An innovation roadmap foradvanced lead batteriesTechnical specifications and performanceimprovements

The Consortium for Battery InnovationThe Consortium for Battery Innovation is the only global precompetitive research organization funding innovation in lead batteriesfor energy storage and automotive applications.Our workTesting/StandardsResearchEnsuring lead battery merits arerecognised in key global tests andstandardsImproving lead battery performancethrough pre-competitive researchCommunicationMarketingImproving recognition of lead batterybenefits in utility and renewableenergy storage applicationsPositioning lead batteries as afuture, innovative technologyMembershipOur membership comprises the whole value chain associatedwith lead batteries, with over 90 members globally.CBI memberrepresentationMap of members4430Europe10AsiaNorth America11South AmericaBattery manufacturersAfricaIndustry suppliers5Research & testingAustralasiainstitutes, universities, endusersLead producers

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APCON SORT IU M FO R BAT TE RY IN N OVAT I O NAn innovation roadmap foradvanced lead batteriesTechnical specifications and performance improvements3

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APContents1.1Executive summary – fueling the advanced battery revolution61.2Background81.3Marking more than 25 years of successful innovation91.4The battery industry in 2019101.5The 2016-18 research program141.6Drivers for the Consortium’s technical roadmap161.7Current technical requirements for lead batteries171.8Automotive batteries191.9Key Performance Indicators for automotive batteries211.10Automotive battery research objectives221.11Priority research areas for automotive batteries231.12Industrial and ESS batteries251.13Key Performance Indicators for ESS batteries261.14Key Performance Indicators for traction, e-bike, telecoms/UPS261.15ESS battery research areas271.16Priority research objectives for ESS batteries281.17Conclusion295

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.1Executive summary – fueling the advanced battery revolutionThe vast growth in demand for battery energy storage is fueling the race to design anddeliver ever more impressive and innovative batteries.As countries rush to reduce their carbon dependency, battery energy storage is set to be oneof the defining technologies of the century.Conducting cutting-edge, market-driven research and innovation has never been a higherpriority for governments and companies alike. And that is why the Consortium for BatteryInnovation is focusing on research projects which will make a tangible difference to leadbattery performance, and which meet the ever-increasing demands of end-users.Working with members of the Consortium, we have developed this technical roadmap foradvanced battery research and innovation. It is based on extensive market research, anddiscussions with end-users -from car companies to the renewable energy industry, and fromdata centers to utilities- in a bid to better understand customers’ technical requirements forthe future.The result is a set of research objectives designed to deliver short term goals and targets forsignificant improvements in performance and lifetime for batteries in the automotive andenergy storage sectors.In the automotive sector the highest priority target research goal is to increase dynamiccharge acceptance by 5 times by the year 2022 to 2 Amps/Ah. Dynamic chargeacceptance is a key future technical parameter for micro and mild-hybrids, vehicleswhich deliver significant CO2 and fuel savings. This work is essential for maximizing theperformance of advanced lead batteries in the ever-increasing number of micro and mildhybrid vehicles on the road.For energy storage batteries which support utility and renewable energy projects, demandis growing substantially driven by governments around the world setting ambitious goalsand targets for decarbonization and electrification. This growth is so significant, the demandcannot be met by one technology alone. Lead batteries are one of the technologies with thescale and the performance capability able to meet these requirements and ensure theseambitious goals and targets can be met.Continuing to improve cycle life is therefore a core technical research priority for theseapplications. The Consortium is looking to increase battery cycle life by 5 times by 2022to 5,000 cycles, which would contribute to lower operating costs, a key parameter for utilityand renewable energy applications.6

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APHighest priority research objectivesAchieving these research objectives will demonstrate the vital role lead batteries playin meeting future electrification and decarbonization targets across the globe.However, this roadmap is just a stepping-stone to the future. Working with universities andadvanced laboratories worldwide, the Consortium aims to unlock the full potential of leadbattery technology–a potential that is nowhere near fully exploited. Our work will continueto open up opportunities for this critical technology.We are entering a golden era for battery technologies and the Consortium is pioneeringresearch into the next generation of advanced lead batteries.Dr Alistair DavidsonDirector, Consortium for Battery Innovation7

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.2BackgroundThe Consortium for Battery Innovation (formerly the Advanced Lead-Acid BatteryConsortium) is a pre-competitive research consortium funded by the lead and the leadbattery industries to support innovation in advanced lead batteries.The Consortium identifies and funds research to improve the performance of lead batteriesfor a range of applications from automotive to industrial and, increasingly, new forms ofrequirements such as renewables energy storage.In the 25 years since it was formed, the Consortium has been highly successful in improvingthe cyclic characteristics of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, the performanceof automotive batteries in micro-hybrid applications and for many other duty cycles. Theintroduction of start-stop technology in cars worldwide is just one example of innovationby the industry to achieve reduced emissions in vehicles and contribute to climate changeobjectives.This innovation roadmap will helpdetermine priorities for 2019 andbeyond. It has been developed toensure lead batteries continue tomeet current and future technicalrequirements, to both retain existingmarket and support customers’requirements and opportunities innew markets. The latest data fromMwhanalysts globally suggests that demandfor rechargeable energy storage isset to increase significantly in thenext 10-15 years as governmentstransform their economies and energycompanies invest in technologies tosupport climate change objectives,which provides significant futureopportunities for lead batteries.Figure 1 - Growth of battery for energy storage applications (Avicenne – ALABC report, 2018).8

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APThis roadmap has defined clear research objectives and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)and identifies the principal research areas which members of the Consortium believe shouldbe studied in order to meet the KPIs.1.3Marking more than 25 years of successful innovationThe Consortium was originally formed in 1992 with the aim of improving performance ofVRLA batteries especially where better cycle life was required. This was achieved and thesuccess of VRLA batteries in automotive and industrial service is, in no small measure, theresult of much of this work.More recently, research has been directed towards the development of batteries withenhanced shallow cycle life in high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSoC) service with carbonenhanced designs for automotive start-stop or micro-hybrid duty cycles and for energystorage. Recently this has focused on improving the understanding of the function andbehavior of different forms of carbon in the negative plate, and whilst battery performanceis meeting current technical requirements, increasing demands for energy recovery inautomotive service and for partial state-of-charge in energy storage are providing a strongimpetus for further work.Evolution of lead battery technologies since the 1970s.9

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.4The battery industry in 2019The battery industry has seen unprecedented growth over the last 25 years. Lead batterieshave continued to be more widely used in automotive and industrial applications and stillprovide 75 per cent of global rechargeable energy storage. New technologies have enteredthe market and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in particular are set to grow substantially inelectric vehicles of all types and in energy storage.However, significant growth in demand for energy storage is predicted over the next5-10 years and this will require battery technologies that can demonstrate continuousimprovement and scale-up quickly to meet new requirements.In 1990 the rechargeable battery market was 15BN worldwide for lead batteries and 3BN for nickel-cadmium batteries.By 2017, the lead battery market had grown to 37BN and Li-ion battery sales were 36BN with 3BN for other rechargeable batteries including nickel-metal hydridewhich has overtaken nickel-cadmium.Lead batteries, however, represent 75% of the market in MWh because of the largeprice difference in /MWh.For the future, Li-ion battery sales will continue to grow, and the total battery market isexpected to double in value to 150BN by 2025.Figure 2 - Growth of battery for energy storage applications (Avicenne – ALABC report, 2018).10

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APFigure 3 - Actual and projected sales of automotive batteries by type from 2010 to 2025 in BNand percentage of Li-ion batteries.The projections by market analyst firm Avicenne1 indicate there will be growth for leadbatteries particularly for automotive applications. Figure 2 shows the forecast sales for leadbatteries in automotive service by type:A penetration of 5% for new cars by Li-ion 12 V batteries is forecast by 2025 but since70-80% of the automotive market is for replacement, less than 2% of the market willmove to Li-ion batteries.The original equipment market (OEM) will continue to use enhanced flooded batteries(EFB) and absorptive glass mat (AGM) batteries in increasing numbers and there will bea growing market for these types in the replacement market.However, a substantial part of the market will continue to use conventional flooded SLIbatteries.In Europe, 80% of OEM sales will be micro-hybrid by 2025 with the United States andother regions following more slowly.The overall market shows:Growth by 5% annually in MWh and 6% annually in BN driven by continued growthin vehicle production and the car parc.Electric vehicles of all types will also use lead 12 V auxiliary (AUX) batteries, and asmore functions are electrified on internal combustion engine vehicles, AUX batterieswill also be used as secondary batteries for safety and security.Avicenne Worldwide Rechargeable Battery Market Report, 2018, 27th edition.111

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A PThis provides a significant future opportunity for lead batteries if they are able toadapt, improve and meet current and future OEM technical requirements.For industrial batteries, the competitive position of Li-ion is different:Overall sales of batteries for telecommunications are forecast to grow by 2% annuallyfrom 3.2 to 3.8BN with Li-ion batteries potentially taking around15% market sharewhich would mean a small contraction of the market of 1% for lead batteries. Li-ionbatteries can offer a lower lifetime cost for certain applications.For UPS the overall market will grow at 3% annually from 2.8 to 3.5BN and althoughlead batteries retain the cost advantage, Li-ion batteries will take an overall share of14%, with a small growth (1%) for lead batteries.a)b)c)Figure 4 - Forecast sales for lead and Li-ion batteries for (a) telecommunications, (b) UPS and (c)traction applications in M from 2010 to 2025.12

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APFor traction batteries, lighter andmore compact Li-ion batteries arenot an advantage for counterbalancetrucks, but fast charge and moreintensive use will allow Li-ion batteriesto take a 15% market share. Themarket for lead batteries is forecastto grow from 3.2 to 4.1BN (3%annually). Overall the industrialbattery market for lead batteries willgrow in the forecast period but Li-ionbatteries will take a significant share.East Penn battery bank, PNM energy storage installation, New Mexico, United States.Future growth and opportunitySignificant opportunities exist for growth for advanced lead batteries in energy storagesystems (ESS), particularly in four key sectors:1. Renewable energy integration: A wide range of systems will be needed to supportsmart grids and remote area power supplies for which lead batteries are ideallysuited. The Consortium has identified case studies across the world where leadbattery installations are demonstrating their value and effectiveness.2. Transmission and distribution reserves and investment deferral: There arepotential options in this sector with smaller systems ( 5 MW, 10 MWh).3. ESS for residential applications: This market is shared with Li-ion and lead batteriescan expect to develop a significant share of the market going forward based on costand performance. Lead batteries are currently used more widely in these applicationsin India, China and Africa.4. ESS for commercial and industrial applications: There are excellent opportunitiesfor lead batteries to expand in this sector, especially for residential applications inIndia, China and Africa.As a conservative estimate, analysts suggest ESS has the potential for new business with avalue in the range from 600M to 1.2BN for lead batteries in the forecast period. However,this could be significantly higher with greater levels of uptake of renewable generation,which governments and administrations are supporting through new climate change targetsand policies.13

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.5The 2016-18 research programThe previous Consortium program concentrated on fundamental pre-competitive researchto improve the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of lead batteries under partial state-ofcharge conditions (PSoC) and increased shallow cycle lifetime for automotive batteries.For ESS, research priorities were identified to improve lifetime under PSoC cycling and toimprove cycle life. The following projects were funded under the 2016-2018 program. Allreports and data generated from these projects is available for members on the Consortiumwebsite Technical University: Carbon and other additives for better negativeactive material performance in partial state-of-charge operation.Bulgarian Academy of Sciences: Carbon additives for the negative activemass and hydrogen evolution at elevated temperatures.Electric Applications Incorporated, CSIRO, NorthStar Battery, SwinburneUniversity: Influence of electrolyte concentration local to the negative activemass on dynamic charge acceptance.ISEA (RWTH), Battery Engineers, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology:Evaluation of dynamic charge acceptance and water loss in partial state-ofcharge conditions.Tianneng Power: Stability of the negative active mass in automotivebatteries.Technical University of Berlin, ISC Fraunhofer, Ford Research: Effectof additives and negative active mass microstructure on dynamic chargeacceptance in micro-hybrids.Jinkeli Battery: Improving the cycle life of energy storage batteries by theuse of nano-silica sol technology.Shuangdeng Group (ChinaShoto): Alloys for low carbon energy storagebatteries operating at elevated temperatures.Exide Technologies: Carbon nano materials in the positive active mass ofenergy storage batteries.Narada Power: Life and cost optimization of absorptive glass matt valveregulated lead-acid batteries for frequency regulation and load following toIEC 61427-2 for on-grid energy storage systems.MeasX: Development of a portable, compact and inexpensive in-situmeasurement of water loss and evolved gas composition.14

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M APMoving research to the next levelThese programs form a balanced portfolio of work and have delivered important resultswhich supported improvements in lead battery technology.However, some projects are taking our research program to a completely new level.The Consortium has initiated a major new project with US members, Electric ApplicationsIncorporated (EAI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) through the ArgonneCollaborative Centre for Energy Storage Science (ACCESS) – the U.S. Government fundedlaboratory2. The collaborative research project will use the ANL facility’s ultra-bright, highenergy X-ray beams to investigate the complex interactions taking place inside lead batteriesin-situ and in real time.The Consortium is exploring new partnerships with governments and universities worldwideto develop batteries which continue to push the boundaries and can support global drives toreduce carbon emissions and provide reliable and cost-effective energy storage.Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, United States.2“Battery Mainstay headed for a high tech makeover”, Steve Koppes, October 16th eaded-for-hightech-makeover15

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.6Drivers for the Consortium’s technical roadmapThe roadmap has been developed in to order ensure future research projects are marketdriven and deliver results that will make a tangible difference to lead battery performance.The roadmap will be used to prioritize research projects for 2019 onwards.The roadmap is based on a detailed analysis of:Market trendsFuture technical requirements of end-usersThe process has involved defining Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and research objectivesfor future lead battery research. Specific research areas have been agreed, which themembership believe will deliver on the research objectives and KPIs.The roadmap will be regularly reviewed both in the light of research results and theevolution of market needs. It is intended to be continually updated.Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, United States.16

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M AP1.7 Current technical requirements for lead batteriesSLIISS / Micro - hybridAuxiliary batteriesCCA DCA20 h capacity20 h capacity HRPSoCHigh rate performance5 – 7 year life5 year lifeLow costLow costRecyclableRecyclableSLIISS / Micro - hybridAuxiliary batteriesAuxiliary batteriesCalendar lifeCalendar lifeCycle lifeCalendar life8 – 9 h capacity15 m performance5 h capacityLow costLow costLow costCycle life PSoCoperationRecyclableRecyclableRecyclableLow costTable 1 - High level requirements for lead batteries.RecyclableTable 1 encapsulates the requirements for lead batteries of all types and highlights the mainareas where improvements have been made in recent years and remain as priorities. Forautomotive batteries, standard SLI batteries are specified for cold cranking performance(CCA), low rate capacity at the 20 h rate and for durability to provide the expectedservice life. For use in start-stop (SS) or micro-hybrid service, either with an AGM or EFBconstruction, DCA and high-rate partial state-of-charge operation (HRPSoC) become essentialand must improve3. Auxiliary batteries are in use today both for electric vehicles of varioustypes and for internal combustion engine vehicles. Most are AGM at present as they havebeen developed from standby batteries but could be flooded. The key requirements arelow rate capacity, sufficient high rate performance to perform prescribed emergency dutycycles over a range of SoC and good calendar life. For all types low cost and good recyclingcharacteristics are a given.For industrial standby batteries, calendar life in floating service depends on the applicationrequirements and operating conditions and can be up to 20 years. The technicalperformance differs by application; for telecommunications 8-10 hour discharges arerequired and for UPS, a discharge rate of 15 m is a good benchmark. Cycle life is generallynot important unless the local power quality is poor. For traction batteries, cycle life is themain requirement and discharge is at the 5 h rate. For ESS batteries, both calendar life andcycle life are important, and the duty cycle may involve PSoC operation, for example insolar PV service, and, therefore, cycle life and PSoC operation are highlighted as areas forimprovement. As for automotive batteries low cost and high sustainability are essential.[1] EN 50342-1: 2015 Lead-acid starter batteries – Pt 1: General requirements and methods of test, [2] EN 50342-6:32015 Lead-acid starter batteries – Pt 6: Batteries for micro-cycle applications17

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A PE-bikes are an important application for VRLA batteries and are under competitive pressurefrom Li-ion batteries. The discharge rate is faster than for traction batteries at 2-3 h and themain technical feature required is good cycle life.The Consortium has identified start-stop or micro-hybrid automotive and ESS industrialbatteries as the priority areas for the 2019 onwards. However, it is assumed that the resultsof the research projects will be beneficial for developing lead batteries for all applications.Lead battery in use in an e-bike in Chengdu, China18

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M AP1.8Automotive batteriesFunctionCurrent StatusResearch PrioritiesDCA for energyrecuperationPoor performance,decreases in useTop priority. Additivescreening may be flawedas high water loss optionsrejected. New durabilitytests neededPSoC durability, fastSoC recovery, robust ISScapability over lifeReasonable PSoC durabilityLower priorityLower warranty rates inhot climatesUnsatisfactory but needs tobe achieved without usingthicker platesDesign, materials andcharging procedures needto be consideredSafety and vehicleelectrification (drivingassistance, functionalsafety)No major technicalperformance issues. BetterSoH and SoC detection andfailure predictionUnderstanding of BMSparameters and diagnosticsTable 2 - Technical status for start-stop/micro-hybrid batteries.Table 2 summarizes the technical status for start-stop (SS)/micro-hybrid batteries with anassessment of the research priorities. The first requirement is improved DCA. For newresearch work, this is the top priority and the note regarding additive screening reflects thedifference between water loss in field trials and bench testing to established procedureswhich have resulted in work to devise new durability standards.In terms of durability under PSoC cycling, rapid recovery of SoC and stable SS/micro-hybridcapability over life, current batteries are satisfactory but as DCA improves, longer PSoC lifebecomes more important. OEMs are looking for lower warranty rates in hot climates withoutusing thicker plates.Battery design, materials and charging procedures need to be considered but this is not apriority research area for the Consortium. The use of 12 V SLI or SS/micro-hybrid batteriesfor safety and support functions on vehicles with higher levels of electrification is becomingmore widespread. There are no major technical issues for batteries as such but better SoHand SoC estimation are becoming more important so that battery reliability can be assuredwhen functional safety is essential.19

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A PFunctionCurrent StatusResearch PrioritiesAUX (E) battery in xEV(BEV, PHEV, HEV, 48 V)with no engine startfunctionReasonably satisfactory,good cycle life needed andperformance over a wideSoC windowAUX (P) battery fortransient load responseAs AUX (E) but with highperformance at low SoC andfast charge capacityLower priority.Requirements for higherperformance at low SoC,better diagnostics for safeand secure operation andstandardization as a routeto lower costsTable 3 - Technical status for auxiliary batteries.Table 3 summarizes the status for auxiliary (AUX) batteries. AUX (E) refers to a 12 V leadbattery in an electric vehicle which has no engine start function. This can be on a purebattery electric vehicle (BEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), a hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) or a vehicle with a 48 V battery which starts the vehicle so that the AUX (E) battery onlysupports other 12 V functions. AUX (P) refers to a battery on a vehicle with a 12 V lead SLI,EFB or AGM battery for engine start, SS/micro-hybrid capability and other functions whichprovides power for transient loads for safety and security functions in order to ensure aredundant power supply. Both types have reasonable performance at present. AUX (E)batteries need to have a good cycle life and performance over a range of states-of-charge(SoC). AUX (P) batteries operate more in standby mode and so cycle life is less important butgood recovery after discharge is needed and the duty cycle will usually require a moderatelyhigh discharge rate even at a SoC. There are no special research requirements but as for SLI,EFB or AGM batteries providing safety and support systems, better SoC and state-of-function(SoF) detection and failure prediction is needed for the highest levels of functional safety.Overall, OEM battery requirements are moving rapidly, especially in Europe, to meet everincreasing emission standards. Lead batteries still retain most of the market both now andin the medium-term, but Li-ion are getting better and cheaper. Improving DCA and resolvingthe associated water loss issues needs to be addressed urgently. The requirements are highand stable DCA, PSoC durability with fast SoC recovery to provide stable SS/micro-hybridcapability over life and lower failure rates in hot climates. More realistic high temperaturetests are a key to improved DCA. More precise SoC and SoH measurements are needed forbatteries supporting safety and vehicle functions whether they are SLI, EFB, AGM or AUXbatteries. Li-ion batteries are always fitted with a BMS and lead batteries need to have asimilar capability if they are safety critical.20

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M AP1.9 Key Performance Indicators for automotive batteriesIndicator201920222025DCA. A/Ah0.42.02.0PSoC, 17.5% DoD1500 EFB2000 EFB3000 EFBWater loss, g/Ah 3 3 3Corrosion, J2801,Units121822Table 4 - DCA does not need to exceed 2.0-2.5 A/Ah for small cars (L3 battery) as this matches thealternator output; PSoC continuous test; water loss and corrosion targets are not important if newlife tests are specified. Priority areas in red.The analysis of battery performance requirements has resulted in the definition of a smallnumber of KPIs, shown above as the main objectives defined by the technical roadmap.The DCA and PSoC targets are the first priority and are highlighted in red. The DCA level isset at 2.0 A/Ah as the priority KPI. The alternator output of a 70Ah battery is typically 2.0-2.5kW. The key system requirements for micro hybrid applications will be met if the batterycan accept charge at this rate (2.0 A/Ah). An intermediate DCA level of 1 A/Ah would be auseful improvement, especially if this was stable over the lifetime of the battery. The currentrelevant standards for demonstrating these improvements in DCA are:EN 50342-6: 2015 Lead-acid starter batteries – Pt 6: Batteries for micro-cycleapplications.SAE J2801 200704 Comprehensive life test for 12 V automotive storage batteries.In the case of the KPI for PSoC, it should be measured in a continuous test as defined in IEC50342-6.21

CO NSORTIUM FOR BAT TE R Y I NNOVATI ON T E CH N I CA L R OA D M A P1.10Automotive battery research objectivesThe principal research objectives for automotive batteries identified in section 1.8 requiredto meet the KPIs are summarized below (the activities in bold are the highest priorities):Improve DCA and extend capability to lower temperaturesImprove HRPSoC lifeUnderstand water loss under cyclic/overcharge conditions to re-specify tests fordurabilityIncrease corrosion resistance of positive gridsIncrease intrinsic high temperature durabilitySoC/state-of-health (SoH) measurement techniquesDevelopment of AUX batteries.Lead batteries continue to be widely used in automotive applications.22

CO N S O R T I U M F O R BAT T E R Y I N N OVAT I O N T E CH N I CA L R OA D M AP1.11Priority research areas for automotive batteriesIn-depth discussions have identified a number of promising areas where research effortsshould be directed for the current program. It is felt that work in these research areas ismost likely to help meet the research objectives and KPIs for automotive batteries.These are summarized as:Optimization of the beneficial effect of carbon in the positive and negative plates. Inparticular further study of function of carbon in following areas:carbons coated with other materials by chemical or physical methodscarbons with different functional groups bonded to the surfacecarbons in concert with selected trace elementsStudies of water loss and gassing behavior in HRPSoC operation at high temperatureStudies of alternative additive materials and their interactionsUnderstanding the effect of rest periods on

in vehicle production and the car parc. Electric vehicles of all types will also use lead 12 V auxiliary (AUX) batteries, and as more functions are electrified on internal combustion engine vehicles, AUX batteries will als