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03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 23CHAPTER3Creating Basic Reports with theSAP Query ToolIn this chapterThe SAP Query Tool24Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAP Query ToolReviewing the Options on Each of the Five Basic ScreensModifying an SAP QuerySaving a Query38Maintaining Queries38372430

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd246/21/061:51 PMPage 24Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolThis chapter describes how to create basic list SAP reports by using the SAP Query tool. Itintroduces everything you need to know to create basic list type reports in any applicationmodule of SAP. The step-by-step setup of this chapter makes it easy for any user, regardlessof technical skill level, to create custom reports by using the SAP Query tool.Helpful HintAlthough it is recommended that you create SAP query reports live in your production environment, while youare learning how to use SAP, it is important that you practice in your test quality assurance client so you do notcause any problems in your production environment.The SAP Query Tool3The SAP Query tool, in its standard form, is designed so that an end user with no technicalskills can create a report from scratch. It has five basic screens that an end user can gothrough to create a report. Each of the screens performs a function, and the end user cannavigate between the screens by using navigational arrows on the Application toolbar. Theseare the five basic screens: Title, Format (Screen 1)—You use this screen to give a report a name. Select Field Group (Screen 2)—You use this screen to select the field groups that contain fields you want to include in your report. Select Field (Screen 3)—You use this screen to select the fields from the field groupsyou want to include in your report. Selections (Screen 4)—You use this screen to add any additional fields to your report’sselection screen to further specify your report output upon execution. Basic List Line Structure (Screen 5)—You use this screen to define what you wantthe report to look like.Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAPQuery ToolThe most frequent comment I hear from fellow SAP customers is that they want the abilityto extract their own information. It is empowering to know that you can go into SAP andselect the data you want and have it come out formatted and sorted in the manner youchoose. This section walks you through how to create a basic list report by using the SAPQuery tool. The following sections explain all the options on the screens used to create thequery report.To create a basic list query by using the SAP Query tool, follow these steps:1. Log in to your SAP client where your query reports will be created. (Best practice dictates that they be maintained in your live Production client.)

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 25Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAP Query Tool252. Navigate to the Maintain Queries Initial screen by using the transaction code /nSQ01.Beginning with R/3 release 4.6A, SAP offers a graphical version of the SAP Query tool,called the Graphical Query Painter; if you have not used the SAP Query tool, theGraphical Query Painter is set as your default. To turn off the Graphical Query Painterand learn to create easy step-by-step reports by using the SAP Query tool, selectSettings, Settings and then deselect the Graphical Query Painter check box.3. The title bar lists the query group you are currently in. For example, your title barmight read Query from User Group ZTEST: Initial Screen. If you are assigned to multiple query groups, press F7 to see a list of all of them.4. As discussed in Chapter 1, “Getting Started with the SAP R/3 Query Reporting Tools,”it is recommended that you create your queries in the standard query area. Ensure thatyou are in the standard query area by selecting Environment, Query Areas and thenselecting Standard Area.5. In the Query field, type DLS QUERY 01 where DLS is your initials) as the name forthe query you are creating, and then click the Create button (see Figure 3.1).Figure 3.1The main screen ofthe SAP Query toollists all the queriesavailable in the designated query group.6. The InfoSets of User Group ZTEST window appears, listing all the available InfoSets(that is, data sources) for your query group. Because you created only one (in my example, I called it ZTEST), in Chapter 2, “One-Time Configuration for Query Tool Use,”it will be the only one listed. Select the InfoSet you created (ZTEST, in my example)and then click the green check mark button.7. The Create Query Title Format screen appears. This screen allows you to save thebasic formatting specifications for your query, including the name (title) and any notes3

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd266/21/061:51 PMPage 26Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query Toolyou want to store for the query. The only required field is the Title (long reportdescription). For this example, fill in only the Title field, as shown in Figure 3.2, andthen click Save. (For my example, I used the title (DLS) SAP Query Exercise #01.)Navigational arrowsFigure 3.2The Application toolbar for the SAP Querytool contains navigational arrows thatpermit you to navigate between thescreens of the query.38. Navigate to the next screen in the SAP query creation process by selecting the NextScreen (white navigational arrow) button from the Application toolbar. (You can use thenavigational arrows to navigate between the different screens of the SAP Query tool.)The Select Field Group screen appears, listing all the Field groups available withinyour InfoSet. Figure 3.3 shows this screen with the field groups Flight Schedule[SPFLI], Flight Demo Table [SFLIGHT], and Flight Booking [SBOOK] listed.9. Place a check mark next to each field group from which you want to include fields inyour report. Navigate to the next screen in the SAP query creation process by selectingthe Next Screen (white navigational arrow) button on the Application toolbar. TheSelect Field screen appears, showing a list of all the available fields in the selected fieldgroups.10. Place a check mark next to each field that you want to include in your report. You canuse the Page Up and Page Down keys to navigate between all the fields (see Figure3.4). Select the Next Screen (white navigational arrow) button from the Applicationtoolbar to open the Selections screen, which lists all the fields you have selected.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 27Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAP Query Tool27Figure 3.3All the field groupslisted at the top rightof the InfoSet screenduring configurationof the InfoSet arelisted on this screen.3Figure 3.4All the fields listed inthe field groups atthe top right of theInfoSet screen duringconfiguration arelisted here.Page down to endSingle page downPage up to topSingle page up11. If desired, add any of the fields to the selection screen that will be presented when youexecute your report. You can add a field to the Selections screen by placing a checkmark next to each one (see Figure 3.5).

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd286/21/061:51 PMPage 28Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolFigure 3.5Having fields availableon the report’s selection screen gives youthe ability to specifyyour report outputupon execution.312. Click the Basic List button from the Application toolbar to create an SAP basic listquery. The Basic List Line Structure screen appears, showing a list of the fields youselected to include in your report.13. For each field, specify the line and sequence number as you want them to appear onyour report. Also use this screen to indicate sort order, totals, and counts, if needed.Start by entering the line and sequence numbers, like the ones shown in Figure 3.6.Figure 3.6Basic output optionsare defined on theSAP Query tool BasicList Line Structurescreen.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 29Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAP Query Tool29N OTEYou can use Figure 3.6 as follows: Line column—The values in this column correspond to the line numbers the fieldswill appear on in the report. Sequence column—The numbers in this column determine the order of the fieldsfor the line. Sort column—This column dictates the order in which the data will be sorted. Line Structure box—After you click the Save button, a preview of the formatappears in the Line Structure box at the bottom of the screen.14. For this example, proceed directly to the report by pressing F8, which causes the reportto execute.15. As with almost all other reports in SAP, when you execute this report, you see thereport’s selection screen. Specify any criteria for the output of your report. Notice thatany fields indicated on the Selections screen are included on your selection screen,under the heading Program Selections (see Figure 3.7).Execute buttonFigure 3.7Selection screensenable you to furtherspecify report output.16. Select the F8 Execute button on your Application toolbar (it looks like a clock) to display your finished report. Your report output appears; it should look similar to what isshown in Figure 3.8. (Keep in mind that the actual values vary by organization: Theoutput of the report corresponds to the specification entered on the Basic List LineStructure screen.)3

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd306/21/061:51 PMPage 30Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolFigure 3.8In SAP 4.6 and higher,by default, yourreport displays in theSAP List Viewer.3Reviewing the Options on Each of the FiveBasic ScreensThe following sections serve as a reference of what options are available on each of the fivebasic screens of the SAP Query tool.The Title, Format ScreenThe Title, Format screen, shown in Figure 3.9, is where you insert the basic data about yourreport, including its title and the format in which you want it displayed. The Title, Formatscreen stores the basic report processing options for your report. For organizational purposes, it is a good idea to enter the name of the user who created the report in the Notessection of this screen. The following sections describe the options available on this screen.Figure 3.9The Title, Formatscreen.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 31Reviewing the Options on Each of the Five Basic Screens31List FormatBy default, on execution, a report is displayed in the SAP List Viewer (refer to Figure 3.8).The options listed in the List Format section apply only if you change the output format toappear in a text file or ABAP list. List Format options available on the Title, Format screenallow you to designate the line and column width of your report.You use the Lines field to specify the number of lines to be output on one page for a listgenerated by the query. The default is blank, which outputs a continuous list on a singlepage. You can use the Lines field to enter the number of lines to be output on a single page.If you do not want page breaks, you should leave this field empty. The Columns field storesthe number of columns per line. This field determines the maximum number of charactersthat can be displayed on one line of the list created by the query. Lines exceeding this lengthare broken. The maximum number permitted is 255. The number entered in the Columnsfield should be the closet estimation possible, because it helps determine the printed layoutof the report. For example, if you set all reports to be the maximum of 255 so that all yourcolumns fit on a single line, your printed report may contain very small text to accommodateall 255 columns. Again, these settings are required only if the output format is a text file oran ABAP list. (See the section “Output Format” on the next page.)Special AttributesThe Special Attributes section allows you to specify whether the report should run with avariant. (Variants are introduced in Chapter 6, “Using Reporting Selection Screens:Advanced Skills.”) You use the Change Lock check box to indicate whether you want otherusers to be able to make changes to your query. By default, this check box is unmarked, indicating that any other user in your query group who has the appropriate authorizations canmake changes to your report. To prevent this, select this check box for each new query youcreate.Table FormatYou use the options listed in the Table Format section only if you change the output formatto appear in a table. (See the section “Output Format.”) You use the Columns field in theTable Format box to indicate the maximum number of characters for the width of a tableview control if you select your data to be viewed as a table. You can use table view controlsto display the data of single-line basic lists, statistics, and rankings in a special format. Thisspecification affects only the visible width, and the table control may contain more datacolumns than are visible in a single R/3 window.Print ListThe Print List box includes the With Standard Title check box, which you use to indicatewhether you want your output to include the standard title that you specified at top of thescreen, in the Title field. By default, this box is selected. You use the No. of Characters LeftMargin box to specify how many characters to save room for at the left side of the page inthe printed report, in case you want to have room for binding or punched holes.3

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd326/21/061:51 PMPage 32Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolOutput FormatUpon report execution, your report is displayed in the SAP List Viewer format (refer toFigure 3.8). The Output Format options allow you to have a report’s data output in differentformats. The default setting is SAP List Viewer, which is a screen that appears very similarto a Microsoft Excel worksheet and is the standard for all reports in SAP version 4.6C andhigher. The options available in this box are described in Table 3.1.Specifying an output option on the Title, Format screen of the SAP Query tool ensures thatwhen the report is executed, it will be displayed in the selected format. When you select anoption on the Title, Format screen, it is set as a default parameter for the selection screen ofthat report only.Table 3.13SAP Query Tool Title, Format Screen Output Format OptionsOptionDescriptionSAP List ViewerWhen you select this option, your list will not be displayed onscreen in thenormal form when the query is processed. Instead, the first sublist istransferred to the SAP List Viewer directly, as shown in Figure 3.8. Youmust be able to transfer this first sublist (it must be either a single-line basiclist, a statistic, or a ranked list). This is the default selection.ABAP ListWhen you select this option, the report will appear in SAP as a basic list,without any formatting or fancy Microsoft Excel–looking features. This wasthe format of all standard SAP Query tool reports in versions earlier thanSAP 4.6C.GraphicThis function allows you to display the information from your list by usingSAP Business Graphics. In contrast to the other functions described in thistable, the Graphic function can only handle an extract from one column ofyour sublist, and the column must contain numeric values. In addition, yourSAP system has to have Business Graphics enabled.ABC AnalysisYou can use the ABC Analysis function for any single-line basic list, allstatistics, and any ranked list that contains at least one numeric field.ExecutiveInformationSystem EISThis function provides a link to the Executive Information System (EIS). Ittransfers the data in your query to the EIS database via an interface so thatyou can perform further analyses. When you activate this function, youspecify various options for storing the data in a dialog box.File StoreWhen you select this option, the list is not displayed onscreen when youexecute the query, but the first sublist is passed directly to the downloadinterface and stored as a file. The first sublist must be a single-line basiclist, a statistic, or a ranked list. When you select the field, a parameter ispredefined on the selection screen.Display as TableWhen you select this option, your report output is displayed in an SAPTable Control object that looks similar to the SAP List Viewer but offersless functionality. The first sublist must be a one-line basic list, a statistic, orranked list. When you select this option, a parameter is predefined on theselection screen.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 33Reviewing the Options on Each of the Five Basic ScreensOptionDescriptionWord ProcessingWhen you select this option, the word processing functions can be calledfrom the list display and from the table display. You can use this option tocreate Microsoft Word form letters.SpreadsheetWhen you select this option, the spreadsheet functions can be called fromthe list display and from the table display. You can use this option to createMicrosoft Excel spreadsheets.Private FileWhen you select this option, the list is not displayed onscreen when youexecute the query, but the sublist is passed directly to a function module.This is an SAP enhancement and must be implemented by the customer.33The Select Field Group ScreenIn the Select Field Group screen, shown in Figure 3.10, a list of all the available field groupsis populated during the creation of the InfoSet. (See Chapter 2 for more information.) Thisexample has only three field groups; however, some logical databases contain hundreds. Youplace a check mark next to any field group that contains fields you want to include in yourSAP query.Figure 3.10All the field groupslisted at the top rightof your InfoSet screenduring configurationof the InfoSet arelisted on this screen.The Select Field ScreenIn the Select Field screen, shown in Figure 3.11, a list of all the available field groups populated during the creation of the InfoSet is expanded to display all the fields contained withinthem. You place a check mark next to any field you want to include in your SAP query.3

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd346/21/061:51 PMPage 34Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolFigure 3.11All the fields listed inthe field groups at thetop right of yourInfoSet screen duringconfiguration arelisted here. Thisscreen is also used foradvanced functionscovered later inthis book.3The Selections ScreenIn the Selections screen, shown in Figure 3.12, a list of all the previously selected fieldsappears. You place a check mark next to any field that you want to include on theSelections screen that appears upon report execution. This gives you the option to specifyparticular data.For example, in Figure 3.12, I selected that I wanted the Airfare, Maximum Capacity, andWeight of Luggage fields to appear on my report’s Selections screen. This means that whenI execute my report and see the Selections screen, those three fields will be listed there,under the heading Program Selections. Having them there allows me to run the reportbased on specific airfares, maximum capacity, or weight of luggage. (For example, I couldrun a report that contains a list of flights between 50 and 200.)The Basic List Line Structure ScreenBy default, only the first few selected fields of your report appear on the Basic List LineStructure screen, shown in Figure 3.13. They are all there, but with the default view, theyare not all visible. You can use the Page Up and Page Down buttons on the right side of thescreen to navigate between them, or you can select the Without Explanation button (at thebottom left of the screen) to view more fields on a single screen. The Basic List LineStructure screen lists all the fields you want to include in your output. You can have fieldslisted here for sorting purposes but not included in the output by simply leaving the Lineand Sequence fields blank.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 35Reviewing the Options on Each of the Five Basic Screens35Figure 3.12Having fields availableon your report’sselection screen givesyou the ability tospecify your reportoutput by varyingyour input prior toreport execution.3Figure 3.13This is the screenwhere you dictatehow you want yourreport to appear,including sequenceand sorting specifications.Used to show more fields, where availablePage up and down buttonsThe following sections describe the various options available in the Basic List Line Structurescreen.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd366/21/061:51 PMPage 36Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolBasic List with BoxThe Basic List with Box check box, which appears at the top of the screen, is used for basicABAP lists. If you select for your report output to be an ABAP list, selecting this check boxcauses the basic list to display with lines separating the columns. It is used as a formattingpreference only. The box is designed so that it encloses only the filled part of the basic list.Columns Separated by The Columns Separated by check box is available only if the Basic List with Box check boxis selected. If you select for your report output to be an ABAP list, selecting this check boxcauses a vertical bar to be inserted after each field on a line except the last. An underscore isoutput before and after each control-level text (if sorting and subtotaling are used) and isinserted before and after each total. In addition, the individual columns in the standardheader are separated by vertical bars. As with the previous option, this one is used as aformatting preference only.3Compressed DisplayIf you select the Compressed Display check box, the basic list is displayed in compressedformat, provided that compressed display is possible.LineThe Line column is where you specify the line number on which you want your output toappear. Specifying Line 1 for all fields will make them all appear as columns next to eachother in the form of a standard report. Indicating multiple line numbers usually works onlyif you set your report output to be anything other than the SAP List Viewer or the table display. Multiple-line indicators are used most often for creating mailing labels or addressingenvelopes, where the data output is on three or four sequential lines.Helpful HintWhen entering the line numbers, keep in mind the database structure. Lines with fields from hierarchicallysuperior tables must be output before lines with fields from hierarchically subordinate tables. Fields from hierarchically parallel tables may not be output on the same line. You might need help from your technical staff ifyour report does not output the way you hoped; it may be correctable by adjusting the line assignments on thisscreen.The terms hierarchically superior and parallel are really fancy terms that just mean where the data resides inthe database. Picture how a standard purchase order looks: At the top it has basic information (purchase ordernumber, vendor name, account number, and so on), and in the middle are the line item details for each itemordered (for example, Qty 24 widgets blue 4.00, Qty 3 widgets green 5.00, Qty 134 widgets white 2.00). Ifyou were to try to run a report off this data, you would not want it all along one line. Rather, you would wantinformation from the top of the purchase order (the hierarchically superior fields for purchase order number,vendor name, and so on) to appear along one line and the information from the middle of the purchase order(the hierarchically inferior fields, such as the line item detail for each item ordered) to appear as individual (orparallel) lines in your report. If you are working with complex data such as financial purchase orders, invoices,or human capital management organizational charts, you need to be sure you understand the data beforeincluding it in your reports.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 37Modifying an SAP Query37SequenceYou use the Sequence column to identify the order in which you want your data to appear inthe line. For example, if all of your fields are on Line 1, you can specify that you want theBooking Number field to appear first, followed by the Airline Carrier ID, and so on. It is abest business practice to list your sequence of fields in increments, as shown in Figure 3.13.That way, if you need to modify the report output, add a field, or delete a field, you do notneed to renumber the entire sequence in the report. A popular way to do this is to use increments of 5, as shown in Figure 3.13.SortWhen you have set up the way you want your fields displayed with the Line and Sequencesettings, you can specify the sort order for the fields by using the Sort column. You canassign sequence numbers between 1 and 10 to sort on up to 10 different fields.Helpful HintThe fields do not have to be sorted in the same order in which they are presented onscreen. For example, evenif the Flight Class field were set to output as the last column in the report, you could still indicate it as the datayou want to sort on, as shown in Figure 3.13.TotalCheck boxes for the Total column appear only for numeric fields that can be totaled. Youcan place a check mark for each numeric field for which you want to output the total at theend of the basic list and, if sort criteria exist, subtotals at the end of each control level.Chapter 7, “Creating Advanced Reports with the SAP Query Tool,” talks more about control levels and subtotaling.CounterYou can select check boxes in the Counter column for each field you want to count. Thetotal is then displayed at the end of the list.Helpful HintIt has been my experience that, depending on your SAP GUI version and your installed version of MicrosoftOffice and its related settings, sorts and counts may appear only if your report is viewed as an ABAP list andnot via the SAP List Viewer.Modifying an SAP QueryAfter you have created a query, you might want to navigate between the various screens tomake changes and modifications. You can use the Next Screen and Previous Screen whitearrow buttons on the Application toolbar in the first four screens of the SAP Query tool.3

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd386/21/061:51 PMPage 38Chapter 3 Creating Basic Reports with the SAP Query ToolYou can also click the Basic List button to jump to the Basic List Line Structure screen orpress the F8 key to navigate to the selection screen or finished report output from the selection screen. Clicking the green Back button on the Application toolbar from the finishedreport output screen brings you to the report’s selection screen. You can also navigatebetween screens by using the toolbar menus.Saving a QueryFrom any screen in the SAP Query tool except the Selections screen or the finished reportoutput screen, you can click the Save button on the Application toolbar to save your query.This makes sense: If you click the Save button on the selection screen, the system thinks youwant to save the entries as a variant, and if you click the Save button on the list screen, thesystem thinks you want to save your output as a list.3Maintaining QueriesYou can maintain and execute queries from the main SAP Query tool screen, which youaccess by using the transaction code SQ01. By using the buttons at the top of this screen, youcan execute, change, create new, or view descriptions of queries in R/3. By using theApplication toolbar, you can also copy, delete, or rename your queries (see Figure 3.14).Figure 3.14The main screen ofthe SAP Query toolcontains functions onthe menu bar formaintaining queries.

03 0672329026 ch03.qxd6/21/061:51 PMPage 39Things to Remember39Things to Remember Creating a query report using the SAP Query tool is very easy. You can navigate between the basic screens of the SAP Query tool by using the navigational arrows on the Application toolbar. Whenever you want to execute your report, you can do so by pressing F8 on yourkeyboard. When you execute a report, you always see a selection screen that gives you the opportunity to further specify your selections. When creating reports, it is a good idea to format your output on the Basic List LineStructure screen in increments to make it easier to edit your report in the future.3

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Creating a Basic List Query by Using the SAP Query Tool 25 2. Navigate to the Maintain Queries Initial screen by using the transaction code /nSQ01. Beginning with R/3 release 4.6A, SAP offers a graphical version of the SAP Query tool, called the Graphical Query Painter; if y