A Framework for Climate ChangeVulnerability AssessmentsMinistry of Environment, Forests and ClimateChange, Government of India

A Framework for Climate ChangeVulnerability AssessmentsBased on the following documents:Review of methodologies for assessing vulnerability – Report submitted to GIZ in the context of theproject Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India composed by Jochen Hinkel, Global ClimateForum (GCF); Lisa Schipper, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI); and Sarah Wolf, GCF.Review of vulnerability assessments in India; Regional context for Vulnerability Assessment; PolicyFramework in India to Address Climate Change and Development of Methodology for Climate ChangeVulnerability Assessment by G.J. Lingaraj, Himani Upadhyay, Sambita Ghosh, Sneha Balakrishnan,Arabinda Mishra, Suruchi Bhadwal, and Sreeja Nair, all: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).5

Dr V. Rajagopalan, IASSecretaryForewordMinistry of Environment, Forests and Climate ChangeGovernment of IndiaNew Delhi110003It gives me immense pleasure to introduce the publication titled ’A Framework for Climate ChangeVulnerability Assessments’, one of the outcomes of the project titled ‘Climate Change Adaptation inRural Areas-India (CCA-RAI)’ under the bilateral cooperation between the German development cooperation institution Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the Ministryof Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India. Assessing vulnerabilityto climate change is critical for identifying the risks posed by climate change. At the same time, identifying measures to adapt to climate change impacts is also important.India’s Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2012,underlines that a majority of the rural population is vulnerable to climate change. The Government of India hastaken several steps to address climate change and reduce the vulnerability of rural populations to the adverseimpacts of climate change through the implementation of its eight National Missions under National Action Planon Climate Change (NAPCC) and the preparation of State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCCs).As a part of the national strategy, MoEF&CC and GIZ started the Indo-German bilateral cooperation project titled ‘Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India – CCA RAI’, funded by the German FederalMinistry of Economic Cooperation and Development with four states as project partners, namely MadhyaPradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal in 2009. The project aims to enhance the resilience ofrural communities and enable them to coexist with a changing climate. Most of the objectives of thisproject are in line with the objectives of the NAPCC.This publication has been prepared with inputs from national and international experts in the field ofclimate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation. It introduces the readers to the concept ofvulnerability to climate change, presents a general framework for assessing vulnerability and providesa rich selection of methods and tools to assess components of vulnerability at various levels.6

I trust that the framework presented in this publication will prove to be a useful tool for decisionmakers at national and state level in carrying out vulnerability assessments. Further, this will enablethem to make informed decisions to plan and implement measures for adaptation to the changing climate.Finally, I think that the publication is a good source book on the topic of assessing vulnerability.(Dr V. Rajagopalan)7

FOREWORDThe alarming impacts of climate change are highly visible and tangible – worldwide: Temperatureshave increased, rainfall is more erratic, polar icecaps and glaciers are melting. The sea level is risingand extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and more intense. Droughts and floods occurmore often and climatic zones are shifting. These facts severely impact multiple sectors and challengethe livelihood and food security of dependent communities and thereby sustainable development.India is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world affected by climate related challenges.More than 70 per cent of India’s population lives in rural areas and is heavily dependent on naturalre sources for survival. These people are particularly vulnerable to climate change: For making theirliving they depend directly on agriculture, forestry and fisheries, natural resources such as water, bio di versity, mangroves, coastal zones, and grasslands all being very climate sensitive. Based on thesestifling facts – as reflected in India’s Second National Communication (NATCOM II) to the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – India and Germany are closely cooperating withthe aim to adapt to the manifold impacts of global climate change.It is against this backdrop that initiatives like this framework show how to pragmatically link approachesand techniques on the ground with the global good climate which is absolutely crucial. This innovativeFramework for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment was prepared under the Indo-German Development Cooperation project ’Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India – CCA-RAI’. It combinesnational and international expertise as well as short- and long-term experience to identify the mostvulnerable people, areas and sectors.Understanding regional climate change impacts and assessing vulnerabilities across different sectors are the first steps to prepare effectively for future risks imposed by climate change. This is whythe Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India, and German8

Development Cooperation GIZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation andDevelopment, have developed this framework at hand. This very pragmatic framework describes different methods and approaches and showcases practical examples both for bottom-up community basedassessments as well as top-down state level assessments. It certainly will assist decision makers andadaptation practitioners in carrying out vulnerability assessments for different sectors.I would like to express my gratitude to MoEF&CC and GIZ for their excellent work. I am convinced thatthis cooperation will generate many more learnings of international relevance.Heiko WarnkenCounsellor / Head of Department Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentEmbassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in India9

AcknowledgementsThe publication ’A Framework for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments’ was developed underthe Indo-German development cooperation project 'Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India'(CCA RAI). This rich and comprehensive selection of methods and tools for assessing components ofvulnerability will enable practitioners and policy decision makers to improve their work incorporatinginformation on climate change. It comes just in time – as the newly established Indian Governmentputs more emphasis on climate change reflected also in the ministry’s new title Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).On behalf of GIZ India, I would like to express my gratitude to those who have provided their valuablecontributions for completing this framework, in particular to Mr Susheel Kumar, Additional Secretary,MoEF&CC; Mr R.R. Rashmi, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India (former JointSecretary, Climate Change, MoEF&CC); Mr Ravi S. Prasad, Joint Secretary, Climate Change, MoEF&CC;Dr S. Satapathy, Director, Climate Change, MoEF&CC; Dr D.N. Pandey, Member Secretary, State PollutionControl Board, Govt. of Rajasthan; Dr H. Malleshappa, Director, Department of Environment, Govt. Tamil Nadu;Mr Debal Ray, Chief Conservator Forests, Forest Department, Govt. of West Bengal (former Chief EnvironmentOfficer, Department of Environment and Forests, Govt. of West Bengal); Mr Lokendra Thakkar, CoordinatorClimate Change Division, Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh.Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge with due regard Dr Andrew Newsham, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Ms Catharien Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Wageningen University,and Dr Nana Künkel, GIZ, for providing valuable inputs and comments on the framework.I would also like to express my deep appreciation to my colleagues from GIZ, Ms Ilona Porsché,Ms Anna Kalisch, Mr Dirk Rolker, Ms Somya Bhatt and Dr Sanjay Tomar, for their continued efforts ofcoordinating and editing the content of this publication.10

Finally, I thank Dr Jochen Hinkel, Global Climate Forum, Dr Lisa Schipper, Stockholm Environment Institute, Dr Sarah Wolf, Global Climate Forum, and the team from the Earth Science and Climate ChangeDivision of The Energy and Resources Institute for the excellent background documents that providedthe basis for this framework.Anticipating that you, dear esteemed readers and users of this framework, will appreciate this reference book as a user guide let me thank you in advance for your kind and constructive feedback.Dr Hansjörg NeunProgramme DirectorNatural Resource Management ProgrammeDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH11

Table of contents12312INTroduction19 Understanding vulnerability252.1. Definitions2.2. Common approaches to vulnerability assessment2.3. Methods and tools2.4. Main challenges for vulnerability assessments25273437 Framework for vulnerability assessments41Example 1: State-level climate change vulnerability assessment inMadhya PradeshExample 2: Vulnerability of agriculture-based livelihoods in flood-prone areas ofWest Bengal3.1. Stage 1: Defining the purpose of the vulnerability assessment3.2 Stage 2: Planning the vulnerability assessmentStage 2: Planning the state-level climate change vulnerability assessmentin Madhya Pradesh4647484952

Stage 2: Planning the vulnerability assessment of agriculture-based livelihoodsin flood-prone areas of West Bengal3.3. Stage 3: Assessing current vulnerabilityStage 3: Assessing the current state-level climate change vulnerabilityassessment in Madhya PradeshStage 3: Assessing the current vulnerability of agriculture-based livelihoodsin flood-prone areas of West Bengal3.4. Stage 4: Assessing future vulnerabilityStage 4: Assessing the future state-level climate change vulnerabilityin Madhya PradeshLessons learnt from the state-level vulnerability assessment in Madhya PradeshLessons learnt from the vulnerability assessment of agriculture-based livelihoodsin flood-prone areas of West Bengal4practical methods and tools5Practical methods and tools a:Sector specific top-down tools for vulnerability assessmentPractical methods and tools b:Climate data analysis and other top-down methods and toolsPractical methods and tools :Bottom-up methods and tools for vulnerability assessmentPractical methods and tools :Indicator-based methods for vulnerability assessmentPractical methods and tools V:Data sourcesReferences and further reading54607080899510210310710714214516617017713


List of abbreviations and acronymsBASICCCA FCCCBuilding and Strengthening Institutional Capacities on Climate ChangeClimate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of IndiaCoupled Model Intercomparison Project 3European Environment AgencyFocus group discussionGlobal Circulation ModelGreenhouse gasesDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale ZusammenarbeitGovernment of Madhya PradeshIndian Institute of Management in AhmedabadIndian Institute of ScienceIndian Institute of TechnologyIndian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyIndia Meteorological DepartmentJoint Forest ManagementMinistry of Environment, Forests and Climate ChangeNational Action Plan on Climate ChangeNational Communications Support ProgrammeNon-timber forest productsProgram for Climate Model Diagnosis and IntercomparisonParticipatory Rural AppraisalProviding Regional Climates for Impacts StudiesRegional Circulation ModelState Action Plan on Climate ChangeSocio-ecological systemUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change15


‘It used to rain continuouslyfor about 15 days withoutstopping. This fantastic rainwould leave all our lands,homesteads and crops completely saturated. But thesecontinuous rains have stoppedhappening, which poses bigchallenges for our agriculturalpractices.’Ramcharan Marco, 65 yearsPathadevgaon village, Madhya Pradesh17


1INTroductionThe impacts of global climate change are increasinglybeing felt around the world. Rising temperatures,changing rainfall patterns, and the melting of glaciersand permafrost soils are affecting ecosystems andhuman societies in different ways. While climatechange is expected to create new opportunities insome parts of the world, it is also expected to causeconsiderable distress. The extent of the impact depends on the magnitude of climatic changes affectinga particular system (exposure), the characteristics ofthe system (sensitivity), and the ability of people andecosystems to deal with the resulting effects (adaptivecapacities of the system). These three factors determinethe vulnerability of the system.Assessing vulnerability to climate change is important for defining the risks posed by climate changeand provides information for identifying measuresto adapt to climate change impacts. It enables practitioners and decision-makers to identify the mostvulnerable areas, sectors and social groups. In turn,this means climate change adaptation optionstargeted at specified contexts can be developed andimplemented.Over the past decades, methods of vulnerabilityassessment have been developed in a wide range ofdevelopment-related fields, ranging from naturalhazards research, food security research and povertyanalysis, to sustainable livelihoods research andrelated fields. All of these methods have been welldocumented and discussed. Several conceptualmodels have been developed to give environmentalmanagers a framework for understanding vulnerability to natural disasters and how to reduce it (forexample, Anderson & Woodrow, 1998; Blaikie,et al., 1994; Twigg, 2001). Experiences with theseframeworks suggest that vulnerability is a complexsubject that has many dimensions (economic, social,political and geographic), which may often haveoverlapping effects that make it difficult to tease outthe precise cause-effect relationship. Consensus hasbeen reached that vulnerability is bound to a specificlocation and context (Cutter, et al., 2003).The impacts of and the vulnerabilities to climatechange can vary across regions (e.g. global, national,subnational), economic sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, shipping), social groups (e.g. urban populations, forest dwellers, coastal communities) or typesof system considered (e.g. natural, social, economic,socio-ecological). Given these circumstances, thedevelopment of any one-size-fits-all solution for assessing vulnerability to climate change is problematic(Hinkel, 2011). This framework therefore provides away of devising and applying case-specific vulnerability assessment methodologies.19

Why this frameworkThis framework was prepared to provide decisionmakers and adaptation implementers such as (local)government officials, development experts and civilsociety representatives with a structured approachand a sourcebook for assessing vulnerability to climatechange. Furthermore, it provides a selection ofmethods and tools to assess the different componentsthat contribute to a system’s vulnerability to climatechange. Key questions to be addressed are: How to plan for a vulnerability assessment? W hich tools or methods to select to carry outa vulnerability assessment?How to carry out a vulnerability assessment?The reader will first be acquainted with the theoreticalbackground behind the concept of vulnerability.Next, two broad approaches for assessing vulnerabilitywill be introduced: Vulnerability assessments canbe carried out either at a local level using participatory methods and tools as well local climate data(bottom-up assessments) or at state, national orglobal level using large-scale simulation models andstatistical methods (top-down assessments).The introduction to the concept of vulnerability isfollowed by the main framework consisting of fourdifferent stages for assessing a system’s vulnerabilityto climate change. Each stage in the vulnerabilityassessment consists of steps that specify which kindsof analyses should be carried out in that stage. Everystep contains a set of guiding questions and a listof suggested methods and tools that can be used toanswer these questions.20Each stage of the framework is followed by two practical examples of vulnerability assessments carriedout in India: A bottom-up vulnerability assessmentcarried out at the outset of a GIZ supported climatechange adaptation project and a top-down vulnerability assessment carried out for the Indian state ofMadhya Pradesh as a whole.Finally, the reader is presented with an extensive yetnot exhaustive selection of methods and tools thatcan be used to assess the components of vulnerabilityto climate change at different levels.How this framework was developedThis framework has been prepared as part of theIndo-German development cooperation project'Climate Change Adaptation in Rurals Areas of India'(CCA RAI, CCA RAI commissioned a number of background documents with theobjective of preparing a practical approach to climatechange vulnerability, risk and impacts assessment.A consortium consisting of the Global Climate Forum(GCF), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) andThe Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) workedtogether to review existing outputs on vulnerabilityassessment, identify the gaps, and provide recommendations for the development of a framework.The CCA RAI project team and its project partnersused these background documents to developthis practical framework for vulnerability, risk andimpact assessment.



‘Around 20 years ago, you couldfind good, fertile soil here –up to one foot higher than thesurface we are working ontoday. Now, our land is full ofboulders and stones. We dohave bulls, ploughs and theknow-how to do efficientagriculture, but ongoing soilerosion keeps us from actuallydoing it.’Lamua Osyam, 82 yearsPayali Bahur, Niwas Block, Madhya Pradesh23


2 Understandingvulnerability2.1. DefinitionsThere is a multitude of definitions and interpretationsof the term vulnerability (Hinkel, 2011). The onlygeneral consensus that seems to exist is that vulnerability is bound to a specific location and context(Cutter, et al., 2003). The Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC) identifies three components of climate change vulnerability: exposure,sensitivity and adaptive capacity.This framework uses the above-mentioned termsin accordance with the definitions put forward by theIPCC and listed in the box on the following page.The interdependence between the three componentsand other key terms in the context of vulnerabilityassessments are shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 describes vulnerability as a function of exposure to climate stimuli, sensitivity of the system tothese stimuli, and the adaptive capacity of the systemto adapt to climate change. Through the componentsof sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the diagramtakes into account that socio-economic systems canreduce or intensify the impacts of climate change.It is important to note that vulnerability is a theoretical concept. It cannot be directly measured orobserved (Moss, et al., 2001; Hinkel, 2011; Patt,Schröter, et al., 2008). ‘Measurement is the systematic process of assigning a number to a phenomenon’Figure 1: Relationship between vulnerability and its defining CapacityVulnerability(Source: adapted from Allen Consulting, 2005)25

that we can observe (Hinkel, 2011, p. 200). Forexample, we can measure the phenomenon ‘heat’ byassigning a number called ‘temperature’ to it. In thiscontext, the term ‘systematic’ refers to the circumstance that the association needs to follow certainrules. For example, the warmer something is, thehigher the associated number should be. A conceptbecomes observable when the members of a scientificdiscipline agree upon a simple way of measuring it(Hinkel, 2011). While there is general agreement onhow to measure heat, there is no consensus yet onhow to measure vulnerability (Moss, et al., 2001;Hinkel, 2011; Patt, et al., 2008; Hinkel, et al., 2010).Hence, it is more accurate to speak of ‘makingthe concept of vulnerability operational’ than of‘measuring vulnerability’ (Hinkel, 2011). Making atheoretical concept operational consists of providinga method for mapping it to observable concepts.For example, developing a method to measure temperature is a way of operationalising the theoreticalconcept ‘heat’. In the case of vulnerability, thismethod is called the methodology of the vulnerabilityassessment (Hinkel, 2011).Vulnerability, exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacityVulnerability is ‘the degree to which a system is susceptible to and unable to cope with adverseeffects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function ofthe character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed,the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of that system’.Exposure refers to ‘the nature and degree to which a system is exposed to significant climaticvariations’.Sensitivity refers ‘to the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially,by climate-related stimuli. The effect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to achange in the mean, range, or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages caused by anincrease in the frequency of coastal flooding due to sea-level rise)’.Adaptive capacity refers to ‘the ability of a system to adjust to climate change – including climatevariability and extremes – to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, orto cope with the consequences’.(McCarthy, et al., 2001)26

Vulnerability to climate changeSensitivity to climatic change is generally high whensocieties depend on natural resources or ecosystems,e.g. agriculture and coastal zones. While vulnerability must be defined on a case-by-case basis, it cangenerally be said that poor communities are especially vulnerable to climate change, variability andclimate extremes. This is due to their limited accessto: resources, secure housing, proper infrastructure,insurance, technology and information.‘Almost the whole of India has a high or extreme degreeof sensitivity to climate change, due to acute populationpressure and a consequential strain on natural resources.This is compounded by a high degree of poverty, poorgeneral health and the agricultural dependency of muchof the populace’ (Maplecroft, 2010).2.2. C ommon approaches tovulnerability assessmentVulnerability assessments are commonly distinguishedas either following top-down or bottom-up approaches (Dessai & Hulme, 2004). Top-down approaches start with an analysis of climate change andits impacts, while bottom-up approaches start withan analysis of the people affected by climate change(van Aalst, et al., 2008). This distinction reappears inthe scientific literature and is also labelled ‘end-point’versus ‘starting-point’ (Kelly & Adger, 2000), ‘biophysical’ versus ‘social’ vulnerability (Brooks, 2003),or ‘outcome’ versus ‘context’ vulnerability (O’Brien,et al., 2007).The choice of a certain approach has importantimplications for the resources needed for a vulnerability assessment. Top-down approaches are usuallypreferred at global, national and regional levels,while the bottom-up approaches start their analysisat the local level (e.g. households, villages, communities). There is no one-size-fits-all solution. Vulnerability cannot generally be assessed by taking a single,ready-made method ‘off the shelf ’. Rather, severalmethods, usually taken from different research fields,should be combined uniquely for a given case. Thus,these methods are not always systematically related(Hinkel, et al., 2010).Top-down approachesMost climate-impact and vulnerability assessmentstudies follow a top-down approach. These studiesare future-explicit (Wolf, et al., 2013) in that theymake use of simulation models to project futureimpacts. Generally speaking, top-down studies tendto concentrate on biophysical effects of climatechange that can be readily quantified. Higher-order socio-economic impacts are only considered ifquantitative models are available to link them to thebiophysical effects. Therefore, the main output fromsuch studies that can be used to inform policy is anassessment of physical vulnerability for a specifiedtime period (Dessai & Hulme, 2004).The quantity of greenhouse gases that will be emitted in the future depends on the size of the globalhuman population and its consumption patterns.Top-down approaches use scenarios of the futuresocio-economic development of the world to feedGlobal or Regional Circulation Models (GCMs27

and RCMs). In turn, the GCMs and RCMs willproject future climatic variables, e.g. mean annualprecipitation, mean annual temperature, amount ofmonsoon precipitation, etc. Subsequently, the futurestate of the system of interest is evaluated accordingto previously defined criteria (Hinkel, et al., 2010;Mastrandrea, et al., 2010; Wolf, et al., 2013). A basicframework for top-down approaches to vulnerabilityassessments is shown in Figure 2.Climate impact simulations form the starting point fortop-down vulnerability assessments. These simulationsgenerally assume a direct cause-effect relationship between climatic stresses and their impacts on biophysicalsystems, e.g. the effect of a decrease in total monsoonrainfall on crop growth. Climate impact simulationsalone usually do not account for impacts of non-climatic variables. Vulnerability assessments, on the otherhand, aim at overcoming such deficiencies. UnlikeFigure 2: B asic framework of top-down, future-explicit approaches combined with present-basedcapacity analysisprojectionpresentstate of thesocialecologicalsystemexposureemissions 1modelapplicationCC 1 emissions 2modelapplicationCC 2 emissions 3modelapplicationCC 3 lity ofthe entity in thepresent state ofthe simulusharmharm 1harm 2aggregationuncertain futureentity stimulusfutureexplicitresultharm 3combinedresultmeasurementuncertain future(lack of)capacitypresentbasedresult(Source: Wolf, et al., 2013) Emerald Group Publishing Limited all rights reserved.28

pure climate impact assessments, which often consideradaptation measures only as a residual at the end of ananalysis, top-down vulnerability assessments explicitlyconsider existing adaptive capacities and strategies thatcan reduce the negative impacts of climate change. Theresults of conducting simulation-based climate-impactassessment alone may, on the other hand, exaggerate theimpacts of climate change (Füssel & Klein, 2006).a system far into the future. Climate models can becoupled with sectorial models, e.g. agricultural orhydrological models, to assess how certain biophysical variables will develop in the future under differentclimate change scenarios. Top-down approachesare particularly suitable for estimating large-scaleclimate change impacts and informing national orinternational climate change adaptation policies.Strengths and weaknesses of top-downapproachesTop-down approaches have two major weaknesses. Thefirst and most obvious lies in the uncertainties that areinherent in every modelling exercise. Uncertainties aboutthe future development of society and the economy arecompounded by uncertainties about the climate systemand the biophysical and socio-economic systems impacted. Moreover, most global simulation models are unableto effectively represent processes at the regional level,which thereby introduces another set of uncertaintiesshould simulations be downscaled to assess vulnerabilityat finer spatial scales (Mastrandrea, et al, 2010).The main strength of top-down approaches lies intheir ability to represent direct cause-effect relationships of climate stimuli and their biophysical impacts.Top-down approaches therefore provide a scientifically sound analysis that is based on a state-of-the-artunderstanding of the relationships between climatevariables and biophysical processes, e.g. the relationship between rainfall and crop growth. Furthermore,top-down approaches are able to project the state ofCurrent versus future vulnerability‘Vulnerability is not static. The way in which people are vulnerable to existing climate patternsmay not be the same way that they are vulnerable to future climate patterns. For example, ifpeople are currently vulnerable to drought, but the climate shifts to become wetter, they may nolonger be at risk. But if those people also change their crops to become more drought-tolerantin response to drought, and the climate still becomes wetter, they may be as vulnerable as before,or even more so. This means that understanding what is causing people to be vulnerable to existingclimate variability is not always helpful in understanding what causes people to be vulnerable tofuture climate change, nor who is the most vulnerable.’(Hinkel, et al., 2010, p. 44)29

Secondly, top-down assessments generally focuson the ecological component of so-called socioecological systems (SES), ‘since models are morereadily available for the ecological than for the socialcomponent. If the social component is represented,then in a very stylised way’ (Hinkel, at al., 2010,p. 42).Hinkel, et al. (2010, p. 42) suggest that ‘from an idealperspective,

climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation. It introduces the readers to the concept of vulnerability to climate change, presents a general framework for assessing vulnerability and provides a rich selection of methods and tools to assess components of vulnerability