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Electronic Student Academic System (E-SAS) For Secondary School211Electronic Student Academic System (E-SAS) For Secondary SchoolJunaida SulaimanFaculty of Computer Systems and Software EngineeringLocked Bag 12, 25000 Kuantan,Pahang,[email protected] Hasmat Mat YaminFaculty of Computer Systems and Software EngineeringLocked Bag 12, 25000 Kuantan,Pahang,MalaysiaNoorhuzaimi Karimah Mohd NoorFaculty of Computer Systems and Software EngineeringLocked Bag 12, 25000 Nowadays computers are used to manage dailyworks. School management uses computer toprocess academic assessments. For example,teachers store students mark and grades incomputer software such as Microsoft Office.However computers are merely used to storestudents assessments and there are no systematicplace for analyzing and turning that data intoinformation and knowledge. Therefore, ElectronicStudent Academic System (E-SAS) is developed tofacilitate teachers and administration staffs inmanaging students’ profile and academicassessments. Two types of assessments are includedin E-SAS which are mid-term test and final yeartest. E-SAS which follows Rational Unified Processis implemented using Hypertext Pre-Processor(PHP) and MySQL software. As a result, users findthat E-SAS is capable of displaying and searchingstudent information. It also can calculate andproduce assessments reports for each type of tests.1. IntroductionThe concept of smart school was introduced byMalaysian Ministry of Education as an effort tosupport critical and creative teaching and learning[1]. One of the components of Smart Schoolconcept is management and administration. Thiscomponent emphasizes on using technology whichis another component in the Smart School conceptto manage school resources more efficiently andeffectively. Based on this concept, principal shoulduse computerized system to manage resources suchas students’ profile and subjects’ assessments.Many schools have their own system to managestudents profile and assessments. Common practiceis by recording the student information in a recordbook. Students’ information is obtained from theregistration form completed by the parents whenthey registered their children for the first time. Thispractice has some weaknesses such as longer timeto search the student profile because need to searchevery record in the logbook, the possibility ofmisplacement of record book and vulnerability ofstudent record to be accessed by unauthorized person.In the secondary school, several assessments areprepared to evaluate student performance. Types ofassessments are monthly test, mid term test and endof year test. At the end of each test, the class teacherrecords student’s marks and grades in the recordbook and basic computer software such as MicrosoftExcel. After that, the class teacher need to determinestudent’s ranking in class based on their testperformances. However, it takes time to do thesetasks because they need to formulate their owncalculation for class ranking. These tasks will bemuch easier if all calculation for class ranking can beautomatically done when the teacher enter test marks.Therefore, this situation had motivated us to developan electronic Student Academic System (E-SAS) inorder to manage student information and assessments.This system allows school administration (principaland clerk) to manage student profile and classteacher to manage two assessments which are midterm and end of year tests.This paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, wepresent the concepts behind E-SAS, which includesthe concept of smart school, academic system anddata management. Section 3 discusses themethodology in developing E-SAS. Section 4presents the outputs and results of E-SAS. In Section5, we finally conclude this paper.2. Concepts of the SystemThis section presents the concepts behind E-SAS.Smart SchoolThe smart school concept is one of the seven flagshipapplication that are part of Malaysia’s MultimediaSuper Corridor (MSC) project [2]. The purpose ofsmart school is to develop skilled workers for theInformation Age and to fulfill the goals of theNational Philosophy of Education. It is means thatthe teaching and learning practices and schoolmanagement must be systematically reinvented.One of the components of Smart School is a smartschool management. This component has severalCommunications of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

212Junaida Sulaiman, Roziatul Hasmat Mat Yamin and Noorhuzaimi Karimah Mohd Noorcharacteristics and one of its characteristic isstudent affairs. Student affairs deal with stration, counselling, health, insurance andothers [2]. The result of having a smart schoolmanagement is a comprehensive student recordssystem for the storage, retrieval and reporting of allstudent data. Therefore, E-SAS is developed toprovide a systematic student profile and academicassessment for secondary school.Academic SystemMalaysian school uses written based assessment toevaluate student academic performance. There aretwo categories of written assessments which areschool level assessment and national levelassessment. National level assessments forsecondary school are Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR) and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM)[3].While school level assessments for secondaryschool are consist of monthly, mid year and end ofyear tests [4]. The results from these testsdetermine the ranking of students in class [4].These disciplines consist of analysis activity, designactivity and development activity.Analysis activityOver the last decade, project managementinformation systems have become comprehensivesystems that support the entire life cycle of projects,project programs, and project portfolios [8].Requirements definition or system analysis is thefirst real stage of software development. The purposeof requirements determination is to provide anarrative definition of functional and non-functionalrequirements that the clients expected in theimplemented and deployed system [9].E-SAS applies three fact-finding techniques ingathering functional requirements. These techniquesare interviews, sampling of existing documentation,forms and files, and observation of workenvironment. The requirements are then analyzedand designed using Unified Modelling Language(UML). Two outputs are designed in this stage whichare use case and sequence diagrams. Use caseThe class teacher is responsible to managestudents’ assessments result. Subjects’ marks arerecorded in a record book and class ranking isderived from the total and average marks of allsubjects. This process is carried out manually usingbasic computer software such as Microsoft Excel.Data ManagementOrganizations today operate in a highly global,fast-paced and competitive environment. One ofthe key resources they need to perform their taskseffectively and efficiently is data management.Data management is a terminology that usually usefor referring to the system, which provide theinterface that able to hide specifically physical fileoperation, hence they can fully concentrate to thedata logical. Database system is a software systemclass that relate with Database ManagementSystem and file management system [5]. We canconsider a database as a collection of related dataand the Database Management System (DBMS) asthe software that manages and controls access tothe database. The database approach overcomesmost of the problems in manual system and filebased system [5, 6, 7]. It is intended to meet theinformational needs of all users at all department oroperational level as well as users at the strategiclevel.3. MethodologyE-SAS adopts rational unified process (RUP) for itssoftware process model. RUP is structured in twodimensions which are phases and disciplines. Thissection discusses the disciplines that took place ineach phase during the development of E-SAS.diagram contains use cases and actors. Use casesrepresent system functionality and actors representthe people or system that provides from the system[4]. Fig 2 shows the use case diagram for E-SAS. .Fig 1. Use Case diagram for E-SASThree actors are involved in E-SAS and they areadmin, super admin and teacher. Admin is theadministrator of this system. The actor of admin isthe person that responsible to handle activity aboutacademic system at school. This actor can access thelogin module and view student profile. Super adminis a clerk at school. This actor responsible to add,edit and view student profile. The teacher actormeans the teacher of the school. This actor isresponsible to edit, view and search student profile.They are also responsible for student assessmentsmodules.Communications of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

Electronic Student Academic System (E-SAS) For Secondary School213The sequence diagrams for E-SAS are shown inFig 2 and Fig 3 respectively. The sequence diagramin Fig 2 shows interaction for super admin to addstudent profile. Super admin is responsible to enterinformation of the students. The interaction thatoccurs is as follows: First, super admin must selectadd student profile menu that display at main page.Then he can key in student info into student profileform and click the ‘save’ button to submit it intothe database. After that, student profile will besaved in database.Fig 2. Sequence diagram for Add Student ProfileThe sequence diagram in Fig 3 shows theinteraction which occurs when teacher uses theassessment module. Teacher can add student’smark for mid-year test and final-year test. To addstudent marks, teacher needs to choose type ofassessment. After that, the teacher can key in markson the student mark form and clicks the ‘save’button to store data to database.Fig 3. Sequence diagram for Add AssessmentDesign activityThe design phase is consists of architecturalstructure for software programs, databases, the userinterface and the operating environment. Our nextdiscussion will cover these aspects.The interfaces of E-SAS is created usingMacromedia DreamWeaver 8. Besides, the designof interfaces follows the Graphical User Interface(GUI) guidelines. The purpose is to provide userwith easy to use system. A system must be able toeliminate excessive data entry by enabling the userto select on valid values, rather than requiring themto input text. There are three types of interface inE-SAS which are interface for super admin, adminand teacher. These interfaces differ in theirfunctionality. Fig 4 shows the interface for superadmin. The super admin interface allows the schoolclerk to add teacher profile and also to add, edit andview student profile.Fig 4 Interface for super admin (school clerk)The interface for admin is shown in Fig 5. Thisinterface is dedicated for the school principal. Itallows the principal to view students’ profile, searchstudents by class and view students assessment result.Fig 5. Interface for admin (school principal)Communications of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

214Junaida Sulaiman, Roziatul Hasmat Mat Yamin and Noorhuzaimi Karimah Mohd NoorTable 1: Data dictionary for student profile tableThe teacher interface is shown in Fig 6. By usingthis interface, teacher can view and edit personalprofile, edit, view and search student profile andaccess the assessment section.Database management system helps organizationsto organize or structure their data in a logical way.In designing the relational database, there are threemajor database models, which are; the conceptualdatabase, the logical database and the physicaldatabase. The emphasis of logical database modelis on ‘logic’, which is a readable method and usefulfor representing the knowledge [10]. This databasedesign is most frequently used because itestablishes a simple data form for each relation andfor many-to-many relationships [10]. One of theaspects in database design is data dictionary. Datadictionary isDevelopment activityDevelopment phase begins after analysis activityfinished. During this phase, the coding process isstarted. Apart from that, the hardware and softwarerequirements for E-SAS need to be considered. Ournext discussion will cover on hardware and softwarerequirement.There are several software and hardware thatselected to complete the development of the project.The software and hardware specification are showedin Table 3 and Table 4 respectively.Table 3: Software Specification for E-SASTable 4: Hardware Specification for E-SASFig 6. Interface for class teachera set of metadata that contains definitions andrepresentations of data elements in a database. Inother word, a data dictionary contains a list of allfiles in the database, the number of records in eachfile, and the names and types of each field. Mostdatabase management systems keep the datadictionary hidden from users to prevent them fromaccidentally destroying its contents. There are fivetables in E-SAS which are login, admin,mark main, student profile, teacher, and subject.The data dictionary for student profile table in ESAS is shown in Table 1.4. System Output and ResultThis section presents the output and result from theimplementation of E-SAS. E-SAS has three types ofusers which are school principal, clerk and classteacher. The system is capable of:(i) Adding student profile and t.Communications of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

Electronic Student Academic System (E-SAS) For Secondary School(ii) Updating and searching student informationincluding personal information and studentresult.(iii) Providing the security of information aboutstudent profile and academic result that arekept in database.(iv) Adding student marks and calculating totalmarks of all subjects.(v) Arranging the ranking of student in class.215Fig 8. The interface for ‘Search student profile’Fig 8. The interface for ‘Search student profile’Fig 10.The interface for ‘View class ranking’Fig 7 shows the interface to add new student profileinto the computerized system. This function ismanaged by the school clerk (super admin). Theclerk will key in all information about student intoE-SAS and click the ‘submit’ button. With a clickof the button, the student information is added tothe database. Fig 8 shows the interface to search forstudent academic profile from the database. Theprincipal and class teacher must key in the name ofstudent before using the search function. Thesearch result will display the name of student andtheir profile. Fig 9 shows the interface to addstudent mark. This function is accessed by classteacher and he must choose the type of test beforekey in the result. After key in the result, teachermust click the ‘save’ button to update theinformation in the database. Fig 10 shows theinterface to view class ranking. This function isaccessed by class teacher after he has entered allstudent marks. This interface also enables the classteacher to print out the report of student marks andtheir class ranking.Fig 7. The interface for ‘Add student profile’5. ConclusionE-SAS has been developed to replace the manualsystem in managing student profile and assessmentsevaluation. E-SAS saves teacher’s time to managestudent assessment process compared to the manualpractices. The computerized records provide bettermanagement and manipulation of data, throughsearching of student profile and generating of classranking. Student profile is stored in a secureddatabase compared to the traditional file basedsystem. Future enhancement to the E-SASfunctionality includes adding another interfacemodule specifically for subject teacher to key instudent mark and automatically submits them to theclass teacher.6. References[1] Smart School Department, Socio-EconomicDevelopment Division, Multimedia DevelopmentCorporation Bhd (MDEC).The Smart SchoolConcept. Retrieved May23, 2008, fromhttp://www.msc.com.my/smartschool/whatis/p 2.asp.[2] Smart School Project Team. The MalaysianSmart School, A MSC Flagship Application, AConceptual Blueprint. Retrieved May 23, 2008, ueprint.pdfCommunications of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

216Junaida Sulaiman, Roziatul Hasmat Mat Yamin and Noorhuzaimi Karimah Mohd Noor[3] Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Pengenalankepada sekolah menengah. Retrieved May 23, 2008,http://www.moe.gov.my/tayang.php?laman pgenal menengah&unit pelajar&bhs my[4] Roziatul H.M.Y., Disertation Thesis: StudentAcademic System for Secondary School. UniversitiMalaysia Pahang, 2007.[5] Connolly, T.M. and Begg, C.E. DatabaseSystem A Practical Approach to Design,Implementation and Management. Addison-Wesley,2005.[6] Noraziah A., Disertation Thesis: TenderManagement in Kadastra. University PutraMalaysia, 2002.[7] M.V, Database Design, Application,Development, and Administration, McGraw-Hill,New York, 2004.[8] Ahlemann, F., “Towards a ConceptualReference Model for Project ManagementInformation Systems”, International Journal ofProject Management (2008), doi:10.1016/j.ijproman. 2008.01.008, article in press.[9] Maciaszek . Requirements Analysis and SystemDesign. Pearson Publication Limited,EssexEngland, 2005.[10] Lin, C. and Hong, C., “Using CustomerKnowledge in Designing Electronic Catalog”,Expert Systems with Applications, Vol 34, Issue1, ScienceDirect, January 2008, pp. 119-127.Copyright 2008 by the International BusinessInformation Management Association (IBIMA).All rights reserved. Authors retain copyright fortheir manuscripts and provide this journal with apublication permission agreement as a part ofIBIMA copyright agreement. IBIMA may notnecessarily agree with the content of themanuscript. The content and proofreading of thismanuscript as well as and any errors are the soleresponsibility of its author(s). No part or all of thiswork should be copied or reproduced in digital,hard, or any other format for commercial usewithout written permission. To purchase reprintsof this article please e-mail: [email protected] of the IBIMAVolume 5, 2008

data logical. Database system is a software system class that relate with Database Management System and file management system [5]. We can consider a database as a collection of related data and the Database Management System (DBMS) as the software that manages and controls access to the database