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Discovery Learning with the Solar System Scope Application to EnhanceLearning in Middle School StudentsAtika Zahara1*, Selly Feranie2, Nanang Winarno1, Nurhadi Siswantoro31InternationalProgram on Science Education (IPSE) Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education, UniversitasPendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia2Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung,Indonesia3Department of Material Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Eskişehir Technical University, Eskişehir , Turkey*Corresponding Author [email protected] In education, “Industrial Revolution 4.0” refers to utilizing technology to present students with complex situationsthat will develop their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The use of technology in the science curriculum should bedesigned according to established learning models. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementing a discovery learningmodel, supported by the Solar System Scope computer application, on the ability of students to master essential concepts. Thisresearch used a One-Group Pre-test-Post-test design. Participants were 31 7th-grade students at one school in Bandung, Indonesia.The results showed a medium enhancement of concept mastery in students from pre-test to post-test (N-Gain 0.48). No genderdifference in outcomes after the implementation of discovery learning with the Solar System Scope application was found. Basedon these results, discovery learning supported by the Solar System Scope application could be an alternative teaching approach toenhance students' skills in mastering concepts.Keywords Discovery learning, Solar system scope application, Students’ concept mastery, Solar system1. INTRODUCTIONCurriculum 2013 is one of Indonesia’s educationsystems, which is chosen as an education system for thetime being. Based on Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan(2014) curriculum 2013 is one of the highly effectiveteaching models because this curriculum canaccommodate and approach students’ emotional, physical,and academic. Besides, they also stated that in addition todelivering instructional materials, teachers also need to beable to develop the value and skills of students.It is not easy to achieve the purpose of curriculum2013, especially learning in science. Based on thecomprehensive survey study by OECD (Organization forEconomic Co-operation and Development) using PISA(Program International for Student Assessment) test asthe international study of the achievements of reading andmath. The data shows Indonesia is ranked 62nd with ascore of 403 from 70 countries that participated in thePISA test in 2015 while neighboring country Singapore isin the rank 1 with a score of 556. According to theInternational Survey of Trends in InternationalMathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2015 showsthat the average rating of Indonesian students’ scienceachievement is below the international average score. Thedata of TIMSS indicates that Indonesia is ranked 45th outof 48 countries participating in this survey. The globalscore is 600, while Indonesia’s average rating is 397(Martaida, Bukit, & Ginting, 2017). From the statement, itmeans that learning science still becomes one of thehardest subjects in Indonesia.The statement also supported by several problemsrelated to the implementation of science learning inIndonesia. Some of these studies state that there areproblems related to students’ conceptual understanding(Sani, Rochintaniawati, & Winarno, 2019; Vania, Setiawan,& Wijaya, 2018; Furqani, Feranie, & Winarno, 2018).Before the treatment done, the researcher conducts aninterview and observation with some students in theReceived: 03 March 2020Revised: 14 July 2020Published: 31 July 2020a 2020 Indonesian Society for Science Educator174J.Sci.Learn.2020.3(3).174-184

Journal of Science LearningArticleschool. The interview was conducted by asking tenstudents some questions regarding how they learn sciencein their school. Then the researcher observes teachinglearning activity in the class. They were stated that physicsis the most difficult subject in science. The statement alsosupported by Ornek, Robinson, & Haugan (2007), whosay the most challenging topic in science is physics sincethe students have to comprehend the science content withdifferent representations. Different representations, in thiscase, means concepts and laws in physics. Science andtechnology teaching curriculum should accordingly bedeveloped with the implementation of learning methodsbecause teaching students with the notion of discovering,critical thinking, questioning, and problem-solving skills isone of the main principles of science and technologyteaching (Balim, 2009). There are a lot of learning modelsthat can be used by the teacher in the learning activity,especially in learning science. But one of these modelsthat developed based on constructivists is discoverylearning. Discovery learning is one of the learning modelsbecause it has stages of learning, such as stimulation,problem statement, data collection, data processing,verification, and generalization.The basis of science teaching is understanding thatnatural phenomena and the nature of science requireinquiring and discovering; it is consists of experimentsand inquiring natural phenomena by discovery learning(Bruner, 1961). Several studies about discovery learningwere done by researchers who used it on their teachinglearning process. Balim (2009) stated using the discoverylearning is considered to increase students’ success andinquiry learning skills more than the traditional teachingmethods. Mukherjee (2015) also found that during theexercise using discovery learning, students foundthemselves engaged in a relatively challenging cognitiveactivity; it is useful in getting students interested andcurious.In learning science, especially solar system topics,students will get instanced content that has to beunderstood. The hardest part of learning the solar systemis not every single object or phenomenon in the solarsystem could be observed directly, such as the characterand movement of each planet and the process of the lunarand solar eclipse (Furness, Winn, & Yu, 1997). Theteaching-learning process more efficient and accurate, it isbetter to apply technology such as simulation for a solarsystem. Virtualization on science has a way to observenatural phenomena, which, perhaps because of theirlocation, duration, and size, are impossible to directobserve (Furness, Winn, & Yu, 1997).Talking about cognitive activity and skills, Pillow(2008), has examined the gender differences betweenstudents on their academic performance showed that theircognitive and non-cognitive effect is one of the mostimportant and influential characteristics in academicDOI: 10.17509/jsl.v3i3.23503175performance in individual context characteristics. Thetopic of gender has become the talk of the forum today.Other research was conduct by Goni (2015) the resultshows that there were no significant differences existbetween gender in students’ academic performance. It isquite interesting to observe whether any differencesbetween male and female students according to theircognitive skills in learning science since there has been nostudy about it previously.Solar System Scope application is one of theplanetarium software to see the virtualization of the solarsystem to help the students identify or observe the solarsystem. This application was first presented in 2010,supported by excellent Scope team, Adrian Bayer, whocame up with the idea, Marian Bayer, as the first one tomake real programming for Solar, etc. Solar SystemScope application has many features for students as usersto learning solar systems in order to make them learnbetter. Some features are night sky features that allowstudents to see the sky by using handphone, near stars,and messier objects feature is to explore any objectbesides planet and stars in the solar system, and planetexplore feature in the application to learn aboutcharacteristics of each component in the solar system.By using virtual planetarium environments, studentswill get the experience of a phenomenon or a place thatseems so complicated and impossible to see directly inreal life (Dede, 2000). One as exciting examples of VirtualLearning Environments, planetarium software, offersmany possibilities for learning the solar system in a newway and beneficial ways, as the software provides studentsthe structure, details, and complexity of the solar systemthrough 3D visualization (Gilbert, 2008; Mikropoulos &Natsis, 2011). De Jong and Van Joolingen (1998) alsostated that learning with simulations based on discoverylearning can take place in education and instruction as anew line of learning environments, based on technology,in which more emphasis is given to the learner’s initiative.Previously, several studies about discovery learningwere done by the researchers. Balim (2009) research theeffects of discovery learning on students’ success andinquiry learning skills. Mukherjee (2015) investigates theeffective use of discovery learning but focusing onimproving understanding of factors that affect quality.Mostafae (2015) also research discovery learning towardslearners’ speaking ability. Another research by Saab, vanJoolingen, and van Hout‐Wolters (2009) investigates therelation of learners’ motivation with the process ofcollaborative scientific discovery learning. In 1984,Andrews researching discovery and expository learningcompared: their effects on independent and dependentstudents. Singer and Pease (2013) also study aboutdiscovery learning by comparing discovery learning andguided instructional strategies on motor skill learning,retention, and transfer. De Jong and Van Joolingen (1998)J.Sci.Learn.2020.3(2).174-184

Journal of Science LearningArticleTable 2 Data of the samplePopulationSampleTable 1 One-group pre-test-post-test designOXOPre-testTreatmentPost-teststudy about discovery learning with computer simulationsbut focusing on conceptual domains. And similar researchconducted by Dalgarno, Kennedy, and Bennett (2014) onresearch discovery learning using computer-basedsimulations to investigate students’ exploration.There are several studies about discovery learningsupported by technology, which is a computer-basedsimulation. However, the differences between thisresearch with those previous research are implementingdiscovery learning as a learning model using the SolarSystem Scope application as technical support. Knowingabout the demands of science education that the learnersshould increase their concept mastery, this study aims todetermine the effect of implementing discovery learningsupported by Solar System Scope application to enhancestudents’ concept by analyzing students’ genderdifferences.Solar System Scope application can be the technicalsupport in discovery learning for solar system topics.Because discovery learning can be used as a learningmodel in learning the solar system and Solar SystemScope application is the facilitation to help students toobserve the solar system. It will be a way to solve theproblem in learning the solar system since students shouldidentify the object of the solar system and analyze thephenomenon in the solar system.By implementing discovery learning that supported bythe Solar System Scope application, hopefully, teacherscan deliver the material of the solar system in another waywith an easily understandable, more creative, andinteresting way other than a traditional teaching-learningactivity. Through the implementation of the discoverylearning model with a supporting app, which is SolarSystem Scope application in the classroom, students willunderstand this concept easily and give students a newexperience in learning solar systems too. Also, thisresearch can be used as a reference for further research.Other researchers can investigate the implementation ofdiscovery learning that supported by another planetariumsoftware or implementing other learning models sincethere is still a lot of learning model and planetariumsoftware that can be used, or researchers can investigatethe other students’ skills in the teaching-learning process.Table 3 Test item of students’ concept masteryNo IndicatorTest OI: 10.17509/jsl.v3i3.235031, 2, 6, 7, 84, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 173, 12,1615, 18, 19, 201767th %)100%This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementingdiscovery learning supported by the Solar System Scopeapplication on students’ concept mastery.2. METHOD2.1 Method DesignThe method used was experimental research.According to Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2011), a poorexperimental design involving one group that is pretested, exposed to a treatment, then post-tested. That isrelated to the purpose of this study, which is to investigatethe effect of the implementation of discovery learningsupported by Solar System Scope application towardsstudents' concept mastery in learning solar system.The design used in this research is One-Group Pretest-Post-test Design (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2011).One-group pre-test-post-test design measuring a singlegroup not only after being exposed to the treatment ofsome sort but also before the procedure. Treatment inthis research is learning solar system using discoverylearning supported by Solar System Scope application.Solar System Scope application is one of the planetariumsoftware to see the virtualization of the solar system tohelp the students identify or observe the solar system.This application was first presented in 2010, supported byexcellent Scope team, Adrian Bayer, who came up withthe idea, Marian Bayer, as the first one to make realprogramming for Solar, etc. Table 1 shows the researchdesign used in this research.2.2 Population and SampleThe location of this research is at one of secondaryschool in Bandung. The curriculum that is used in thisschool is Curriculum 2013, which is fitted with theimplementation of discovery learning. This curriculumrequires students to not only understand the concept butalso be active and contribute to the learning activity. Itcan be done through some steps in discovery learningimplemented in this research.The population in this research is all the students inone of the classes in 7th grade who have not studied thesolar system topic before. The sampling technique used inthis research was convenience sampling. According toFraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun (2011), convenience samplingis a group of individuals who are available for study. Theresearcher selects participants because they are availableto be studied. There are 31 students in one class at thisschool with 13 male students and 18 female students withan age average of 12-13 years old. The students as thesample to be studied because they are available, and theJ.Sci.Learn.2020.3(2).174-184

Journal of Science LearningArticleresearcher has the permission of the principal. Table 2shows the recapitulation of the sample.2.3 Research InstrumentIn this research to measure students’ concept masteryin learning the solar system, researcher use objective test,which consists of 20 multiple choices. The questionscover all the content and concept mastery that is used inthis research, so five questions for each cognitive domain.Twenty multiple choices distributed before and afterconducting learning activity. Pre-test distributed to thestudents before they learn about the solar system. SolarSystem topic and post-test distributed after learningactivity measure the enhancement in students’ conceptmastery. There are C1 (Remembering), C2(Understanding), C3 (Applying), and C4 (Analyzing) as acognitive domain that used in this research. Test items ofstudents’ concept mastery can be seen in Table 3.The data were analyzed in terms of its discriminatingpower, difficulty level, and validity by using ANATES.The recapitulation of the test item is tabulated in Table 4.The total number of multiple-choice questions is 26questions. The questions were distributed to be tested to32 students of 8th grade in Junior High School whoalready learned about solar system topics. Those questionsresearchers use based on some books, national examexercises, and some items are from the research thatpreviously validated. After we analyze using ANATES,regarding the result of reliability and validity (appendix),there are five questions rejected, and 20 questions areused with two questions are need some revision beforeused as an objective test in this research.2.4 Data AnalysisAnalysis of the objective test to measure students’concept mastery was done by Microsoft Excel calculationto determine the score of pre-test and post-test. Theprocess of data calculation is explained as follows:Scoring of Test ItemPre-test and post-test test items were calculated toknow the result of each student. The question of each testitem pre-test and post-test is 20 multiple-choice questions.Calculate the Gain and Normalized GainThe normalized gain, introduced by Hake 1998, hasbecome the standard measure for reporting scores onresearch-based concept inventories. After scoring the testitem, the data was processed to know the gain score andnormalized gain score. Hake defined the averagenormalized gain as:DOI: 10.17509/jsl.v3i3.23503177 𝑔 Description: g Normalized gainSf Post-test scoreSi Pre-test score%𝑆𝑓 %𝑆𝑖100 %𝑆𝑖(Hake, 1998)Normality TestA normality test is a test about the normal distributionof data. This test is the most widely performed test forparametric statistical analysis. The data that is normallydistributed is a requirement for parametric tests. The dataanalyzed using SPSS 24.00 and was distributed normally.HomogeneityThe homogeneity test aims to determine whether themeasured score variance in both samples has the samevariation or not. Populations with equal variation arecalled populations with homogeneous variance, whereaspopulations of unequal variance are called populationswith heterogeneous variance.Independent T-TestAn independent sample T-test was used to test thesignificance of the average difference between the twogroups. This test is used to test the effect of theindependent variable on the dependent variable. Thesignificance value is 0.05 and determines the hypothesis.2.5 Research ProcedureThere are three stages of this research procedure:preparation, implementation, and completion stages.Preparation stage as the first stage, including literaturereview, conducted to analyze the information aboutCurriculum 2013, discovery learning, Solar System Scopeapplication, students’ concept mastery, and solar systemtopic. After analyzing the researcher arrange instrumentsand observation sheet instructional tools that will be used;lesson plans and worksheets that arranged to support theimplementation of this research. Then, experts willconduct the judgment of instrumentation. To do the trailtest of an objective test instrument that will be conductedto identify the quality of the instruments. The result of thetrial test was revised based on judgment results and testitem analysis.After the preparation stage, the implementation stageis done by conducting a pre-test to identify students’preliminary skills first. Then come to the main part, whichis treatment. In this part, students are learning usingdiscovery learning supported by the Solar System Scopeapplication that conducted since the first meeting until thelast meeting of learning the solar system. In the end, apost-test will be conducted to analyze students’understanding.The data that the researcher got will be obtained thencalculated; this is the first step to do in the completionstage. Then, the result of data calculation will be analyzed,J.Sci.Learn.2020.3(2).174-184

Journal of Science LearningArticleTable 7 Students’ score on pre-test and post-testAverageGainN-gainPre-test le 4 Results of normality test on students’ sticdfSig.StatisticPre-test0.144310.103 0.961Post-test 0.143310.110 0.945Table 5 Homogeneity test of variance on students’ conceptmasteryLevene Statisticdf1df2Sig.002160.981and discussion will be done to elaborate on the result ofthe analysis—the researcher concluding the result of thisstudy based on the analyzed data.3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION3.1 The Effect of Discovery Learning Supported bySolar System Scope Application on Students’ ConceptMasteryThe purpose of this research is to investigate the effectof discovery learning supported by solar system scopeapplication on students’ concept mastery. Previous studiesreported that students had difficulties in learning physics(Afriani, Agustin, & Eliyawati, 2019; Winarno, Rusdiana,Riandi, Susilowati, & Afifah, 2020). In this study, thestudents’ concept mastery of solar system is measured byusing 20 multiple choice questions, which representvariance cognitive level domain. The cognitive level basedon A Revision of that tested in this research is C1(remembering), C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4(analyzing). There are three topics of the solar system thatinvolves in this research. Those are the characteristics ofsolar systems component, rotation, and revolution of theearth, and solar and lunar eclipse.The result of the pre-test and post-test score, which isused to be analyzed, is the score of one tier test. The datawere analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 24.0program to know whether the data is normally distributedor not. After that, the data is analyzed using a parametrictest or non-parametric test based on the result of thenormality test. The statistic test was done to know thedifference concept mastery between pre-test and posttest. The result of the normality test of the pre-test andpost-test is shown in Table 4.CategoryMediumFrom the result in the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, thesignificance value (α) of the pre-test is 0.103, and thesignificance value of the post-test is 0.110. TheKolmogorov-Smirnov test is the test of the differencebetween data that is tested and the standard normallydistributed data. The level of significance use on the test is0.05. The result of the significant value of the data testedshows 0.05, which means that the data is normallydistributed.Since the data is normally distributed, then the testcontinued with a homogeneity test. The detail of the dataresult of the homogeneity test can be seen in Table 5.Based on the results of the Levene Statistic test, thesignificance value (α) is 0.981. If the significant valuecompared with the level of significance use on the test,which is 0.05, resulting in 0.981 0.05, then H0 isaccepted. It means that the data value is homogeneous.The sample of the research comes from one class, andthe data that is compared is pre-test and post-test in theclass. The Paired Samples t-Test is used because itcompares the means for two related units on a continuousoutcome that is normally distributed. The result of thePaired Sample t-Test is shown in Table 6.The statistical test is used to test two hypothesesstatements below:H0: There is no difference in students’ scores on pretest and post-test.H1: There is a difference in students’ scores on pretest and post-test.The level of significant value used in the test is 0.05. Ifthe result of the analysis shows the significant value,which is more than 0.05, it means that H0 is accepted,while when it is less than 0.05, H1 is accepted. The resultof the test shows that the significant value is 0.000 or lessthan 0.05, which means that there is a difference instudents’ scores on pre-test and post-test.The data gained is also analyzed using a normalizedgain test based on the rule of Hake (1998). The average ngain score of students’ conceptual mastery in pre-test andTable 6 Result of paired sample t-testPaired DifferencesPair 1Pre-TestPost-TestMeanStd.DeviationStd. ErrorMean95% Confidence Intervalof the .5330.000DOI: (2).174-184

Journal of Science LearningArticlepost-test showed in Table 7. Based on the data analysis inTable 7, it can be found that the average pre-test scorewas 49.19, while the average post-test score was 73.55.There is an enhancement of students’ concept mastery inlearning solar system concepts since the average score onthe post-test is higher than the pre-test.From the graph, it is seen that there is anenhancement in students’ concept mastery from pre-testto post-test. The initial average score is 49.19, from theaverage ideal score 100. The students’ pre-test scoresshow that the students’ prior knowledge about the solarsystem is still lack after the implementation of discoverylearning supported by Solar System Scope application.There is an enhancement in the average score, which is73.55 from the average ideal score 100.The score also has gain normalization with the valueof N-gain 0.48 between the average of pre-test and posttest scores. According to Hake’s rules of normalization,the value of N-gain 0.48 means that it categorized asmedium. Students’ concept mastery enhancement inlearning solar system proved by the result of N-gain score.Students could enhance their understanding (conceptmastery) is because, in this research, discovery learning issupported by Solar System Scope application as thetechnology called planetarium software to help studentslearning the solar system better. The technical term issimilar to the research done by De Jong and VanJoolingen (1998). They used computer simulation as thetechnology; the result of their study is discovery learningwith computer simulation leads to knowledge that is moreintuitive and deeply rooted in a learner’s knowledge base.Dalgarno, Kennedy, and Bennett (2014), in their research,also stated using discovery learning with computersimulation as an active exploration process is moreeffective than passive observation. It could happenbecause students are more active by discovering theinformation by themselves based on discovery learningand Solar System Scope application as the technologysupport called planetarium software to help studentsobserve and analyze solar system. Prima, Putri, andSudargo (2017) also stated that the implementation of theStellarium virtual observatory could improve students’understanding of learning solar systems.In this research, discovery learning has a role as alearning model to guide students learning the solarsystem. Discovery learning in this research refers toguided discovery through six steps (syntax) during alearning activity. The syntax of discovery learning couldbe the main reason students can improve theirunderstanding of learning the solar system. According toRivers and Vockell (1987), discovery learning involvesplanning (designing an experiment), executing (carryingout the experiment and collecting data), and evaluating(analyzing the data and developing a hypothesis). Thisresearch used syntax from Joyce, Weil, & Showers (1992).Six learning steps are used: stimulation, problemstatement, data collection, data processing, verification,and generalization.Stimulation is the first step during a learning activity;in this step, students are stimulated by some questions orproblems. The teacher has a role in stimulating them withthe question based on some phenomena in daily life thatrelated to the solar system. Students will feel interestedand curious to find the answer, and it will motivate thestudents to start to learn. Making a hypothesis is alsoessential for students. Hence, they know what topic orconcept that they want to learn, or students have someideas so they can prove their ideas by observing, and theycan develop the hypothesis. For example, is in thelearning characteristics of solar system components, thefirst step is a simulation. In this step first, students areasked about what they already know about the solarsystem. After that, students are given a short story aboutthe process that happens in the solar system. This stepwill stimulate them to give more attention and curios tothe topic.The second step is the problem statement. Studentsare asked to identify the questions, problems, or making ahypothesis. In this research, questions are stated in theworksheet, and students have to complete it. While thehypothesis is based on the phenomenon related to thesolar system, the phenomenon in daily life could be theeffect of rotation and revolution of the earth, so studentswill be more understanding of the problem or questionbecause the phenomenon happens every day. In learningcharacteristics of solar system components, students weregiven the simulation about the solar system by using SolarSystem Scope. After that student was given the worksheetthat contains some questions to answer (table of thecomponent of the solar system and they should fill it), inthis step, students need to understand first what they haveto learn and find the information using the application.Figure 1 Solar system scope application featuresDOI: 4-184

Journal of Science LearningArticleData collection is the third step. This step askedstudents to answer the question or problem. Studentswere given a chance to gain some relevant information byreading and observing. In this step, the role of the SolarSystem Scope application as planetarium software isessential. Students freely explore the application to obtaininformation and data. When students were seekinginformation by themselves, it could help them tounderstand better rather than just memorizing theconcept or topic. The data collection step could helpstudents to solve their problems. For characteristics ofsolar system components topic, students were asked toobserve and analyze the component in the solar system asmuch as they want using the Solar System Scopeapplication. Not only to

and solar eclipse (Furness, Winn, & Yu, 1997). The teaching-learning process more efficient and accurate, it is . Solar System Scope application is one of the planetarium software to see the virtualization of the solar system to help the students identify or observe the solar