Transcription

DD354P1000591Guide X.qxd2/9/073:44 PMPage 1Force & Motion Activity TubDesigned to meet these objectives:Students will be able to describe Newton’s First, Second, and Third Laws of Motion and identify examplesof these laws at work in the world around them.Students will know that unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed of an object’s motion.Students will understand qualities of motion including position, velocity, acceleration, and momentum, aswell as forces which hinder motion, like friction.What’s Included Activity guide with 5 small marbles Cart launcher 12 straws 2 wooden carts Wall chart 12 balloons 2 wooden ramps 8 experiment cards 36 feet of string Measuring tape 25 vocabulary cards 5 feet of tubing 2 pieces of sandpaper 12 large marbles Stopwatch Storage tubreproduciblesUsing the Force and Motion Activity TubThe perfect tool to set learning in motion, thisall-in-one activity tub has everything you needto help students learn about force and motion.The materials in the tub give students hands-onexperiences with concepts like gravity, velocity,acceleration, friction, and more. As studentsrace cars on ramps, build roller coasters, andwatch balloon rockets zoom by, they will trulysee Newton’s laws in action.The easy-to-follow experiment cards,reproducibles, vocabulary cards, and othersupplies are all designed to support nationalscience standards. The activities are simple toset up and kid-friendly enough for students todo on their own or in small groups. We’ve alsoincluded plenty of background information onDD354Ages 9 2007 Lakeshore(800) 428 - 4414www.lakeshorelearning.comeach topic, so you can dive right in to theexperiments. As you teach your students aboutforce and motion, these memorable activitieswill really have an impact on them!NOTE: Each experiment or activity found in theguide or on the experiment cards features a listof the materials needed to complete it at thetop. Supplies that are provided in the activitytub are shown in bold print, while those youneed to supply yourself are in italics—so it’salways easy to see exactly what you need.

DD354P1000591Guide X.qxd2/9/073:44 PMPage 3Table of ContentsBackground InformationThe Basics of Force and Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Activities & ReproduciblesActivity 1 KWL Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Activity 2 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Activity 3 Introducing Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Activity 4 Force & Motion Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Activity 5 “Force & Motion” Experiment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Activity 6 Balancing Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Activity 7 “What Is Friction?” Experiment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Activity 8 “What’s the Speed?” Experiment 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Activity 9 “Cart Launcher” Experiment 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Activity 10 Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Activity 11 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Activity 12 “Rocket Race” Experiment 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Activity 13 Push & Pull Posters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Activity 14 Reaction Racers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Activity 15 “Marble Momentum” Experiment 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Activity 16 “Roller Coaster” Experiment 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Activity 17 Catch That Can! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Activity 18 “Marble Race” Experiment 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Activity 19 “Where’s That Word?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Activity 20 Laws of the Land: Newton & Seat Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Reproducible: Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Reproducible: Vocabulary Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Reproducible: Science Log Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Reproducible: Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Reproducible: Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Reproducible: Where’s That Word? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Reproducible: Write an Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Assessment Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

DD354P1000591Guide X.qxd2/9/073:44 PMPage 4The Basics of Force & MotionA force is a push or a pull. Much of what we know about forces and their resultingmotions comes from the ideas of Sir Isaac Newton. A mathematician and scientist, Newtonlived in England during the 1600s. He published his observations and theories about forceand motion in 1687. Even though Newton’s document is now hundreds of years old, the three“laws” he presented are still the foundation of modern physics.To explore force and motion, weneed to understand Newton’s three laws and be able to identify them in the world around us.Newton’s First Law of Motion An object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay inmotion, unless acted upon by an outside, unbalanced force.Newton’s First Law basically argues that objects—whether they are staying still ormoving—tend to keep on doing what they’re doing until something interferes. When we putsomething down, it tends to stay in that spot until someone or something moves it. Thesecond part of this law—that a moving object will stay in motion—is more difficult to grasp.It’s hard to picture an object in motion forever since moving objects always seem to slowdown at some point.When objects slow down or stop moving, it’s always due to an outside force, like frictionor air resistance. Friction occurs when two objects rub against each other. As a skier movesover the snow, the contact between the skis and the snow creates sliding friction. An object(like a skateboard) rolling over a surface creates rolling friction.Newton’s First Law is also called the “law of inertia.” Inertia is another word to describe anobject’s tendency to stay in motion or at rest unless an outside force interferes.Balanced and Unbalanced ForcesNewton’s First Law of Motion assumes that the forces acting on the object are balanced.When a book is at rest on a table, the force of gravity pushing down on the book is equal tothe force of the desk pushing up. The forces acting on the book are balanced, so the bookstays put. The same is true of objects in motion. If the forces acting on a moving object arebalanced, and no other outside forces interfere, the object would keep on moving forever.Unbalanced forces cause a change in position or motion. If two people are arm wrestlingand both exert the exact same amount of force, their arms will be deadlocked in the samespot. The balanced forces cancel each other out, causing a state of equilibrium where thereis no motion or change. As soon as one person exerts more force, the forces becomeunbalanced. Unbalanced forces always result in motion. In the case of the arm wrestling, thestronger arm will overtake the weaker arm and push it down.Once an object is set into motion, we can measure how fast it travels and calculate itsspeed. We can also calculate the velocity, which describes the speed and direction of amoving object. If the moving object travels at the same, unchanging velocity, it has aconstant speed. A change in velocity (speeding up) causes acceleration.4

DD354P1000591Guide X.qxd2/9/073:44 PMPage 5Newton’s Second Law of Motion Acceleration of an object depends on the force and mass.While Newton’s First Law describes how objects behave when forces are balanced, hissecond law is about what happens when two forces are unbalanced. Newton’s Second Lawsays that once an object is set in motion, its acceleration will depend on two things: force andmass. In fact, this law of motion is often expressed as an equation: Force equals mass timesacceleration (F ma).Force and acceleration are proportional to each other—the amount of force is equal tothe amount of acceleration. The greater the force exerted on an object, the more it willaccelerate. For example, the harder you kick a ball, the farther and faster it will travel.The opposite is true of mass. The more mass an object has, the less it will accelerate. If youkick a tennis ball and a bowling ball with the same amount of force, the heavy bowling ball isgoing to move slower and go a shorter distance than the tennis ball. A heavier objectrequires more force to set it in motion.Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action, there is a reaction that is equal in magnitude and opposite indirection.Forces always occur in pairs, and Newton’s Third Law of Motion helps us understand therelationship between pairs of forces. Every time a force, or action, occurs, it causes a reaction.We can describe the reaction in terms of its strength, or magnitude, and also its direction.The magnitude of the action is equal to the magnitude of the reaction. For example, if youtoss a pebble into the water, it’s going to create a small ripple or splash. If you hurl a largeboulder at the water, the splash is going to be bigger. The force of the action and reactionalways match up.While an action and its reaction are equal in magnitude, they are opposite in direction.The rock plunges down into the water, but the water splashes up. When you throw or shootsomething forward, the recoil of the force pushes you backward. Every time a force acts on anobject, it causes a reaction force in the opposite direction.Kinetic & Potential EnergyEnergy is the ability to do work. An object doesn’t have to be in motion to possessenergy. Potential energy is energy that’s stored in an object. (In fact, it’s also referred to asstored energy.) An object’s position or circumstances give it potential energy. A spring onthe bottom of a pogo stick has potential energy when someone is standing on the pogostick. The coil of the spring compresses when pressure is applied, storing up energy that willlater be released. The more height and mass an object has, the more gravitational potentialenergy it has.Once an object is in motion, it has kinetic energy. When the spring compresses andreleases, the kinetic energy of the spring pushes the pogo stick and its rider up into the air.When the person jumps on the pogo stick and the spring compresses again, more potentialenergy is stored in the spring. When the spring releases, the kinetic energy of the springpushes the rider up once again.5

DD354P1000591Guide X.qxd2/9/073:44 PMPage 6KWL ChartActivity 1What You Need Chart paperDirectionsExplain to your students that you arebeginning a new topic in physical science.Review the differences between physicalscience, life science, and earth science. Tellthe class that your new topic is going to beforce and motion. Make a KWL Chart onchart paper (see the illustration at right).Divide your class into groups and haveeach group make a KWL Chart. Ask themto list something they already know aboutforce and motion, and then to write down things they want to find out. Bring the whole class backtogether and invite a member from each group to record their group’s ideas on the classroom chart.Post this classroom KWL Chart where students can see it, and refer to it as the class continues tostudy force and motion.Newton’s First LawWhat You Need Newton’s First Law (page 18)DirectionsInvite students to share what they know about SirIsaac Newton. Some of th

Activity 20 Laws of the Land: . moving—tend to keep on doing what they’re doing until something interferes.When we put something down, it tends to stay in that spot until someone or something moves it.The second part of this law—that a moving object will stay in motion—is more difficult to grasp. It’s hard to picture an object in motion forever since moving objects always seem to .