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Literacy FocusBefore ReadingDuring ReadingAfter ReadingFluencyComprehensionVocabularyWritingOral LanguageChapter1Adjunct DisplaysAdjunct displays “appear outside of the text, such as pictures, geographic maps, concept maps,graphs, diagrams, outlines, advance organizers, and so forth” (Robinson, Robinson, & Katayama,1999, pp. 38–39). There is evidence that these displays of information promote recall of text whenused in concert with one another. It is believed that adjunct displays are effective because they provide the learner with two avenues to memory—verbal (the text) and spatial (the placement ofinformation in relation to other facts), and that the spatial and verbal memories work in conjunctionwith one another (Kulhavy, Lee, & Caterino, 1985). Effective adjunct displays:Reflect the Structure of the Information. This may seem obtuse, but it’s really not. Consider atopic you know a lot about—probably something you teach. Given a few m inutes’ time, you couldsketch a pretty good representation of the information using visual and structural cues for hundredsof words of text. For example, most science teachers would create a v isual representation of the rockcycle by using a circle diagram (see Figure 1.1). Let the structure do some of the work for you andmake sure the spatial display depicts the relationships among the c omponents (McCrudden,McCormick, & McTigue 2011).Should Be Blank or Only Partially Completed. Many teachers routinely provide graphic organizersto students, and they are often featured in textbooks as chapter organizers. However, should thesebe completed, blank, or partially filled in with keywords and phrases? It appears that blank or partially completed graphic organizers promote higher text comprehension compared to those that arecompleted in advance for students (Katayama & Robinson, 2000). Interestingly, it doesn’t seem tomatter much whether they’re blank or partially completed. The level of recall among participants inthis study was similar. This should be comforting news for teachers who feel guilty for giving somestudents partially completed graphic organizers.Require Students to Use the Tool to Transform Information. The goal of an adjunct display isnot to fill it out; that’s a worksheet. This visual tool is an external storage device for information.If they’re going to be useful, adjunct displays should be used to transform information into verbalor written form. Discussion, retelling, summaries, essays—these represent ways in which students demonstrate that they have made the information their own. Plan activities that necessitate the useof the adjunct display students worked hard to complete.3# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 3Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.indd3Title: 50 InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

4  Chapter 1FIGURE 1.1 Rock CycleIgneousErosion sion &depositionTemperature &pressureStep-by-Step1. Select an adjunct display that matches the concepts your students will be reading about. Figure 1.2 lists different types, as well as the purposes for each.2. Decide whether you will use the selected adjunct display as a blank form or partially completed with key words and phrases.3. Distribute the adjunct display and review it with students. Discuss the main ideas or themesof the topic, and explain your reasoning for selecting the type of organizer. Tell students thatthe passage they are about to read contains information that is structured in a form similar tothe adjunct display. Inexperienced students may assume this means a linear organization, soyou may need to model how information is extracted from the text.4. Inform students of the ultimate purpose of the activity. Whether they are to recall and r etellinformation, write a summary, or give an oral presentation, students will perform betterwhen they know the purpose for collecting the information.5. As students read and complete the adjunct display, circulate and assist students who are having difficulty. It is useful to complete these as a partner activity in order to create an opportunity for oral language development.6. After students have completed the adjunct display, review the information and transition students to their next task—transforming the information verbally or in written form.ApplicationandExamplesMs. Seymour will be introducing a chapter from the sixth-grade social studies textbook onancient Egypt. The first section of the chapter deals with the hierarchical structure of Egyptiansociety. She knows that students need to become familiar with the social classes in order to# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 4Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.inddTitle: 504InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

Adjunct Displays  5FIGURE 1.2 Types of Adjunct DisplaysTypeDescriptionPurposeConceptShape-bound wordsand phrases withconnecting linesShows relationshipsbetween ideas,especially detailsCycleCircular maps thatshow a continuouscycle through theuse of arrowsDisplays reiterativeprocessesDecision treeHorizontal orvertical lines thatradiateUsed to categorizeand classify informationfrom general tospecificFlow diagramShape-bound wordsand phrases combinedwith arrows to showa process frombeginning to endShows processes,event sequences,and timelinesMatrixArrangement of wordsor phrases in a tableformat that can beread horizontally andverticallyCompares andcontrasts concepts;classifies attributesShape mapThe overall shape ofthe map used torepresent the conceptShows hierarchies,movement, such asfood pyramidExampleunderstand the contrast between the elaborate lifestyle of the pharaoh and his family, and that of thelargest group, the unskilled laborers.She has selected a pyramid adjunct display for two reasons. First, it conveys the rigid hierarchy aswell as the relative size of each class. Second, the space of a pyramid is closely associated with ancientEgypt, and she hopes to strengthen the relationship between this new information and the schema,or mental organization system, they have already formed about this culture.“Class, we’re going to be studying life in ancient Egypt, and it’s important that you know whatlife was like for people in every social class. Life could be very, very good if you were pharaoh. However, it was much more likely that you would be a poor and unskilled worker,” she begins.# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 5Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.indd5Title: 50 InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

6  Chapter 1FIGURE 1.3 Shape Map of Ancient Egyptian SocietyPharaohScribes & ArtisansThe people who rented farms or cattle livednear the Nile in simple huts. They ate fruitsand vegetables, bread, and little meat.LaborersMs. Seymour distributes the partially completed graphic organizer (see Figure 1.3) and continues.“You’ll notice that I have put some of the information in it for you. This is because I want you tohave an idea of what other information you should be looking for in the reading.”Ms. Seymour briefly introduces the five social classes and their lifestyles as an advance organizerto the reading. She also tells them that at this time they will be using this information in small groupsto create a presentation on a single social class. “You’ll want to get lots of good information down onthis graphic organizer, because you’ll need it to prepare.”She goes on to assign the reading from the textbook and then moves about the classroom tocheck graphic organizers for accuracy and completeness. As students finish, she has brief conversations with students to check for understanding, and then transitions to a whole-group discussion. For the remainder of the period, Ms. Seymour presents more information about the ancientEgyptian social classes, encouraging students to add details to their graphic organizers. As the bellrings, Ms. Seymour says, “Bring your organizer to class tomorrow—you’ll need it for your grouppresentations!”In their web design class, students used a concept map to plan their Web presence. As part of theclass, students created Web pages as a form of electronic portfolios in which their work from all oftheir other classes could be stored. This provided teachers, parents, and peers the opportunity to discuss work samples and for students to blog about their school work. Figure 1.4 contains an exampleof a student’s initial plan for her Web page.# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 6Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.inddTitle: 506InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

Adjunct Displays  7FIGURE 1.4 Student Web Page# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 7Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.indd7Title: 50 InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

8  Chapter 1ReferencesKatayama, A. D., & Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-takingusing graphic organizers. Journal of Experimental Education, 68(2), 119–133.Kulhavy, R. W., Lee, B. J., & Caterino, L. C. (1985). Conjoint retention of maps and related discourse. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 10, 28–37.Robinson, D. H., Robinson, S. L., & Katayama, A. D. (1999). When words are represented in memory like pictures: Evidence for spatial encoding of study materials. Contemporary EducationalPsychology, 24, 38–54.McCrudden, M. T., McCormick, M. K., & McTigue, E. M. (2011). Do the spatial features of anadjunct display that readers complete while reading affect their understanding of a complex system? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9 (1), 163–185.# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 8Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M02 FISH7968 03 SE CH01.inddTitle: 508InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services31/12/13 10:15 AM

Literacy FocusBefore ReadingDuring ReadingAfter ReadingFluencyComprehensionVocabularyWritingOral LanguageChapter2AnnotationAnnotations are notes made while reading. The difference between annotations and other forms ofnotetaking involve the location of the notes themselves. While annotating, the reader writes directlyon the text. In other types of notetaking, the reader might write on a separate page, as in split-pagenotetaking (see Routine 35), or on sticky notes that are later added to the page. The practice ofannotating a text, or “reading with a pencil,” is done to deepen the comprehension of a reading.It involves more than simply highlighting or underlining (although those two actions often occurduring annotation). In their seminal text, How to Read a Book (1940/1972), Adler and Van Dorenlaid out a case for engaging in repeated readings with accompanying annotation:Why is marking a book indispensable to reading it? First, it keeps you awake—not merely conscious, butwide awake. Second, reading, if active, is thinking, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken orwritten. The person who says he knows what he thinks but cannot express it usually does not know whathe thinks. Third, writing your reactions down helps you remember the thoughts of the author. (p. 49)Step-by-StepAdler and Van Doren (1940/1972) describe the most common annotation marks: Underlining for major points. Vertical lines in the margin to denote longer statements that are too long to be underlined. Star, asterisk, or other mark in the margin to be used sparingly to emphasize the ten or dozenmost important statements. You may want to fold a corner of each page where you make sucha mark or place a slip of paper between the pages. Numbers in the margin to indicate a sequence of points made by the author in developmentof an argument. Numbers of other pages in the margin to indicate where else in the book the author makes thesame points. Circling of key words or phrases to serve much the same function as underlining. Writing in the margin or at the top or bottom of the page to record questions (and perhaps answers)that a passage raises in your mind (Adler & Van Doren, 1940/1972, pp. 49–50).1. Students need time with each of these types of annotations. Our experience suggests thatteachers should start with a few of these notes and model their use of them as they read.For example, it may be enough to display a piece of text on the document camera anddemonstrate the use of underlining key ideas and writing questions in the margins.2. Provide students with their own text to annotate. There are a number of places to findtexts for which the copyright has expired, such as the Gutenberg Project (gutenberg.org)and Google Scholar (scholar.google.com).9# 150828   Cust: Allyn & Bacon /MA/Boston   Au: Fisher  Pg. No. 9Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e     Server: Jobs2M03 FISH7968 03 SE CH02.indd9Title: 50 InstructionalKShort / Normal / LongDESIGN SERVICES OFS4carlislePublishing Services30/12/13 3:26 PM

10  Chapter 23. Collect student annotations for analysis. Their written notes on the texts they read are agood source of formative assessment that will allow for an analysis of the types of thinkingstudents did to attempt to understand a text. If there are aspects missing, they should beincluded in future instruction.4. Ask students to circle words or phrases that are confusing to them as they read. In thisway, the teacher can walk around the room and determine where the text became confusing f

Title: 50 Instructional Routines to Develop Content Literacy 3/e Server: Jobs2 K Short / Normal / Long S4carliDESIGN SERVICES OFSle Publishing Services Step-by-Step 1.Select an adjunct display that matches the concepts your students will be reading about. Figure 1.2 lists different types, as well as the purposes for each. 2.Decide whether you will use the selected adjunct display as a blank .