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5 REASONSto buy your textbooksand course materials at1SAVINGS:2CHOICE:345Prices up to 75% off, daily coupons, and free shipping on orders over 25Multiple format options including textbook, eBook and eChapter rentalsCONVENIENCE:Anytime, anywhere access of eBooks or eChapters via mobile devicesSERVICE:Free eBook access while your text ships, and instant access to online homework productsSTUDY TOOLS:Study tools* for your text, plus writing, research, career and job search resources*availability variesFind your course materials and start saving at:www.cengagebrain.comSource Code: 14M-AA0107Engaged with you.www.cengage.comCopyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

NI NTH E dIT Io NProbability and Statisticsfor Engineeringand the SciencesJay DevoreCalifornia Polytechnic State University, San Luis ObispoAustralia Brazil Mexico SingaporeUnited Kingdom United StatesCopyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressedcontent does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the rightto remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Forvaluable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternateformats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword formaterials in your areas of interest.Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Probability and Statistics for Engineeringand the Sciences, Ninth EditionJay L. DevoreSenior Product Team Manager: RichardStrattonSenior Product Manager: Molly TaylorSenior Content Developer: Jay CampbellProduct Assistant: Spencer ArrittMedia Developer: Andrew CoppolaMarketing Manager: Julie SchusterContent Project Manager: Cathy BrooksArt Director: Linda MayManufacturing Planner: Sandee MilewskiIP Analyst: Christina CiaramellaIP Project Manager: Farah Fard 2016, 2012, 2009, Cengage LearningWCN: 02-200-203ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyrightherein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any formor by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but notlimited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, webdistribution, information networks, or information storage and retrievalsystems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission ofthe publisher.For product information and technology assistance, contact us atCengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706For permission to use material from this text or product,submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissionsFurther permissions questions can be emailed [email protected] Service and Compositor:MPS LimitedUnless otherwise noted, all items Cengage LearningText and Cover Designer: C Miller DesignLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2014946237ISBN: 978-1-305-25180-9Cengage Learning20 Channel Center StreetBoston, MA 02210USACengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutionswith office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the UnitedKingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office atwww.cengage.com/global.Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by NelsonEducation, Ltd.To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions, visit www.cengage.com.Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at ourpreferred online store www.cengagebrain.com.Printed in the United States of AmericaPrint Number: 01 Print Year: 2014Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

To my beloved grandsonsPhilip and Elliot, who arehighly statistically significant.Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents1Overview and Descriptive Introduction 1Populations, Samples, and Processes 3Pictorial and Tabular Methods in Descriptive Statistics 13Measures of Location 29Measures of Variability 36Supplementary Exercises 47Bibliography 51Introduction 52Sample Spaces and Events 53Axioms, Interpretations,and Properties of Probability 58Counting Techniques 66Conditional Probability 75Independence 85Supplementary Exercises 91Bibliography 94Discrete Random Variables and tion 95Random Variables 96Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 99Expected Values 109The Binomial Probability Distribution 117Hypergeometric and Negative Binomial Distributions 126The Poisson Probability Distribution 131Supplementary Exercises 137Bibliography 140viiCopyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

viiiContents4Continuous Random Variables and n 141Probability Density Functions 142Cumulative Distribution Functionsand Expected Values 147The Normal Distribution 156The Exponential and Gamma Distributions 170Other Continuous Distributions 1774.6 Probability Plots 184Supplementary Exercises 193Bibliography 1975Joint Probability Distributionsand Random Samples5.15.25.35.45.56Introduction 198Jointly Distributed Random Variables 199Expected Values, Covariance, and Correlation 213Statistics and Their Distributions 220The Distribution of the Sample Mean 230The Distribution of a Linear Combination 238Supplementary Exercises 243Bibliography 246Point EstimationIntroduction 2476.1 Some General Concepts of Point Estimation 2486.2 Methods of Point Estimation 264Supplementary Exercises 274Bibliography 2757Statistical Intervals Based on a Single SampleIntroduction 2767.1 Basic Properties of Confidence Intervals 2777.2 Large-Sample Confidence Intervalsfor a Population Mean and Proportion 285Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents7.3 Intervals Based on a Normal Population Distribution 2957.4 Confidence Intervals for the Varianceand Standard Deviation of a Normal Population 304Supplementary Exercises 307Bibliography 3098Tests of Hypotheses Based ona Single SampleIntroduction 3108.18.28.38.48.59Hypotheses and Test Procedures 311z Tests for Hypotheses about a Population Mean 326The One-Sample t Test 335Tests Concerning a Population Proportion 346Further Aspects of Hypothesis Testing 352Supplementary Exercises 357Bibliography 360Inferences Based on Two Samples9.19.29.39.4Introduction 361z Tests and Confidence Intervals for a DifferenceBetween Two Population Means 362The Two-Sample t Test and Confidence Interval 374Analysis of Paired Data 382Inferences Concerning a Difference BetweenPopulation Proportions 3919.5 Inferences Concerning Two Population Variances 399Supplementary Exercises 403Bibliography 40810The Analysis of VarianceIntroduction 40910.1 Single-Factor ANOVA 41010.2 Multiple Comparisons in ANOVA 42010.3 More on Single-Factor ANOVA 426Supplementary Exercises 435Bibliography 436Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.ix

xContents11Multifactor Analysis of Variance11.111.211.311.412Simple Linear Regression and Correlation12.112.212.312.412.513Introduction 437Two-Factor ANOVA with Kij 5 1 438Two-Factor ANOVA with Kij . 1 451Three-Factor ANOVA 4602p Factorial Experiments 469Supplementary Exercises 483Bibliography 486Introduction 487The Simple Linear Regression Model 488Estimating Model Parameters 496Inferences About the Slope Parameter b1 510Inferences Concerning mY ? x* andthe Prediction of Future Y Values 519Correlation 527Supplementary Exercises 437Bibliography 541Nonlinear and Multiple RegressionIntroduction 54213.1 Assessing Model Adequacy 54313.2 Regression with Transformed Variables 55013.3 Polynomial Regression 56213.4 Multiple Regression Analysis 57213.5 Other Issues in Multiple Regression 595Supplementary Exercises 610Bibliography 61814Goodness-of-Fit Tests and CategoricalData AnalysisIntroduction 61914.1 Goodness-of-Fit Tests When CategoryProbabilities Are Completely Specified 62014.2 Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Composite Hypotheses 62714.3 Two-Way Contingency Tables 639Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

ContentsSupplementary Exercises 648Bibliography 65115Distribution-Free Procedures15.115.215.315.416Introduction 652The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test 653The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test 661Distribution-Free Confidence Intervals 667Distribution-Free ANOVA 671Supplementary Exercises 675Bibliography 677Quality Control Methods16.116.216.316.416.516.6Introduction 678General Comments on Control Charts 679Control Charts for Process Location 681Control Charts for Process Variation 690Control Charts for Attributes 695CUSUM Procedures 700Acceptance Sampling 708Supplementary Exercises 714Bibliography 715Appendix ative Binomial Probabilities A-2Cumulative Poisson Probabilities A-4Standard Normal Curve Areas A-6The Incomplete Gamma Function A-8Critical Values for t Distributions A-9Tolerance Critical Values for Normal Population Distributions A-10Critical Values for Chi-Squared Distributions A-11t Curve Tail Areas A-12Critical Values for F Distributions A-14Critical Values for Studentized Range Distributions A-20Chi-Squared Curve Tail Areas A-21Approximate Critical Values for the Ryan-Joiner Test ofNormality A-23A.13 Critical Val