and sustain their natural curiosity in their immediate environment through exploration, discovery,observation, and relate their everyday experiences using their senses (touch, sight, smell, taste, and hearing).7. Language, Literacy, and Communication - This domain provides opportunities on early literacy learning for self-expression throughlanguage using the mother tongue or the child’s first language. Children are expected to develop communicative skills in their first language.They are also expected to develop more positive attitudes toward reading, writing, and to view themselves as effective users and learners oflanguage.K to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 5 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMV.CURRICULAR THEMESThe outer circle of the KCF corresponds to the interrelatedness of the learning domains, which dictates the way to approach implementation. Thedaily activities prescribed in the Kindergarten Curriculum Guide (KCG) or the Teacher’s Guide is designed as learner centered, inclusive, and developmentallyappropriate to employ an integrative and interactive approach in developing the competencies focusing on the themes shown in Figure 2. The child and braindevelopment principles were the bases of the selection of content, concepts, and skills, as well as the learning activities. Developmentally appropriatepractices considered the developmental tasks that five-year-olds, in general, could tackle at a specific time, and in a specific sequence. Thus, these curricularthemes adhere to Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-ecological theory that defines “layers of environment, each having an effect on a child’s holistic development.”1. Myself - concepts and ideas that help the learners understand himself/ herself better sothat he/she will develop as an individual2. My Family - concepts, ideas, practices that guide the child to be responsible and proud of himselfand his family3. My School - concepts, ideas, practices, and situations that help the child understand how tobe an individual and socialize with other learners, teachers, and other school personnel4. My Community- concepts, ideas, practices, situations, and responsibilities that the learnershould acquire and understand so that he/she will a become functional and responsivemember of the communityFigure 2. The Curricular Themes5. More Things Around Me - all other concepts, ideas, practices, situations, and responsibilitiesbeyond themes 1 to 4, but which may be relevant to the community, culture, and interest ofthe learnerK to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 6 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMVI.TRANSITION PARADIGMTRANSITION FROM KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 1KINDERGARTENGRADE 1DOMAINSFigure 3 illustrates theinterrelatedness of thedevelopmental domains and thelearning areas. The domain-basedskills intended to be developed inLEARNING AREASSocio-Emotional Development(Sosyo-Emosyunal at KakayahangMakipamuhay)Values Development(Kagandahang Asal)Araling PanlipunanSocial StudiesValues EducationEdukasyon sa Pagpapakataokindergarten are aligned to thelearning area, content-basedcurriculum to be learned in Grade 1.Domains are strategically integratedin the content of the blocks of timeas contained in the KCG/TeachingGuide. Activities tackle different butinterrelated domains for the smoothand successful transition of everyfive-year-old Filipino child fromKindergarten on to Grades 1 to 12Basic Education.Physical Health and MotorDevelopment(Kalusugang Pisikal atKasanayang Motor)Aesthetic Development(Sining)Pysical Education & HealthMusic, Arts, PhysicalEducation and HealthMusic and ArtsMathematicsMathematicsPhysical and NaturalEnvironmentScience(Pisikal at Likas na Kapaligiran)Language, Literacy andCommunicationLanguageMathematicsFilipino and Mother TongueFigure 3. Transition ParadigmK to 12 Kindergarten Curriculum Guide May 2016Page 7 of 32

K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUMVII.MATRIX OF LEARNING STANDARDS AND COMPETENCIESA. PAGPAPAUNLAD SA KAKAYAHANG SOSYO-EMOSYUNAL (SE)KAUGNAY NA BATAYANPagkilala ng Sarili atPagpapahayag ngSariling Emosyon (PSE)PAMANTAYANNILALAMANPAGGANAPAng bata ay nagkakaroonng pag-unawa sa Ang bata aynakapagpapamalas ng.sariling ugali at damdaminkakayahang kontrolin angsariling damdamin at paguugali, gumawa ngdesisyon at magtagumpaysa kanyang mga gawainPALATANDAANG KASANAYAN1. Nakikilala ang sarili1.1 pangalan at apelyido1.2 ka

4. The child must be encouraged to aspire beyond one’s own level of achievements and to practice newly acquired competencies. 5. Every child is a thinking, moving, feeling, and interactive human being able to actively participate in the learning and development of self in the context of one’s