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A Step-by-Step Guideto Taking Urban ForestInventory MeasurementsThis publication provides a step-by-stepguide to conducting measurements for usein an urban tree inventory. In general, thisguide reflects the measurements included inthe U.S. Forest Service’s i-Tree Eco softwareprogram; however, the measurements arefairly standard variables used in bottom-upurban forest inventories.Urban Tree Inventories, i-Tree,and EquipmentWhat is a community tree inventory?A community tree inventory performs threeprimary functions:1.As a database consisting of informationabout individual trees. This informationincludes tree location, diameter, height,canopy width, condition, and hazards.2.As a maintenance tool, the communitytree inventory enables managers toidentify trees that need to be pruned,staked, fertilized, cabled, or removed.Urban forest managers use the inventory to periodically review trees thathave been identified as hazards.3.As a management tool, the inventoryenables aggregation of individual treedata to provide information about apopulation of trees—also known as theurban forest. Tree population information includes species distributionand canopy cover. A tree map enablescommunity forest managers to identifyand prioritize community canopy goals(e.g., planting and maintenance), whileaccounting for the condition of the community forest (i.e., dead, critical, poor,fair, good, very good, or excellent).Creating a visual map of how urbanforest benefits are distributed across thelandscape is known as benefit mapping.A key aspect of benefit mapping is applying a dollar value to trees based ontheir individual characteristics. Usingcomputer software, economic valuecan be assigned to ecosystem servicebenefits of urban trees such as pollutionremoval (e.g., ozone, sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide), carbon sequestration,and energy savings.What is a bottom-up tree inventory?A bottom-up inventory generates primarydata from on-the-ground inventory methods as opposed to aerial or satellite imagery(i.e., top-down inventory). This approachrequires a process of measuring individualtree characteristics and quality assurance/control. Field data collection requires extensive planning, management, and time.Although it can be somewhat costly, theresults can provide more information thanpossible through top-down analyses. Forthese reasons, it is beneficial to perform abottom-up inventory at some stage of thecommunity tree inventory.What is the scope of the bottom-upinventory (or how much is enough)?The scope, also known as the sample, isone the most important decisions made inplanning a bottom-up urban forest inventory. Determining the scope of the surveydepends on available resources and goals.

Inventory projects have ranged from parks to smallneighborhoods to cities to counties.A statistical representation of the urban forest requiresa random sample, whereby plots are placed randomlyacross the landscape within the boundaries of thestudy area (e.g., the official city limits). A simple random sample is the most basic form of random sample.A simple random sample, however, may not providea true picture of forest cover since the urban forest isusually not distributed across the landscape randomly.In a stratified random sample in Tupelo, MS (N 200). Thegreen areas represent trees. There are more points located intree areas than in the simple random sample.and other public areas. This project scope measureseach tree in the designated area. A full inventory isusually not a practical alternative for assessing theurban forest. Because a full inventory is unlikely tobe implemented across the entire community, it doesnot usually provide a true representation of the urbanforest.What is i-Tree?Simple random sample in Tupelo, MS (N 200). The greenareas represent trees.Several urban forest inventory software packages areavailable. Some are freeware (licensed to use free ofcharge), while others can be fairly expensive. Inventorysoftware should have some basic data entry fields suchas Global Positioning Systems (GPS) coordinates andtree species. Preferably, additional entry fields wouldinclude tree height, diameter, crown width, crownmissing, dieback, and land use and ground cover attributes. Canopy measurements are needed to assesscanopy attributes.A stratified random sample offers an alternative statistical representation with plots randomly allocatedaccording to land use. A stratified random sampledecreases the amount of plots wasted on sites withlittle or no trees (e.g., large commercial parking lotsand agriculture fields). However, because such sites areimportant characteristics of any populated place, someplots will still be located there.Research has found that 200 tenth-acre plots in a givenarea provide enough information for statistical inference and benefit mapping while also maintaining anacceptable level of costs associated with data collection(Nowak et al. 2008). Fewer points may be appropriatefor a small area, but a greater number of points decreases error in the sample. A statistical sample mitigates the effects of data collection error and landscapevariation. The project facilitator will add 5–10 percentmore plots as “extra plots” in case some of the original200 are inaccessible. Once the community determinesthe scope, the project facilitator will locate the plots ona map using Geographic Information System technology. Plot center geo-coordinates and the map will thenbe distributed to volunteers.One of the most commonly employed programs is theUSDA Forest Service’s i-Tree, available online at www.itreetools.org. i-Tree is a software suite produced withthe collaboration of private and public partners. Currently, there are six applications: Eco, Streets, Hydro,Vue, Design, and Canopy. Each application focuses onspecific objectives. For example, Eco provides a broadspectrum of data fields that, when combined with airpollution and meteorological data, quantifies community forest structure and environmental effects andapplies a monetary value to tree benefits. By contrast,Hydro simulates the effects of changes in tree andimpervious cover characteristics on stream flow andwater quality.The i-Tree software suite is peer-reviewed, publicdomain, easy-to-use software that allows for scalableFinally, a full inventory (also called a 100 percentinventory) is often used to measure street trees, parks,2

analysis. In other words, results can be generalizedfrom individual trees to neighborhood to city levelsbased on a sample inventory. From this information,users can make management recommendations such asspecies selection, address invasive species, and perform storm damage assessment. The remainder of thisarticle focuses on the data entry variables found withini-Tree Eco.How is the data recorded?Diameter tapeExample data sheets and respective “cheat sheets” forthe plot inventory (Appendices 1 and 2) and the fullinventory (Appendices 3 and 4) can be found in the appendix to this document. The advantage of paper datainput sheets is there is no risk of technological failure,although they may get wet while in the field. However,paper data sheets are somewhat cumbersome to use.Due to the number of variables, the data sheet mustbe printed on 8.5 by 11 inch paper. In addition, paperrequires an additional step—entering the data into anelectronic database—after measurements are taken.To address these deficiencies in paper data sheets,the MSU Extension Service will soon make availablea smartphone application that includes each variablefound in the paper data sheet. The app will be downloadable to iOS and Android platforms from the MSUExtension Service app store.ClinometerCompassPowerPoint presentations, literature, and additionalinformation on procedures.In addition to groundcover, stem, and canopy measurements, we include at least a basic (yes/no) hazardobservation measure. If desired, a positive responseto this measure on the data sheet indicates the need tocomplete the hazard identification sheet (Appendix 5).Each of the measurements found on these data sheetswill be explained in the following sections.Plot InformationThe first measurements describe the plot where thetree(s) is found (Appendix 1 and Appendix 2, page 1).Plots are one-tenth of an acre, or 37.2 feet in radius.Once plot center is found using a GPS unit, the datacollectors measure a radius of 37.2 feet from plot centerusing a diameter tape. Every tree with at least half thestem falling inside the radius is considered within theplot and should be measured. The following is replicated from the Sample Plot Cheat Sheet (Appendix 1).If a plot is located on private property, access must begranted by the owner (Appendices 6 and 7).What equipment is needed?MSU Extension recommends four pieces of equipmentto conduct a basic volunteer inventory:1.diameter tape2.compass3.clinometer4.GPS unitGPS unitPLOT ID: Enter plot ID. As mentioned above, plots arerandomly created within the border of a given area.The plot ID is assignedby the Geographic Information System (GIS)software. The facilitatordescribes the locationof the plot using roadsand other geographiclandmarks. A copyof a large-scale photohelps the volunteers getWhile additional equipment or more expensive equipment could be used, we find this equipment is appropriate for limited budgets and for use with volunteerswho borrow the equipment. If available, smartphoneapps may be used instead of the handheld compassand GPS.ProceduresNote: We suggest urban forest inventory facilitatorscreate an online public folder (e.g., Dropbox, GoogleDrive) where volunteers can access maps, documents,Recording data onto the datasheet. Always use a pencil.3

reasonably close to the plot. Then, GPS is used to getwithin 30 feet of the plot center.GPS UNIT: Enter GPS unit ID. Crew ID and GPS unitID are used to trace the data back to volunteer collectors as part of quality control. If using the smartphoneapp, not applicable (NA) can be entered here.PLOT WP: Enter GPS waypoint of plot (not trees) (Appendix 8). Typically, a handheld GPS unit is used (ifthe MSU Extension urban inventory app is not used),which incorporates error up to around 30 feet. The volunteer attempts to arriveas close as possible to thecoordinates indicated bythe GPS. At this point, thevolunteer marks a “centerpoint” of the plot usinga landscaping flag, stick,rock, or some other object.The plot is then measuredusing a radius of 37.2 feet(37 feet and 13/32 inches),or one-tenth of an acre.Different-sized plots canbe used, but Nowak et al.(2008) suggest one-tenthacre is most effective forPLOT ADDRESS: If the plot (or any portion) is locatedon private property, enter the plot address, includingstreet number, street, and zip code.PLOT PHONE: If the plot (or any portion) is locatedon private property, enter the telephone number. Thetelephone number will be available after the propertyowner has consented to the procedure (Appendices 6and 7). In some cases, special permission will need tobe granted to access public property. In such cases, thesame permission documentation should be used withaccess granted by the supervising authority.OWNER NAME: Record the name of the owner ofproperty (if public, note government entity).NOTES: Record anything noteworthy here. Recordlack of access (e.g., property owner refusal or environmental conditions).ACTUAL LAND USE AND PERCENT IN: The letterfrom the list below is recorded along with percent ofeach land use that falls within the plot. Proportionsare recorded in increments of 1–5 percent, then every 5percentage points. As with other qualitative estimatesin the inventory, land use should be discussed andagreed upon by team members. Up to four land usescan be recorded. Below are the land uses recognized byi-Tree.Making a waypoint using GPS.i-Tree statistics. Trees are considered within the plot ifat least half the stem at 4½ feet (known as diameter atbreast height or DBH) lies within the radius measure.Residential (R)Multi-family residential (M)Commercial/Industrial (C)Park (P)Cemetery (E)Golf Course (G)Agriculture (A)Vacant (V)Institutional (I)Utility (U)Water/wetland (W)Transportation (T)Other (O)PLOT TREE COVER: Record the estimated percent oftree canopy over the plot. This is another qualitativeestimate that should be discussed among team members.This one-tenth-acre plot has three trees. Tree number four ismore than halfway out of the plot, while tree number 1 hasmore than half the stem inside the plot boundary.SHRUB COVER: Record the estimated percent ofshrub cover in the plot. The facilitator will inform thevolunteers what is classified as shrub cover.DATE: Enter date of work.CREW: Enter crew ID. A unique crew ID is assigned bythe facilitator.4

Maintained grass (MG)Unmaintained grass (UG)Water (W)This plot has approximately 4% T, 1% W, 95% R.This plot has approximately 40% tree cover, 0% shrub cover,2% T, 1% C, 1% W, 1% B, 95% MG.The number of trees on a plot can range from none to many.GROUND COVER: Record the percent ground coverin plot, which must total 100 percent. The crew notesthe percentage of the plot ground area that is coveredby the materials below. Estimation may be facilitatedby dividing the plot in halves or quarters, then summing the proportions of each section.Ground covers in this plot include tar, maintainedgrass, and some mulch around the tree. The land use isinstitutional.The following metrics are for individual trees withinthe plot (Appendix 1 and Appendix 2, page 2). Datacollection for living and dead trees starts with the treeclosest to due north and proceeds in a clockwise direction.Building (B)Concrete (C)Tar (T): Blacktop/asphaltRock (R): Pervious rock surfaces such as gravel, brick,or flagstone walkways or patios (without mortar).This category includes sand in playgrounds or addedas topping to existing soil. Large solid rock outcropsshould be listed as concrete.PLOT ID: Enter the plot ID from page 1 (Plot Information) so that the individual tree information can belinked to the correct plot.PLOT WP: Enter the GPS waypoint for the plot frompage 1.Bare soil (S)TREE ID: Record the tree species (U if unknown, andtake a photo and send to the facilitator) using theUFORE abbreviations (www.itreetools.org/eco/resources/ufore species list apr30 2012.pdf). The MSUDuff/mulch (D)Herbs (H): Herbaceous ground cover, other than grass,including agricultural crops5

Extension Service currentlyoffers a smartphone application called Tree Census withthe list of species. A relevanttree must be greater than orequal to 1 inch at 4½ feet.DriplineThe following land uses are used in the i-Tree software.Using the tree code app to recordthe tree ID UFORE abbreviation.Residential (R)Multi-family residential (M)STATUS: The crew should discuss and come to consensus about whether the tree was:Commercial/Industrial (C)P: Planted—the tree was planted intentionally (oftencharacterized by orderly patterns, e.g., rows, and landscaping);Cemetery (E)Park (P)Golf Course (G)Agriculture (A)I: Ingrowth—the tree self-seeded;Vacant (V)U: Unknown—planted vs. ingrowth cannot be determined.Institutional (I)Utility (U)Record dead trees as -1 and skip to the site variable.Water/wetland (W)DR: Record the direction of the tree fromthe center of plot usingazimuth in degrees. DRand DS are used as geographic references in addition to the plot centerwaypoint. Geographicreferences are importantfor future inventoryupdates.Transportation (T)Other (O)DBH: Record the tree’s DBH (a relevant tree must begreater than or equal to 1 inch at 4½ feet) on the uphillside of the tree to the nearest 0.1 inch/cm. Record upto six stems ( 1 inch) if the pith union is belowground.If more than six stems, lower the measurement heightto 1 foot aboveground and record the DBH of the sixlargest stems. See Appendix 9 for DBH measuringprocedures.A smartphone app makesrecording direction easy.pithintersectionDS: Record the distance of the tree from plot center tothe edge of the trunk.LAND USE: The previous land use metric indicatedland use within the entire plot; this metric records landuse under individual tree canopies in the plot. Recordthe land use to drip line of the tree crown. The drip lineis the very edge of the crown. Most of the time, thiswill be the same as the land use recorded for the plot.Measuring DBH in multistemmed trees.6

Height to crown base: Measure the tree height to thebase (the lowest live foliage) of the crown. If the base isnot reachable using the diameter tape, the clinometermust be used and measured using the same procedureas measuring total height.TREE HEIGHT: i-Tree requires three height measurements (Appendix 10).Total tree height: Measurethe height of the tree to thehighest visible branch (aliveor dead).Height to live top: Measurethe height to the highest visible live branch. This heightwill be the same as totaltree height unless the treeis alive but the top of thecrown is dead.Using the diameter tape to measureDBH. Follow the correct procedureto hold the tape (Appendix 9).Measuring height to crown base using a diameter tape.CROWNCrown width: Measure the width of each tree’s crown(to the nearest foot). Two volunteers are needed tomeasure the crown width. Making sure the diametertape touches the tree stem to approximate the diameterof a circle encompassing the crown, hold each end ofthe tape to the drip line and record the measurement.This procedure should be repeated in two perpendicular directions: north–south and east–west.Measuring treeheight using aclinometer. Follow the correctprocedure to holdthe clinometer(Appendix 10).Extent of live topMeasuring crown width east and west.If the tree does not have any dead branches atthe top, the height to live top is the same as totalheight. In the case of this tree, height to live topis shorter than total height.7

25%crowndiebackThis tree has approximately 25% crown dieback.Crown light exposure (CLE): Record the number ofsides of the tree receiving sunlight. The maximum isfive (four sides and top). As a rule of thumb, includeeach side that receives at least 50 percent sunlight.Measuring crown width northand south.Percent canopy missing: This metric estimates thepercent of branches and foliage that is absent due topruning, defoliation, uneven crown (i.e., irregular dueto damage or some other negative abiotic or bioticimpact), or dwarf or sparse leaves.10%missingcrown25%missingcrownImagine a box covering the crown to measure CLE. Atree can have up to five sides exposed to sunlight.Impervious Surface: Estimate the percent of thearea beneath the dripline of the tree that is imperviousto water. Often, this will reflect the single tree metricfor land use (above). An impervious surface is one thatdoes not allow water to penetrate into the soil. Greaterareas of imperious surface result in increased runoff.This tree has approximately 35% of its crown missing.Crown dieback (DB): Record percent branch diebackon each side and top of crown area. Dieback is a condition in which a tree or shrub begins to die from the tipof its leaves or shoots backward, resulting from diseaseor an unfavorable environment.TREES NEAR BLDGS: Identify trees ( 20 feet tall) thatare located within 60 feet of space-conditioned residential or commercial buildings that are three stories orfewer in height (e.g., two stories and an attic). Recordthe direction (D azimuth in degrees) from the tree tothe closest part of the building and the distance (S if 60 ft., just note 60 ft.). These metrics are needed forcalculating energy savings.SITE: Indicate whether the tree is a street tree (yes Y) or not a street tree (no N). A street tree is any treeor part of tree, including the canopy and root systems,that lies on or has grown onto or over public property,or in public right of way owned by a public entity.8

Additional ReadingDavid J. Nowak, Jeffrey T. Walton, Jack C. Stevens,Daniel E. Crane, and Robert E. Hoehn (2008) Effectof Plot and Sample Size on Timing and Precision ofUrban Forest Assessments. Arboriculture & UrbanForestry, 34(6):386–390.David J. Nowak, Daniel E. Crane, Jack C. Stevens, Robert E. Hoehn, Jeffrey T. Walton, Jerry Bond (2008) AGround-Based Method of Assessing Urban ForestStructure and Ecosystem Services. Arboricultureand Urban Forestry, 34(6):347–358.Jason Gordon. Community Forestry: Another Way ofThinking about Forest Management, IS1958. MSUExtension Service.Measuring distance to the closest building using a diameter tape.Jason Gordon. Conducting a Community Tree Inventory, P2811. MSU Extension Service.HAZARD: Mark yes or no to indicate whether theoverall tree, foliage, branches/bole show indications ofpest, disease, or if tree/branches could be a hazard. Ahazard is any tree/part of tree that may cause harm topeople or property (e.g., car). It is important to understand that only a certified arborist should conduct acomplete tree risk assessment due to liability concerns.However, because they are observing many trees, volunteers are invaluable for identifying obvious, majorproblems. If a tree is a hazard, complete the additionalhazard identification form (Appendix 5). If a hazard isindicated, arborists will return to the tree to assess it.US Forest Service. (n.d.) i-Tree Streets User’s Manualv5.x. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from www.itreetools.org/ecoUFORE Methods (n.d.) Retrieved January 19, 2015,from thods.pdf9

Appendix 1. Image of data sheet (page 1, Plot Data) to be used for sample plots inventory.10

Appendix 1 (continued). Image of data sheet (page 2, Tree Data) to be used for sample plots inventory.11

Appendix 2: Cheat sheet to be used for sample plots inventory data sheetPAGE 1 (Plot data)PLOT ID: Enter plot IDPLOT WP: Enter GPS waypoint of plot (not trees)DATE: Enter date of workCREW: Enter crew IDGPS UNIT: Enter GPS Unit IDPLOT ADDRESS: Self explanatoryPLOT PHONE: Self explanatoryOWNER NAME: Owner of property (if public, note government entity)NOTES: Record anything noteworthy here. Record lack of access (e.g., property owner refusal, poor environmental conditions)ACTUAL LAND USE AND PERCENT IN: Record land use and percent in plot.Residential (R)Golf Course (G)Water/wetland (W)Multi-family residential (M)Agriculture (A)Transportation (T)Commercial/Industrial (C)Vacant (V)Other (O)Park (P)Institutional (I)Cemetery (E)Utility (U)PLOT TREE COVER: Record percent tree cover in plot.SHRUB COVER: Record percent shrub cover in plot.GROUND COVER: Record percent ground cover in plot. Must add to 100%.The crew notes the percentage of theplot ground area that is covered by the following materials:Building (B)Bare soil (S)Concrete (C)Duff/mulch (D)Tar (T): Blacktop/asphaltHerbs (H): Herbaceous ground cover, other than grass,including agricultural cropsRock (R): Pervious rock surfaces such as gravel, brick,or flagstone walkways or patios (without mortar).This category includes sand in playgrounds oradded as topping to existing soil. Large solid rockoutcrops should be listed as concrete.Maintained grass (MG)Unmaintained grass (UG)Water (W)12

PAGE 2 (Tree data)Data collection for living and dead trees starts with the tree farthest to the north and proceeds in a clockwisedirection.PLOT ID: Enter plot ID from page 1PLOT WP: Enter GPS waypoint for plot from page 1TREE ID: abbreviated tree species (U if unknown, and take photo and send to coach)STATUS: P: Planted—the tree was planted intentionally; I: Ingrowth—the tree self-seeded; U: Unknown—plantedvs. ingrowth cannot be determined. Record dead trees as -1 and skip to Site.DR: Direction of tree from center of plot (azimuth in degrees)DS: Distance of tree from plot center to edge of trunkLAND USE: Record land use to drip lineResidential (R)Golf Course (G)Water/wetland (W)Multi-family residential (M)Agriculture (A)Transportation (T)Commercial/Industrial (C)Vacant (V)Other (O)Park (P)Institutional (I)Cemetery (E)Utility (U)DBH: Record the tree’s DBH ( 1 inch at 4.5 feet) on the uphill side of the tree to the nearest 0.1 inch. Record upto 6 stems ( 1 in) if the pith union is below ground. If more than 6 stems, lower measurement height to 1 ft aboveground and record DBH of up to the 6 largest stems.TREE HEIGHT: Total tree height: Measure the height to top (alive or dead) of tree. Height to live top: This heightwill be the same as total tree height unless the tree is alive but the top of the crown is dead. Height to crown base:Measure height to base of live crown.CROWNCrown width: Measure crown width (to nearest foot) in two perpendicular directions: north-south and east-west.Percent canopy missing: Estimate the percent foliage that is absent due to pruning, defoliation, uneven crown, ordwarf or sparse leaves.Crown dieback (DB): Percent branch dieback on side(s) and top of crown area.Crown light exposure (CLE): Number of sides of the tree receiving sunlight from above (maximum of five).Percent impervious surface under the tree: Estimate the percent of the area beneath the dripline of the tree that isimpervious.TREES NEAR BLDGSFor trees ( 20 ft. tall) that are located within 60 ft. of space-conditioned residential buildings that are three storiesor fewer in height (two stories and an attic), record the direction (D azimuth in degrees) from the tree to theclosest part of the building and the distance (S if 60 ft, just note 60 ft).SITEIndicate street tree YES (Y) or NO (N) if tree is located on edge of street.HAZARDMark YES (Y) or NO (N) if overall tree, foliage, branches/bole show indications of pest, disease, or if tree/branches could be a hazard. A hazard is any tree/part of tree that may cause harm to people or property (e.g., car). Weare looking for obvious, major problems here. If tree is a hazard, complete additional hazard identification form.If a hazard is indicated, arborists will return to the tree to assess it.13

Appendix 3. Image of data sheet to be used for 100 percent inventory.

Appendix 4: Cheat sheet to be used with 100 percent inventory data sheet100 Percent Inventory Cheat SheetDATE: Enter date of workCREW: Enter crew IDGPS UNIT: Enter GPS Unit IDLOCATION: Enter location – “Miller Park”LAND USE: Record the predominant ( 50%) land use in which the trees are locatedResidential (R)Golf Course (G)Water/wetland (W)Multi-family residential (M)Agriculture (A)Transportation (T)Commercial/Industrial (C)Vacant (V)Other (O)Park (P)Institutional (I)Cemetery (E)Utility (U)WP: Enter GPS waypointTREE ID: abbreviated tree species (U if unknown and take photo)STATUS: P: Planted—the tree was planted intentionallyI: Ingrowth—the tree self-seededU: Unknown—planted vs. ingrowth cannot be determined-1: Dead treesGROUND COVER: Must add to 100%. The crew notes the percentage of the plot ground area that is covered bythe following materials (up to 4):Herbs (H)Concrete (C)Rock (R): Pervious rock surfacessuch as gravelTar (T): Blacktop/asphaltBare soil (S)Unmaintained grass (UG)Duff/mulch (D)Water (W)Building (B)Grass (MG)DBH: Record the tree’s DBH ( 1 in at 4.5 ft) on the uphill side of the tree to the nearest 0.1 inch/cm.Record up to 6 stems ( 1 in) if the pith union is below ground. If more than 6 stems, lower measurement height to1 ft above ground and record DBH of up to the 6 largest stems.TREE HEIGHT: Total tree height: Measure the height to top (alive or dead) of tree. Height to live top: This heightwill be the same as total tree height unless the tree is alive but the top of the crown is dead. Height to crown base:Measure height to base of live crown.CROWNCrown width: Measure crown width (to nearest ft or m) in two perpendicular directions: north-south and eastwest.Percent canopy missing: Estimate the percent foliage that is absent due to pruning, dieback, defoliation, unevencrown, or dwarf or sparse leaves. Do not include normal interior crown voids due to leaf shading.Crown dieback (DB): Percent branch dieback on side(s) and top of crown area.Crown light exposure (CLE): Number of sides of the tree receiving sunlight from above (maximum of five).Percent impervious surface under the tree: Estimate the percent of the area beneath the dripline of the tree that isimpervious.continued15

TREES NEAR BLDGSTrees near buildings: Enter the direction (D) and distance (S) to the three closest buildings (if 60 ft, note 60 ft).SITEIndicate street tree YES (Y) or NO (N) if tree is located on edge of street.HAZARDMark YES (Y) or NO (N) if overall tree, foliage, branches/bole show indications of pest, disease, or if tree/branches could be a hazard. A hazard is any tree/part of tree that may cause harm to people or property (e.g., car). If treeis a hazard, complete additional hazard identification form.16

Appendix 5. Tree hazard data sheet for volunteer-based urban forest inventories.(Explanation is provided during tree hazard training.)17

Appendix 6. Property access request form.Dear Homeowner:Local volunteers representing [sponsor] will be conducting an urban tree inventory throughout 2014 and 2015.This project will utilize the i-Tree Eco - Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) Model developed by the US Forest Serviceto quantify the composition (tree type, size, health, etc.) and environmental benefits of [city]’s trees. Statewide, urban trees are worth billions of dollars and annually provide millions of dollars’ worth of environmental benefits.In addition, the volunteers will assess the health condition of the trees so that the City can prioritize pruning andremovals. Altogether, this information is needed to develop a comprehensive urban forest management plan for[city].Approximately 200 randomly distributed 1/10 acre sample plots have been identified throughout the City. Oneof these plots (or a portion thereof) is located on your property. We are requesting permission to access youryard to collect information on trees within the sample plot including tree type, size, crown coverage and density,and overall health. There are no immediate benefits

Several urban forest inventory software packages are available. Some are freeware (licensed to use free of charge), while others can be fairly expensive. Inventory software should have some basic data entry fields such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) coordinates and tree species. Preferably, additional entry fields would