00 0672328224 fm.qxd10/13/052:34 PMPage iTeachYourselfSAPinGeorge AndersonDanielle Larocca24HoursSECOND EDITION800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

00 0672328224 fm.qxd10/13/052:34 PMPage iiSams Teach Yourself SAP in 24 Hours,Second EditionCopyright 2006 by Sams PublishingAll rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission fromthe publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use ofthe information contained herein. Although every precaution has beentaken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assumeno responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed fordamages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.International Standard Book Number: 0-672-32822-4PublisherPaul BogerAcquisitions EditorLoretta YatesDevelopment EditorSonglin QiuManaging EditorCharlotte ClappSenior Project EditorMatthew PurcellLibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2005930224Printed in the United States of AmericaFirst Printing: November 2005080706054321TrademarksAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks orservice marks have been appropriately capitalized. Sams Publishingcannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in thisbook should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademarkor service mark.Warning and DisclaimerEvery effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The informationprovided is on an “as is” basis. The authors and the publisher shallhave neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity withrespect to any loss or damages arising from the information containedin this book or from the use of the CD or programs accompanying it.Bulk SalesSams Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered inquantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information,please contactU.S. Corporate and Government or sales outside of the U.S., please contactInternational [email protected] EditorKezia EndsleyIndexerChris BarrickProofreaderJessica McCartyTechnical EditorAJ WhalenPublishing CoordinatorCindy TeetersDesignerGary AdairPage LayoutKelly Maish

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 273HOUR 20Reporting Tools in SAP (SAPQuery, InfoSet Query, Ad HocQuery, and QuickViewer)In the earliest versions of SAP, two tools were delivered for end-user reporting. The ABAPQuery was designed for all modules and the Ad Hoc Query was designed exclusively forthe Human Capital Management module. Beginning with version 4.6, things havechanged. The ABAP Query is now called the SAP Query and its features have beenenhanced. Additionally, the Ad Hoc Query tool can now be used with all modules in SAPunder the name the InfoSet Query (although in the Human Capital Management moduleSAP still refers to it as the Ad Hoc Query). Both reporting tools enable you to create reportswithin your SAP environment and neither requires any technical skills. Additionally, inversion 4.6, SAP introduced another tool called the QuickViewer. In this hour, you learnhow to create custom reports using these reporting tools, including the necessary configuration and administrative decisions to get you on your way.Highlights of this hour include. Learning the quick and easy steps to configure the query reporting tools. Using the SAP Query to create basic and advanced reports. Using the InfoSet (Ad Hoc) Query to create reports. Using the QuickViewer to create QuickViewsThe Structure of the Query ReportingToolsThe query tools (SAP Query, InfoSet/Ad Hoc Query and QuickViewer) are built upon thefoundation of three main components:. Query Groups (/nSQ03). InfoSets (/nSQ02). Administrative decisions (company specific)

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd27410/13/052:30 PMPage 274HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPEach of these components permits a user with no technical programming skillsto create custom reports. The overview of the query tool structure is depicted inFigure 20.1.FIGURE 20.1The SAP familyof query reporting tools givesusers easyaccess to thedatabase viaQuery Groupsand InfoSets.CompanySpecificAdministrativeDecisionsSAP R/3 Data DictionaryR/3 UserR/3 UserR/3 UserTableTableTableA collection oftables make upa logical databaseQuery GroupA collection ofusers make upa Query GroupInfoSets are assignedto Query GroupsLogical Database(LdB)InfoSetInfoSets are often based on a LogicalDatabase (LdB)Query Reporting ToolsSAP QueryInfoSet Query (Ad Hoc Query)QuickViewerIf you think about custom reporting in SAP in layman terms, you picture a programmer sitting down at a terminal and typing lines and lines of ABAP code thatgo to the core SAP database to collect the information needed for the report. Theprogrammer also has to code to account for security access, output, formatting, andso on. The purpose of the SAP delivered query tools is that all the work is done foryou behind the scenes. The use of the three main components holds it all together.Query GroupsLet’s start with the first component, Query Groups (formerly known as User Groupsin earlier versions of SAP). The technical definition of Query Groups is a collection ofSAP users who are grouped together. A user’s assignment to a user group determineswhich queries he or she can execute or maintain. Additionally, it designates which

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 275InfoSetsInfoSets (data sources) the user can access. Basically, Query Groups permit users tocreate, modify, and execute reports in a certain area within R/3. For example, youcan create a Query Group for the Finance department that includes your Financialusers; similarly you create a Query Group for the Human Resources department thatcontains reports specific to Human Resources. Query Groups are an easy way togroup and segregate your reports.Query Groups are often maintained by the System Administrator. Query Groups arecreated on the Maintain Query Groups screen, which you can access using thetransaction code /nSQ03. Users can belong to multiple Query Groups and might,under certain circumstances, copy and execute queries from other Query Groups(only if the permissions are the same). Any user within a user group has authorityto execute queries that are assigned to that group, but only users with the appropriate authorization can modify queries or define new ones. Users cannot modifyqueries from other Query Groups. Although the maintenance of Query Groups isusually a task for your System Administrator, you learn how to create a sample usergroup later in this section.InfoSetsInfoSets (formerly known as Functional areas in earlier versions of SAP) are the second component of SAP reporting. InfoSets are created on the Maintain InfoSetsscreen, which you can access using transaction code /nSQ02. The technical definition of InfoSets are areas that provide special views of logical databases and determine which fields of a logical database or data source can be evaluated in queries.Basically, an InfoSet is the data source; it’s where you get your data to use in yourreports. InfoSets can be built on a variety of sources, but the most common is theuse of what is known as a logical database (LdB). Recall that writing reports withoutQuery tools requires a programmer to write code that goes into the main R/3 database and retrieves the records it needs. This is no easy skill. SAP’s answer to thisissue is the logical database.Logical databases are rational prearranged groupings of data from multiple relatedtables that are indexed. In layman’s terms, logical databases place all the fields youwant to report in an easy container from which you simply select the fields you needto include in your report. An overview of the relationship between these differentelements is shown in Figure 20.1. Although the maintenance of InfoSets is usually atask for your System Administrator, you learn how to create a sample InfoSet laterin this section.275

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd276By theWay10/13/052:30 PMPage 276HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPDepending on your SAP authorization privileges, you might need to request assistance from your System Administrator in creating a test Query Group, functionalarea, and query. It is also possible, if you are working with a newly installed SAPsystem, that you will receive a message saying you must convert objects first. Ifyou receive this message, contact your System Administrator. He or she will berequired to perform a standard administration function to convert the objectsbefore you can proceed.Administrative DecisionsAs you see in just a moment, creating Query Groups and InfoSets is an easy task,but before you do so, you must first review the following administrative decisions tosee which best applies to your organization. What is your client/transport strategy?. Will you use the standard or global Query Area?What Is Your Client/Transport Strategy?With custom-coded ABAP reports written by programmers, the traditional methodology for report creation is as follows: A programmer accesses a development environment where the first draft of the custom report is coded. The report is then transportedto a testing client where it is tested. Assuming it passes testing, the report then moveson to your production environment for use. This methodology differs from the strategyoften used with the query family of reporting tools. The addition of the query tools toSAP enables end users to create reports in real-time with no technical skills. It is withthis in mind that your organization has to make a decision regarding your transportstrategy.The creation of query objects can be performed in any client. However, there aresome best practices you should follow. For starters, end users who will be using thequery tools often only have user IDs in the live production environment. Therefore,many companies maintain Query Groups live in the production client.Similarly, InfoSets can be created in any client; however, best practice dictates thatInfoSets be treated inline with normal programming methodology. It’s best to createInfoSets in a development environment and then transport them to a testing client,where they are tested and then moved on to production for use. The reason whyInfoSets are treated differently is because a trained user has the capability to addspecial coding or programs to InfoSets (outside the scope of this book) that can have

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 277Administrative Decisionsan impact on system resources or functioning and testing them is required in thosecases. That leaves the reports (queries) themselves. Unlike custom-coded ABAPreports, query reports are designed to be made real-time in an ad hoc fashion, so thebest practice is to create your queries live in your production environment.Using the Standard or Global Query AreaQuery Areas (formerly known as Application Areas in versions earlier than 4.6) contain your ABAP Query elements, queries, functional areas, and Query Groups. Thereare two distinct Query Areas in SAP: standard and global.Standard Query AreasStandard Query Areas are client-specific, which means that they are available onlywithin the client in which they were created. For example, if you created a standardquery in the production client, it exists only in the production client. You can transport query objects created in the standard area between multiple clients on the sameapplication server via the Transport Truck function on the main InfoSets screen(SQ02). This bypasses the customary Workbench Organizer.Global Query AreasQueries designed in the global area are used throughout the entire system and areclient independent. In Release 4.6, SAP delivers many of its standard reports in theSAP global Query Area. These queries are also intended for transport into other systems and are connected to the ABAP Workbench.A common best practice is to allow SAP to continue to deliver reports via the globalarea and for end users to use the standard Query Area to create query-relatedreports. With your administrative decisions completed, you are ready to begin theconfiguration.Creating a New User GroupTo create a new user group, perform the following steps:1. Navigate to the Maintain User Group screen using transaction code /nSQ03.2. Ensure that you are in the standard Query Area by following the menu pathEnvironment, Query Areas, and then selecting Standard area (client-specific).3. Type the user group name that you will be creating, ZTEST, and select theCreate button (see Figure 20.2).277

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd27810/13/052:30 PMPage 278HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPFIGURE 20.2SAP QueryGroups are created and modified using UserGroups: InitialScreen.4. Type a name for your user group on the User Group ZTEST: Create or Changescreen, as shown in Figure 20.3 and select the Save button.FIGURE 20.3Enter the namefor your usergroup in theUser GroupZTEST: Createor Changescreen.5. A message appears in your SAP GUI status bar stating that the User GroupZTEST has been saved.6. Select the Assign Users and InfoSets button. Type the SAP user IDs of any userswhom you want to include in your test group. Be sure to include your ownuser ID (see Figure 20.4).7. Save the entry by selecting the Save button from the toolbar. A messageappears in your SAP GUI status bar stating User Group ZTEST saved.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 279Administrative Decisions279Now that you have created a user group, your next step is to create an InfoSet.FIGURE 20.4In your newlycreated UserGroup, be sureto add your ownuser name.Creating a New InfoSetTo create a new InfoSet, perform the following steps:1. Navigate to the Maintain InfoSets screen using the transaction code /nSQ02.2. Ensure that you are in the standard Query Area by following the menu pathEnvironment, Query Areas, and then selecting Standard Area (client-specific).3. Type the InfoSet name that you will be creating, ZTEST, and select the Createbutton.4. On the InfoSet: Title and Database screen, you are asked to input a description for your InfoSet. In this example, I used the name Test InfoSet. As mentioned earlier, you can create InfoSets using a variety of sources. The mostcommon is the logical database. On this screen, select the F1S logical databasefrom the drop-down box to be used as your data source (see Figure 20.5).

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd28010/13/052:30 PMPage 280HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPFIGURE 20.5On this screen,select the F1Slogical databasefrom the dropdown box.By theWayYou can create InfoSets from various data sources, including logical databases,tables, table joins, and so on. The best business practice is to use the SAPdelivered logical databases as your data source, because they were created forthis purpose and there is at least one logical database delivered with your systemfor each module within SAP, including Accounting, Personnel Management, and soon. The F1S database used in this example is the training database that SAPuses in its training classes based on a fictional airline scheduling system. It isbest to use this database for your test cases.5. After entering a name and selecting the appropriate logical database from thedrop-down list, F1S, select the green check mark to continue.6. You are presented with a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 20.6. It liststhe tables stored in the logical database F1S.7. The logical database F1S selected is a test logical database containing threetest tables: SPFLI, SBOOK, and SFLIGHT. To take a look at the fields in thesetables, use the Expand Sub Tree button listed next to each table name (seeFigure 20.7).8. The next step is to assign fields to the Field groups (shown on the top-right ofyour screen) within your InfoSet. These field groups appear in your query toolswhile reporting. Only the fields that you include in your field groups are available for field selection in your query-reporting tools that use this InfoSet as itsdata source. By default, these field groups are empty (noted exception follows).

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 281Administrative Decisions281FIGURE 20.6The ChangeInfoSet screendisplays a list ofall tables storedin your InfoSet.123Three tables are containedwithin the logical database F1S.Table namesField groupsFIGURE 20.7The ChangeInfoSet screenwith expandedsubnodes showing the fieldsavailable ineach table.Field names

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd282By theWay10/13/052:30 PMPage 282HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPFor nearly all modules in SAP, your field groups are empty and you need to manually move fields to them. This is true for all modules with the exception of theHuman Capital Management module and the InfoSets that support it. The fieldgroups in this module are created for you with a default set of fields; you can addadditional information if required.9. Place your cursor on the first field group, Flight Schedule. (You are going toselect fields from the left side of the screen from the Flight Schedule table andadd them to the Flight Schedule field group.) Place your cursor on a field onthe left side of the screen, and right-click the option to Add Field to FieldGroup (see Figure 20.8).FIGURE 20.8The ChangeInfoSet screenwith expandedtables showingthe fields available in eachtable.10. Your newly added field to the Flight Schedule Field group now appears at thetop-right side of the screen (see Figure 20.9).11. The next step is to add fields to your selected field group following the procedures outlined previously. Select the field group with your cursor and thenmove fields from the left side of the screen to the right using the procedureoutlined previously. Be sure to add fields to the appropriate field group. Forexample, you can add the fields in the Flight Schedule Table to the FlightSchedule Field Group, or add fields from the Flight Booking Table to the FlightBooking Field Group.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 283Administrative Decisions283FIGURE 20.9The Field Group,Flight schedulenow has a fieldin it that isavailable forreporting withthe query familyof tools.12. Now that you have added a series of fields to your field groups, select the Savebutton from the toolbar. A message appears in the status bar saying that theInfoSet ZTEST was saved.13. Next, you need to generate the InfoSet by selecting the Generate button (thered beach ball) from the application toolbar. A message appears in the statusbar saying that the InfoSet ZTEST generated.The process of generating your InfoSet determines whether any errors are presentin the logic of the configuration of the InfoSet.14. The last step is to exit the Maintain InfoSet screen by selecting the green backarrow.Assigning the InfoSet to Your Query GroupYou have now accomplished the first two configuration steps. You have created aQuery Group and you have created an InfoSet. The last step before you begin creating reports is to assign the InfoSet to your Query Group. This is an easy, two-steptask:Did youKnow?

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd28410/13/052:30 PMPage 284HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAP1. From the InfoSet: Initial Screen (transaction code /nSQ02), make sure yourInfoSet ZTEST is present in the InfoSet text box and select the User GroupAssignment button.2. From the InfoSet ZTEST: Assign to Query Groups screen, highlight your QueryGroup name by selecting the gray button to the left of it, and then selectingthe Save button.A message appears in the status bar saying that the assignment of the InfoSetZTEST was saved.Did youKnow?Note that some of the SAP screens and SAP Help text still use the “functionalarea” moniker instead of InfoSet or refer to Query Groups by their old name, UserGroups. Just be aware of this. You can also assign the InfoSet to a Query Groupby using the Maintain User Groups screen (SQ03) and by selecting the AssignUsers and InfoSets button from the toolbar and selecting your InfoSet from a list.SAP QueriesYou create and maintain your SAP queries through the Maintain Queries screen.You can access the Maintain Queries screen by using transaction code /nSQ01.Unlike Query Groups and InfoSets, which are often maintained by SystemAdministrators, SAP queries are primarily maintained by trained end users (after theconfiguration steps are complete). Only users with the appropriate authorizationscan modify queries or create new ones.By theWaySecurity for managing query reporting is available on a couple of different levels.Besides the user group segregation, there also exists authorization group specifications. Security configurations are very customer specific; contact your systemsadministrator to learn more about your company’s security configuration.Creating an SAP QueryWith the one-time configuration completed, the fun can finally begin. Creating anSAP query is a relatively elementary task. To begin creating your first SAP query, follow these steps:1. Navigate to the Maintain Queries Initial screen using the transaction code/nSQ01. In version 4.6, a graphical version of the SAP query is available calledthe Graphical Query Painter. If you have not used the query tool, this will set

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 285SAP Queries285as your default. To turn it off and learn to create easy step-by-step reports, follow the menu path Settings Settings and deselect the Graphical QueryPainter check box.2. The title bar will list the Query Group that you are currently in. For example,your screen might read Query of User Group ZTEST: Initial Screen. (If you areassigned to multiple user groups, you can see a list of the groups by selectingthe Shift F7 key.)3. It is always a good idea to ensure that you are in the standard Query Area byfollowing the menu path Environment, Query Areas and selecting Standardarea (client-specific).4. In the Query field, type a name for the query you are creating, ZMYQUERY, andselect the Create button.5. The InfoSets of User Group ZTEST window will list all the available InfoSets foryour Query Group. Select the ZTEST InfoSet followed by the Enter key to proceed.6. You are now presented with the Create Query Title Format screen, whichenables you to save the basic formatting specifications for your query, including the name (title) and any notes you want to store for the query. The onlyrequired field is the title (see Figure 20.10).FIGURE 20.10You enter thetitle, format,and processingoptions for yourquery on theCreate QueryTitle Formatscreen.The further processing options listedhere are the same as the options thatappear on the selection screens whenyou execute SAP delivered reports.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd28610/13/052:30 PMPage 286HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAP7. After entering a title, select the Save button on the toolbar. To navigate to thenext screen in the SAP query-creation process, select the next screen (whitenavigational arrow) button from the application toolbar. You can use thesenavigational arrows to navigate between the different screens of the SAPQuery.8. A screen will appear listing all the field groups available within your InfoSet(in this example, you can see Flight Schedule [SPFLI], Flight Demo Table[SFLIGHT], and Flight Booking [SBOOK]). Place a check mark next to all fieldgroups that you want to include fields from in your report. Select the nextscreen (white navigational arrow) button from the application toolbar.9. A Select Field screen will appear (see Figure 20.11), giving you a list of all theavailable fields within the Field Groups you selected. Place a check mark nextto all fields that you want to include in your report. You can use the Page Upand Page Down arrows to navigate between all the fields. Select the nextscreen (white navigational arrow) button from the application toolbar to continue.FIGURE 20.11You can use thePage Up andPage Downarrows to navigate between allthe fields.10. You are now presented with the Selections screen, which lists all the fields thatyou have selected. You can now add any of the fields to the selection screenthat appears when you execute your report. This enables you to specify yourreport output when the report is executed. You can add any fields you want to

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 287SAP Queries287the Selection screen by placing a check mark next to each field. This is the lastscreen in the basic query sequence; to continue, select the Basic List buttonfrom the application toolbar.11. The Basic List screen shows you a list of the selected fields that you want toinclude for your report. For each field, you can specify the Line and Sequencenumber as you want them to appear on your report. Additionally, you can usethis screen to indicate sort order, totals, and counts, if needed. Start by entering the Line and Sequence numbers like the ones displayed in Figure 20.12.Line corresponds to the line numberthe field appears on in the report.Sequence determines the orderthe fields appear on for the line.FIGURE 20.12Sort dictates the orderthe data is sorted in.After selecting the Save button, a preview of the formatappears in the Line Structure box at the bottom of the screen.12. For this basic SAP Query example, you will proceed directly to the report.Select the F8 button from the application toolbar to execute the report.13. You are presented with the report’s selection screen. The selection screen givesyou an opportunity to specify any criteria for the output of your report. Selectthe Execute button again to display the report. Your report output shouldappear similar to Figure 20.13. (The output of the report corresponds to thespecification entered in the basic list screen.)Basic outputoptions aredefined on theSAP QueryBasic Listscreen.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd28810/13/052:30 PMPage 288HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAPFIGURE 20.13In version 4.6and higher, yourreport displaysin the SAP listviewer, asshown in thepicture.Advanced SAP QueriesYou have created a basic query using the SAP Query tool. Before you start investigating the more advanced options available in ABAP Query, it’s a good idea to trycreating a few queries using different InfoSets (based on different logical databases).To do this, you need to start from the section “Creating a New InfoSet” earlier thishour, select a different logical database, and then assign it to your Query Group.When you become familiar with the SAP Query tool, you will want to try some of itsmore advanced options. To investigate the advanced options available for processing your queries, follow these steps:1. Navigate to the Maintain Queries Initial screen using the transaction code/nSQ01 and select one of your existing queries.2. Select the Modify button followed by the Basic list button on the applicationtoolbar from the Basic List screen.3. You can use the next screen (white navigational arrow) button from the application toolbar to navigate to the additional seven screens that house the moreadvanced functions of the SAP Query. These include. Grouping, sorting, and subtotaling—You can group, sort, and subtotalyour SAP data onto reports and modify your subtotal texts. For example,you can create a report listing all open purchase orders and theiramounts grouped by vendor and location with custom-named subtotals;see Figure 20.14. Manipulating colors and texts—You can manipulate the colors andtext styles of the different data presented on reports. For example, yourreport can contain subtotals in yellow, group totals in green, and individual line items in boldface red text.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 289SAP Queries289. Alter the column widths, add colors, hide leading zeros—You canmanipulate the layout of the report output to be used in interfaces orflat file transfers; see Figure 20.15.FIGURE 20.14The ControlLevels screenenables you todo sorting andsubtotaling, aswell as specialformatting inyour SAP Queryreport.FIGURE 20.15The Field OutputOptions screenenables you tovary the columnwidth of yourfields to preparetext spaced ordelimitedextract files orcan be usedsimply to makeyour report output look better.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd29010/13/052:30 PMPage 290HOUR 20: Reporting Tools in SAP. Custom headers and footers—You can create custom headers and footers tobe shown on each page of your printed reports. Your report can include thename of the report and the date and time it was created at the top of eachprinted page of the report; see Figure 20.16.FIGURE 20.16You can usespecial symbolsto insert thecurrent date,time, and pagenumbers in yourcustom headersand footers. Charts and graphics—You can include graphics and create charts of yourSAP data on reports. You can create a bar graph displaying the open itemscurrently available in your warehouse in comparison to the items sold; seeFigure 20.17.FIGURE 20.17Charts appearin full colorusing SAP business graphics.

26 0672328224 ch20.qxd10/13/052:30 PMPage 291Understanding the InfoSet (Ad Hoc) QueryYou can also create calculated fields in your queries to be used in your SAP Queryreports. Calculated fields can be used to include variables that are not currentlystored by SAP. Examples include a calculated field to store an invoice amount multiplied by a discount percentage or a calculated field to change output based on anumber you enter on the Reports Selection screen. You can also create advancedcalculated fields using “if-then” type logic. This is performed by using the localfields function on the Select Fields screen.Understanding the InfoSet (Ad Hoc)QueryUnlike the SAP Query, which is a complete reporting solution tool, the InfoSet Queryis designed for basic users to retrieve simple single-use lists of data from your R/3database. Using this tool, (all query information) including the selection criteria isavailable on a single screen. In ve

Reporting Tools in SAP (SAP Query, InfoSet Query, Ad Hoc Query, and QuickViewer) In the earliest versions of SAP, two tools were delivered for end-user reporting. The ABAP Query was designed for all modules and the Ad Hoc Query was designed exclusively for the Human Capital Management