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mgb q mvab cÖwµqvAdjusting Procedure3f wgKvIntroductionAvgiv Rvwb, †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU wnmveKv‡ji mKj †jb‡ b mswkøó wnmve eQ‡i †kl bv n‡q GKvwaK eQ‡ie ß n‡Z cv‡i Avevi, †h‡Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU wbw ó wnmveKvj †k‡l mwVK Avw K Ae ’v Rvbvi cÖ‡qvRb n‡Zcv‡i GgZve ’vqB cÖwZôv‡bi †jb‡ b ‡jvi Rb mgš q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb nq †Kv‡bv wnmve eQ‡ii Avqe qmswkøó wnmveKv‡jB † Lv‡Z nq, wKš‘ †m Avqe q mswkøó wnmveKv‡j bM‡ cvIqv bvI †h‡Z cv‡i ev cÖ vb KivbvI n‡Z cv‡i †hgb: wW‡m i gv‡mi †eZb cieZ x eQ‡ii Rvbyqvix gv‡m cÖ vb n‡Z cv‡i Avevi wW‡m i gv‡mcÖ Ë †mev Avq Rvbyqvwi gv‡m cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i mgš q Rv‡e vi gva ‡g e‡Kqv ev AwMÖg welq ‡jv we‡ePbvqG‡b cÖK Z Avqe q wbiƒcY Ki‡Z nq G Rb B mgš q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb BDwbU mgvwßi mgqBDwbU mgvwßi m‡e v”P mgq 1 mßvnGB BDwb‡Ui cvVmg ncvV 3.1 : mgš q vwLjvi msÁv I cÖ‡qvRbxqZvcvV 3.2 : mgš q vwLjvi cÖKvi‡f I wbqgvewjcvV 3.3 : bM vbwfwËK I e‡KqvwfwËK wnmveiÿYcvV 3.4 : mgvcbx vwLjv I wecixZ vwLjvcvV 3.5 : mgš q vwLjv : MvwYwZK mgm v I Gi mgvavb

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqwnmveweÁvb bxwZcvV-3.1 mgb q vwLjvi msÁv I cÖ‡qvRbxqZvDefinition and Necessity of Adjusting EntriesD‡Ïk G cvV †k‡l Avcwb mgš q vwLjv wK Zv ej‡Z cvi‡eb mgš q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv e vL v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb mgb q vwLjvi msÁvDefinition of adjusting entriesGKwU wnmveKv‡ji mKj †jb‡ b mswkøó wnmve eQ‡i †kl bv n‡q GKvwaK eQ‡i e ß n‡Z cv‡i P ovšÍ Avw KweeiYx cÖYqb c e eZ x I cieZ x wnmveKv‡ji hveZxq Avqe q‡K mgš q Ki‡Z nq Ges mswkøó wnmveKv‡jihveZxq Avqe q‡K wnmvefy³ K‡i H wnmve m‡bi cÖK Z Avw K djvdj A vr wbU Avq ev wbU ÿwZ wbiƒcY Kivnq Avi Giƒc wbU Avq ev wbU ÿwZ wbiƒc‡Yi Rb Amgwb Z AvB‡Ug ‡jv‡K ev dv ‡jv‡K †h Rv‡e v vwLjvigva ‡g wnmvefz³ Kiv nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjv ejv nq Avevi mnR K vq ejv hvq, e‡Kqv Avq, e‡Kqv e q evLiP, AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP, Abv vwq cvIbv mwÂwZ, AePq BZ vw welqmg n‡K mswkøó wnmveLv‡Zi mv‡ mgb qmvab(†hvM ev we‡qvM) Kivi Rb †h vwLjv e envi Kiv nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjv ejv nq wnmveKvj †k‡l wnmvemg ‡nie v‡j݇K nvjbvMv (Update) Kivi Rb †h Rv‡e v vwLjv † Iqv nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjv ejv nq mgb q vwLjv m ú‡K cÖ Ë wewfbœ †jL‡Ki msÁv wb‡ œ cÖ Ë n‡jv:1. Weygandt , Kieso & Kimmel e‡jb, "Adjusting entries are made at the end of an accounting periodfor the revenue recognition and matching principles" A vr Avq xK wZi bxwZ I wgjKiY bxwZi AbymiYwbwðZ nIqvi Rb mgb q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb nq 2. Pyle & Larson e‡jb, "Adjusting entries are journal entries to assign revenues to the period in whichearned and to match revenue and expenses." A vr wbw ó mg‡qi Avq wba viY Ges Av‡qi mv‡ e qmgb ‡qi Rb †h Rv‡e vi cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjv ejv nq DcwiD³ msÁv ‡jvi Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq, Avw K weeiYxmg n cÖ ‡zÍ Zi cÖv v‡j †iIqvwgjfz³ wjwLZ wnmv‡ei†Rimg ‡ni Am ú Y Zv †nZz jvf-†jvKmvb wbY ‡qi mwVKZv I m úwË v‡qi b vh wPÎ (Fair view) cÖ k ‡biwbwg‡Ë, wnmveweÁv‡bi Avq wPwýZKiY bxwZ (Revenue recognition principles) I Avq-e ‡qi wgjKiY(Matching principle) bxwZ †gvZv‡eK Amgwš Z †jb‡ bmg n wnmvefz³ Kivi cÖ‡qvRb nq, †m ‡jv wnmvefz³Kivi Rb cÖ Ë Rv‡e v vwLjvB mgb q vwLjv mgb q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvNecessity of adjusting entriescÖwZwU wnmveKvj †k‡l Kviev‡ii djvdj wbY q Ges Avw K Ae ’v cÖ k b Kiv wnmveweÁv‡bi Ab Zg cÖavbD‡Ïk Avq wPwýZKiY bxwZ (Revenue Recognition Principle) I Avqe q ms‡hvM bxwZ (Matching Principle)wbwðZ Ki‡Yi Rb mgb q Gw›Uªi cÖ‡qvRb nq †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU Avw K eQ‡ii mwVK Financial reportingGi Rb B Adjusting entries Gi cÖ‡qvRb nq mgb q Gw›Uª † qvi d‡j cÖwZôv‡bi wbw ó wnmveKv‡ji mwVK gybvdv ev ÿwZ †hgb Rvbv hvq †Zgwb cÖwZôv‡bim úwË, vq I gvwjKvbv Z¡ m ú‡K mwVK Z Rvbv m e nq wnmveKv‡ji Acwi‡kvwaZ LiP, AcÖvß Avq,m úwËi AePq, AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP, AwMÖg cÖvc Avq‡K wnmv‡e aiv bv n‡j cÖwZôv‡bi mwVK m úwË, vq, gvwjKvbv Z,¡ gybvdv ev ÿwZi cwigvY Rvbv m e n‡e bv BDwbU wZbc„ôv 72

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqweweG †cÖvMÖvg†iIqvwg‡j A‡bK mgq nvjbvMv (Update) Z bvI vK‡Z cv‡i we‡kl K‡i AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP, e‡Kqv LiP,m úwËi AePq, †gqv vwšÍK wej cÖvwß, e eüZ mvcøvBR, m úwËi evRvig j eQi †k‡l wba viY BZ vw bvbv Kvi‡Ymgb q vwLjv w ‡Z nq wb‡ œ mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ eY bv Kiv n‡jv:1 wnmveKv‡ji mwVK Avqe q wbY q (Determination of accurate income expenditure in accountingperiod) : mswkøó wnmveKv‡ji mwVK Avqe ‡qi wnmve ivLvi Rb mgb q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb nq 2 e‡Kqv I AwMÖg Avqe ‡qi mgb qmvab (Adjustment of accruals & advances) : e‡Kqv (Accruals) A evAwMÖg (Prepayments) Avqe q Gi mwVK wnmvefzw³i Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q 3 wnmvebxwZi ev Íe cÖ‡qvM (Implementation of real accounting principles) : wnmveKvj bxwZ, Avqe qms‡hvM bxwZ, Pjgvb cÖwZôvb bxwZ I gybvdv wPwýZKiY bxwZi ev Íe cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q 4 †iKW wenxb †jb‡ b (Unrecorded transaction) : Kvievwi cÖwZôvb mvcøvBR GKKvjxb µq K‡i v‡K wnmveKv‡j Gi KZUzKz Ae eüZ i‡q‡Q Zv w ’i Kiv bv n‡j mwVK gybvdv wbY q m e nq bv e eüZmvcøvBR‡K LiP I Ae eüZ mvcøvBR †K m ú wn‡m‡e a‡i mgb q vwLjv cÖ v‡bi gva ‡g Avw K weeiYxˆZwi Ki‡Z nq 5 ev cov †jb‡ b (Omitted transaction) : ev cov †jb‡ b A vr †h mKj †jb‡ b mswkøó wnmveKv‡jig‡a msMwVZ nq wKšÍz wej cwi‡kv‡ai Rb cvIqv bv †M‡j †hgbÑ BDwUwjwU wej (we y r wej, cvwb wej, M vmwej) †m wj wnmvefz³ Kivi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q 6 ’vqx m úwËi AePq wnmvefz³KiY (Recording depreciation of fixed assets) : mgq AwZevwnZ nIqvimv‡ ’vqx m ú‡ i AePqRwbZ wnmve cª k ‡bi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ Acwinvh 7 mwVK jvf-ÿwZ wbY q (To ascertain accurate Profit/loss) : mwVK jvf-ÿwZ wbY ‡qi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q 8 m ú‡ i b vh g j vqb (Reasonable valuation of assets) : †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi m ú mg ‡ni h v I b vh g j vqb † Lv‡Z n‡j D³ cÖwZôv‡bi mswkøó Avq, e q, m ú I v‡qi m‡½ cÖ‡qvRbxq mgb qmvab cÖ‡qvRbnq mgb q vwLjv Qvov DØZ cÎ ˆZwi Ki‡j m ú‡ i cÖK Z g j cÖwZdwjZ nq bv G Kvi‡YI mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ Acwimxg 9 gRy‡ i g j vqb (Inventory valuation) : Ae eüZ gRy c‡Y i g j vqbc eK wnmv‡e cÖ k ‡bi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q Dc‡iv³ Av‡jvPbvi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z GwU cÖZxqgvb nq †h, mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ Ab xKvh mvims‡ÿc:wbw ó mg‡qi Avq wba viY Ges Av‡qi mv‡ e q mgb ‡qi Rb †h Rv‡e vi cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjvejv nq †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi †Kv‡bv GKwU Avw K eQ‡ii mwVK Financial reporting Gi Rb B Adjustingentries Gi cÖ‡qvRb nq wnmveKvj bxwZ, Avqe q ms‡hvM bxwZ, Pjgvb cÖwZôvb bxwZ I gybvdv wPwýZKiYbxwZ ‡jvi ev Íe cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb mgb q vwLjvi iæZ¡ i‡q‡Q BDwbU wZbc„ôv 73

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqcvV-3.2wnmveweÁvb bxwZmgb q vwLjvi cÖKvi‡f I wbqgvewjmg nTypes and Rules of Adjusting EntriesD‡Ïk G cvV †k‡l Avcwb mgš q vwLjvi cÖKvi‡f ‡jv ej‡Z cvi‡eb mgš q vwLjv †jLvi †KŠkj e vL v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb mgb q vwLjvi cÖKvi‡f mg nTypes of adjusting entriesmgb q vwLjv‡K cÖavYZ AwMÖg (Advances) I e‡Kqv (Payable, Accruals, outstanding or unpaid) G y'fv‡M fvMKiv nq cÖ‡Z K‡K Avevi y'fv‡M fvM Kiv nq wb‡P mgb q Rv‡e vi †kªwYwefvM Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv:1 AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP (Prepaid or unexpired expenses) : †h mKj LiP bM‡ cÖ vb Kiv nq Ges e env‡ii c ‡e m úwË wn‡m‡e wjwce Kiv nq †m mg Í LiP‡K AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP ejv nq †hgb AwMÖg cÖ Ë wegv 6000 UvKvGi g‡a PjwZ wnmveKv‡j DËxY n‡q‡Q 4500 UvKv G‡ÿ‡Î mgb q, vwLjv n‡e wb œiƒc:†WweU (UvKv) †µwWU (UvKv)wegv LiP (Insurance expense)4,500AwMÖg wegv LiP (Prepaid insurance)4,500(To record expired prepaid insurance)2 AwMÖg cÖvß Avq (Unearned revenue/advance income) : †Kv‡bv MÖvnK hLb cY ev †mevcÖvwßi c ‡e Bwe‡µZv †Kv úvwb‡K bM A AwMÖg cÖ vb K‡i v‡K Giƒc †ÿ‡Î AwMÖg Avq ev AbycvwR Z Avq m„wó nq †hgbAbycvwR Z Avq (Unearned revenue) 12,000 UvKv Gi g‡a G eQi Avq n‡q‡Q 9,000 UvKv G‡ÿ‡Î mgb qRv‡e v n‡e wb œiƒc :†WweU (UvKv) †µwWU (UvKv)AwMÖg Avq (Unearned revenue)9,000Avq (Revenue)9,0003 e‡Kqv ev AcÖ Ë LiP (Accrued expenses/Expense Payable) : LiP msNwUZ n‡q‡Q wKšÍz cwi‡kva Kiv nqwbGiƒc LiP‡K e‡Kqv ev AcÖ Ë LiP e‡j †hgbÑ †eZb, fvov, Ki, my e‡Kqv n‡Z cv‡i mgb q Rv‡e v Kivimgq LiP wnmve †WweU n‡e Ges vq wnmve †µwWU †hgbÑ †eZb e‡Kqv Av‡Q 4,000 UvKv mgb q vwLjv n‡ewb œiƒc:†WweU (UvKv) †µwWU (UvKv)†eZb (Salary expense)4,000cÖ‡ q †eZb (Salaries payable)4,0004 e‡Kqv Avq/cÖvc Avq (Accrued revenue/Revenue receivable) : †mev cÖ vb Kiv n‡q‡Q A vr Avq AwR Zn‡q‡Q wKšÍz GL‡bv UvKv cvIqv hvqwb ZvB e‡Kqv ev cÖvc Avq Giƒc e‡Kqv ev cÖvc Avq mgb q vwLjvi mgqm ú I Avq DfqB e„w cvq †hgbÑ AvBwb †mev cÖ vb eve 500 UvKv GL‡bv cvIbv i‡q‡Q Rv‡e v n‡eцWweU (UvKv) †µwWU (UvKv)cÖvc AvBwb †mev Avq (Law service revenue receivable)500AvBwb †mev Avq (Law service revenue)500BDwbU wZbc„ôv 74

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqweweG †cÖvMÖvgmgb q vwLjvi wbqgvewjmg nRules for adjusting entriesSl.1.Adjustments (mgb qmg n)Expenses Accrued (e‡Kqv/AcÖ Ë Li‡Pi Rb ) :(a) Salaries Expenses Accrued/Payable(b) Rent Expenses Accrued(c) Payroll Expense Accrued2.Prepaid Expenses initially recorded as assets(AwMÖg LiP cÖv wgKfv‡e m ú wnmv‡e wjwce n‡j)(a) Prepaid Rent (Trial balance)(b) Prepaid Insurance (Trial. Balance)(c) Prepaid General Expenses (Trial Balance)3.When Supplies are treated as an Assets(mvcøvBR‡K cÖv wgKfv‡e m ú wnmv‡e wjwce n‡j)(a) Supplies (Trial Balance)(b) Office Supplies (Trial Balance)4.When Supplies are treated as an expenses(mieivn cÖv wgKfv‡e LiP wnmv‡e ai‡j)(a) Supplies expenses (Trial Balance)(b) Supplies on hand5.Prepaid Insurance initially record as expenses :(AwMÖg LiP cÖv wgKfv‡e LiP wnmv‡e wjwce Ki‡j)(a) Insurance Expenses(b) Rent Expenses6.Revenue initially recorded as liabilities :(AwMÖg Avq cÖv wgKfv‡e vq wnmv‡e wjwce Ki‡j)(a) Unearned Service Revenue(b) Unearned Rent Revenue(c) Unearned Other Revenue7.Advance Revenue initially recorded as revenue(AwMÖg Avq cÖv wgKfv‡e wnmvefz³ Ki‡j)(a) Service Revenue(b) Rent Revenue(c) Other Revenue8.Revenue Accrued (e‡Kqv Avq) :(a) Interest Revenue Accrued(b) Rent Revenue AccruedBDwbU wZbAdjusting Entries (mgb q Rv‡e vmg n)(a) Salary ExpensesSalaries payable(b) Rent expensesRent Payable(c) Payroll ExpensesPayroll Payable(a) Rent ExpensesPrepaid Rent(b) Insurance ExpensesPrepaid Insurance(c) General ExpensesPrepaid Gen. Expenses(a) Supplies expensesSupplies(b) Off. Supplies ExpensesOffice Supplies(a) SuppliesSupplies Expenses(b) SuppliesSupplies Expenses(a) Prepaid InsuranceInsurance Expenses(b) Prepaid RentRent expenses(a) Unearned Service RevenueService Revenue(b) Unearned Rent RevenueRent Revenue(c) Unearned Other RevenueOther Revenue(a) Service RevenueUnearned Service Revenue(b) Rent RevenueUnearned Rent Revenue(c) Other RevenueUnearned Other Revenue(a) Interest ReceivableInterest Revenue(b) Rent ReceivableRent Revenuec„ôv 75

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqwnmveweÁvb bxwZSl.Adjustments (mgb qmg n)(c) Service Revenue Accrued9.Allowance for un-collectible/Doubtful Accounts (Abv vwqcvIbv mwÂwZ)(a) Write off method(a) Bad Debts ExpensesUn-collectible expensesAccount Receivables(b) Allowance method(b) Bad Debts expensesUn-collectible expenseAllowance for doubtful A/c(c) Written of allowance for doubtful A/C(c) Allowance for doubtful A/cAccount Receivables(d) For bad debts recovered ( ywU Avjv v Entry n‡q v‡K)(d) i. Account ReceivablesAllowance for doubtful A/c(d) ii. CashAccount ReceivablesFor depreciation of assets(m úwËi AeP‡qi Rb )(a) Depreciation on equipment(a) Depreciation ExpensesAccumulated Dep.–Euipment(b) Depreciation on Furniture(b) Depreciation ExpensesAccumulated dep.-FurnitureFor deposited cheque dishonoredAccount Receivables(RgvK Z †PK cÖZ vL vb)BankInterest on CapitalInterest Expenses(g ja‡bi my‡ i Rb )CapitalInterest on DrawingCapital/Drawing(D‡Ëvj‡bi my‡ i Rb )Interest IncomeFor beginning inventoryIncome Summary(mgvcbx gRy gv‡ji Rb )InventoryFor Ending Inventory(a) If actual value is higher than book value then for(mgvcbx gRy gv‡ji Rb )difference (cy KÍ g j cÖK Zg j A‡cÿv †ewk n‡j)hw Perpetual Inventory System AbymiY Kiv nqInventoryCost of goods sold(b) If actual value is less then book value then fordifference (Kg n‡j)Cost of goods soldInventoryFor Ending Inventory (mgvcbx gRy c‡Y i Rb )(a) For the value of beginning inventoryhw Periodic Inventory System AbymiY Kiv nqIncome summeryMerchandise inventory(b) Ending inventoryIncome summeryFor Unrecorded PurchasePurchase(AwjwLZ e q)Account payablesFor Unrecorded salesAccount Receivables(AwjwLZ weµ‡qi Rb )SalesFor goods distributed as sampleAdvertising expenses(webv g ‡j cY weZiY)Cost of goods sold/PurchaseGoods sold without profitSales(gybvdvwenxb cY weµq)PurchaseUn-recorded Purchase of MachineMachineries(†gwkbvwi µq wnmvefz³ nqwb)Accounts payableGoods sold but not deliveredNo. Entry(weµq Kiv n‡q‡Q wKšÍz cY mieivn Kiv nqwb)For income tax provisionIncome tax expense(AvqKi mwÂwZi Rb )Income tax DwbU wZbAdjusting Entries (mgb q Rv‡e vmg n)(c) Accounts ReceivableService Revenuec„ôv 76

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we .39.40.41.42.43.44.weweG †cÖvMÖvgAdjustments (mgb qmg n)Adjusting Entries (mgb q Rv‡e vmg n)Goods sold but not delivered and included in ending Income summaryinventoryEnding inventoryInstallation of Machinery Included in wagesMachineriesWages expensesRepairs expense included in MachineryRepair Expenses(†gwkb †givgZ †gwk‡bi mv‡ hy³ Av‡Q)MachineriesUnrecorded/ Accrued IncomeAccount Receivables(AwjwLZ Avq)RevenueSet off. Account Receivable Against Accounts payableAccount payables(cÖvc wnmve cÖ‡ q wnmv‡ei mv‡ mgš q)Account ReceivablesProposed dividend (cÖ ÍvweZ jf vsk)Dividend expensesDividend payableDividend Transfer to Retained EarningsRetained earningsDividend expensesOpening Inventory Includes SuppliesSupplies expensesInventoryService provided but not billedAccounts Receivable(†mev cÖ vb wKšÍz wej Kiv nqwb)Service RevenueAccrued interest on InvestmentInterest Receivable(wewb‡qv‡Mi Ici my e‡Kqv)Interest RevenueAccrued Interest on loan Or Mortgage or Notes payableInterest expenses(FY ev cÖ‡ q †bv‡Ui my e‡Kqv)Interest payableDiscount or Allowance for accounts ReceivableDiscount expenses(cÖvc wnmv‡ei Dci evÆv mwÂwZ)Accounts ReceivableInterest earned but not receivedInterest Receivable(Avq AwR Z wKšÍz M„nxZ nqwb)Interest RevenueCash paid in by the proprietor included in salesSales(gvwjK cÖ Ë bM weµ‡qi g‡a AšÍf³z )CapitalGoods destroyed by fire and the insurance company Insurance claim ReceivableLoss by fireadmitted the claim partially(Av ‡b webô cY Ges wegv †Kv úvwbi AvswkK ÿwZc iY xKvi)Cost of goods soldGoods sent on sales or return basis, the confirmation not (a) Salesyet receivedAccount Receivables(weµq A ev †diZ wfwˇZ cY †cÖiY hv GLbI wbwðZ nq wb)(b) Merchandise InventoryCost of goods soldInterest on CapitalInterest expenses(g ja‡bi my )CapitalFor Deferred AdvertisementDeferred advertisement(wejw Z weÁvcb)Advertisement ExpensesFor Discount on account receivableDiscount Expenses(† bv vi evÆv)Allowance for discount on account receivableFor Goodwill written offAmortization(mybvg Ae‡jvcb)GoodwillProposed Dividend (cÖ ÍvweZ jf vskb)Dividend expensesDividend payablemvims‡ÿc:mvaviYZ wZbwU cwiw ’wZ‡Z mgš q Rv‡e v vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv † Lv † q h v: †Kv‡bv MÖvnK hw cY ev†mevcÖvwßi c ‡e B we‡µZv †Kv úvwb‡K bM A AwMÖg cÖ vb K‡i v‡K Giƒc †ÿ‡Î; LiP msNwUZ n‡q‡Q wKšÍzcwi‡kva Kiv nqwb Giƒc e‡Kqv Li‡Pi †ÿ‡Î †mev cÖ vb Kiv n‡q‡Q, A vr Avq AwR Z n‡q‡Q wKšÍz GL‡bvUvKv cvIqv hvqwb Ggb †ÿ‡Î mgš q Rv‡e v vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb nq †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU Avw K eQ‡iimwVK Financial reporting Gi Rb B Adjusting entries Gi cÖ‡qvRb nq BDwbU wZbc„ôv 77

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqcvV-3.3wnmveweÁvb bxwZbM wfwËK I e‡KqvwfwËK wnmveiÿYCash Basis and Accrual Basis of AccountingD‡Ïk G cvV †k‡l Avcwb bM wfwËK I e‡Kqv cvIbvwfwËK wnmveiÿY ej‡Z Kx eySvq Zv ej‡Z cvi‡eb bM wfwËK I e‡Kqv cvIbvwfwËK wnmveiÿ‡Yi g‡a cv K e vL v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb bM wfwËK I e‡KqvwfwËK wnmveiÿYCash basis and accrual basis of accountingwnmveweÁv‡b Avq-e q wjwce KiY I Z wfwˇZ gybvdv wba vi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î wnmve msiÿ‡Yi y'wU c wZ cÖPwjZAv‡Q GKwU bM vbwfwËK I AciwU e‡KqvwfwËK c wZ wb‡ œ y'wU c wZi eY bv † Iqv n‡jv(K) bM wfwËK c wZ (Cash basis system) : G c wZ‡Z †KejgvÎ bM A cÖvwß ev cÖ vb mv‡c‡ÿB †jb‡ bwnmvefz³ Kiv nq †h †Kv‡bv †jb‡ ‡bi wecix‡Z hLb bM A cvIqv hvq ev bM A cÖ vb Kiv nq†KejgvÎ ZLbB †jb‡ bwU wnmv‡ei ewn‡Z wjwce Kiv nq ev Íe‡ÿ‡Î bM‡ i cvkvcvwk e‡Kqv Avq A eve q msNwUZ n‡jI G c wZ‡Z e‡Kqv Avq A ev e q‡K wnmvefz³ Kiv nq bv d‡j bM wfwËK aviYvqcÖvqktB Avw K weeiYx Am ú b Av‡Q †Kbbv †h mKj Avq AwR Z n‡q‡Q wKšÍz cvIqv hvqwb, Zv bM wfwËc wZ‡Z wnmvefz³ nq bv hv Av‡qi wPwýZKiY bxwZi cwicš’x Avevi e‡Kqv ev AwMÖg e qmg n Av‡qiwecix‡Z wgjKiY Kiv nq bv, hv Avqe q ms‡hvMbxwZ (Matching principle) Abymv‡i Av‡qi wec‡ÿ e ‡qimwVK wjLb Kivi cwicš’x hv wnmveweÁv‡bi me Rb xK Z bxwZgvjvi (GAAP) cwicš’x G c wZ‡ZcÖwZôv‡b bM Znwej e ZxZ †Kv‡bv m ú v‡K bv (L) e‡KqvwfwËK wnmve (Accrual basis system) : G c wZ y' Zidv vwLjv c wZi c Yv ½iƒc KviY G c wZ‡ZwnmveKv‡ji †jb‡ ‡bi †ÿ‡Î Av‡qi AwaKvi R‡b i mv‡ mv‡ Zv Avq e‡j MY nq GB Avq KLb cvIqvhvq ev hv‡e Zv we‡eP bq Abyiƒcfv‡e e ‡qi †ÿ‡Î vq m„wó nIqvi mv‡ mv‡ Zv‡K wnmv‡e MY Kiv nq e ÍzZ GB c wZi g j cÖwZcv welq nj gybvdv msµvšÍ wnmve Ges w ’wZcÎ cÖ zZÍ Kv‡j wnmveKv‡ji cÖvßGes cÖvc I cÖ Ë Ges cÖ‡ q e qmg n h vh fv‡e wnmv‡ei AšÍfz ³ Ki‡Z n‡e d‡j cÖwZôv‡bi cÖK Zgybvdv Ges Avw K Ae ’v h vh fv‡e wnmv‡e cÖ wk Z n‡e G c wZ‡Z mKj m úwË Avjv v Avjv vfv‡eDc ’vcb Kiv nq aiv hvK †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi wW‡m i gv‡mi fvov eve e‡Kqv i‡q‡Q 3,000 UvKv †gvU cÖ Ë fvovi mv‡AviI 3,000 e‡Kqv †hvM K‡i †gvU fvov eve 33,000 3,000 36,000 UvKv wnmvefz³ Ki‡Z n‡e bM wfwËK I e‡Kqv cvIbvwfwËK wnmveiÿ‡Yi g‡a cv K Difference between cash basis and accrual basis of accountingbM wfwËK I e‡Kqv wfwËK wnmve c wZi cv K wb‡ œ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv:cv ‡K i welqbM wfwËK (Cash basis)e‡KqvwfwËK (Accrual basis)1 msÁv†h wnmve c wZ‡Z †KejgvÎ bM Avqe q †h c wZ‡Z bM I e‡Kqv Avqe q mgb qwjwce Kiv nq Zv‡K bM vbwfwËK c wZ mvabc eK wnmve ivLv nq Zv‡Kejv nq e‡KqvwfwËK wnmve c wZ ejv nq BDwbU wZbc„ôv 78

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqweweG †cÖvMÖvgcv ‡K i welq2 wnmveKvjbM wfwËK (Cash basis)e‡KqvwfwËK (Accrual basis)bM‡ cÖvß ev cÖ Ë wnmve we‡ePbv Kiv nq mswkøó wnmveKv‡ji cÖvc I cÖvß GesGB cÖvwß ev cwi‡kva mswkøó wnmveKv‡ji cÖ‡ q I cÖ Ë †jb‡ b wjwce Kiv nq wKbv Zv we‡ePbv Kiv nq bv Ab †Kv‡bv wnmveKv‡ji cÖvwß ev cwi‡kva‡Kwnmv‡e aiv nq bv 3 jvf-†jvKmvb wbY q G c wZ‡Z †KejgvÎ bM Avq Ges bM G c wZ‡Z bM‡ cÖvß I cwi‡kvwaZ Avqe ‡qi Ici wfwË K‡i jvf-†jvKmvb wbY q e ‡qi mv‡ PjwZ wnmveKv‡ji e‡KqvKiv nq Avqe q‡KI wnmvefz³ K‡i jvf-†jvKmvbwbiƒcY Kiv nq 4 e enviKvixmvaviYZ miKvwi ߇i I †ckvRxex‡ i e emvqx I Ae emvqx cÖwZôv‡b e‡KqvwfwËK†ejvq bM wfwËK cÖYvjx AbymiY Kiv nq cÖYvwj AbymiY Kiv nq 5 MÖnY‡hvM ZvGwU AvšÍR vwZKfv‡e MÖnY‡hvM bq GwU AvšÍRv wZKfv‡e MÖnY‡hvM 6 Z‡ i m ú Y Zv G‡Z c Y v½ Z cvIqv hvq bv KviY Avq GwU c Yv ½fv‡e wnmv‡ei Z Dc ’vcbe‡l i cÖvc I cÖ‡ q †jb‡ b ‡jv G‡Z K‡i wnmveKv‡ji bM I e‡Kqv mKjAšÍfz ³ nq bv †jb‡ b G‡Z Dc ’vwcZ nq wnmveweÁv‡bi me Rb xK Z bxwZi7 M vc (GAAP) GAAP Gi cÖ‡qvM G bxwZ‡Z m e bq (GAAP) cÖ‡qvM G c wZ‡Z m e 8 Dc‡hvwMZv†Qv‡Uv cÖwZôv‡bi †ÿ‡Î G c wZ Dc‡hvMx †Qv‡Uv eo mKj cÖwZôv‡bi †ÿ‡Î G c wZZvQvov †h mKj cÖwZôv‡b ïaygvÎ bM Av k c wZ wn‡m‡e xK Z DcišÍz †h†jb‡ b nq †m mKj cÖwZôv‡bi Rb GwU mKj cÖwZôv‡b bM‡ I evwK‡Z †jb‡ b m úbœDc‡hvMx nq †m mKj cÖwZôv‡b G c wZ Dc‡hvMx 9 Zzjbvg jKG c wZ‡Z c Y v½ AvKv‡i wnmve ivLv nq wnmv‡ei c Yv ½ Z msiwÿZ nq Ges GwePvibv weavq eû iæZ¡c Y Z‡ i Zzjbvg jK msiwÿZ Z n‡Z wewfbœ weeiYx cÖ zZÍwePvi we‡kølY m e bq Kiv nq weavq Zzjbvg jK wePvi we‡kølYm e Ges hyw³ wbf i nq 10 †jb‡ ‡biAwaKvsk †jb‡ b bM‡ m úbœ nq Giƒc AwaKvsk †jb‡ b av‡i m úbœ nq GiƒcwfwËcÖwZôv‡b G c wZ‡Z wnmve msiÿY Kiv cÖwZôv‡b G c wZ‡Z wnmve msiÿY Kivnq nq 11 mgb q vwLjv G c wZ‡Z mgb q vwLjvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB G c wZ‡Z mgb q vwLjvi gva ‡g h vhe‡j mgb ‡qi welq ‡jv wnmv‡e h vh fv‡e wnmve cÖ k b Kiv nq cÖ k b Kiv nq bv 12 m úwË cÖ k b bM Znwej e ZxZ Ab †Kv‡bv m úwË v‡K bv bM Znwejmn Ab vb mKj m úwË v‡K mvims‡ÿc:bM wfwËK c wZ‡Z †KejgvÎ bM A cÖvwß ev cÖ vb mv‡c‡ÿB †jb‡ b wnmvefz³ Kiv nq A vr †Kv‡bv†jb‡ ‡bi wecix‡Z hLb bM A cvIqv hvq ev bM A cÖ vb Kiv nq †KejgvÎ ZLbB †jb‡ bwU wnmv‡eiewn‡Z wjwce Kiv nq e‡Kqv wfwËK c wZ‡Z y'Zidv vwLjv c wZi c Yv ½iƒc we‡ePbvq wb‡q wnmvewjwce Kiv nq G c wZ‡Z wnmveKv‡ji †jb‡ ‡bi †ÿ‡Î Av‡qi AwaKvi R‡b i mv‡ mv‡ Zv Avq e‡j MY Kiv nq GB Avq KLb cvIqv hvq ev hv‡e Zv we‡eP bq Abyiƒcfv‡e e ‡qi †ÿ‡Î vq m„wó nIqvi mv‡ mv‡Zv‡K wnmv‡e MY Kiv nq BDwbU wZbc„ôv 79

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqcvV-3.4wnmveweÁvb bxwZmgvcbx vwLjv I wecixZ vwLjvmg nClosing Entries and Reversing EntriesD‡Ïk G cvV †k‡l Avcwb mgvcbx vwLjv ej‡Z Kx †evSvq Zv ej‡Z cvi‡eb wecixZ vwLjv ej‡Z Kx †evSvq Zv ej‡Z cvi‡eb mgvcbx vwLjvmg nClosing entries†Kv‡bv wnmveKvj †k‡l cÖwZôv‡bi Avw K djvdj wbiƒcYv‡ hveZxq bvwgK ev Avq-e q I jvf-ÿwZ wnmv‡ei†Ri ‡jv Avw K weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍ‡ii Rb †h mKj Rv‡e v wjLb † Iqv nq, Zv‡ i‡K mgvcbx Rv‡e v e‡j e ÍzZ: GKUv wbw ó wnmveKv‡j bvwgK wnmve (Avq-e q I jvf-ÿwZ) msµvšÍ †h mg Í †jb‡ b ‡jv m úbœ nq,G‡ i †Ri mswkøó wnmve eQ‡iB †kl Ki‡Z nq cieZ x eQ‡i G‡ i †Kv‡bv †Ri vK‡e bv Avqe q msµvšÍwnmve ‡jv eÜ Kivi Rb †h Rv‡e v Gw›Uª cÖ v‡bi gva ‡g Avq weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍi Kiv nq Zv‡K mgvcbx vwLjve‡j Kvh cÎ (Work sheet) Ges Avw K weeiYxmg n cÖ ‡zÍ Zi ci ivR Avq Ges e qmg n Avq weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍiK‡i eÜ Kiv nq Avq weeiYxi †Ri g jab wnmv‡e Ges †hŠ g jabx Kviev‡ii †ÿ‡Î iwÿZ Avq weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍi K‡i eÜ Kiv nq 1. Pyle & Larson Gi g‡Z, "Closing entries is entries made to close and clear the revenue andexpense accounts and to transfer the amount of the net income or loss to a capital account oraccounts to the retained earnings accounts." A vr Avq Ges LiPvewj wnmve eÜ Kiv Ges wbU Avqg jab wn‡m‡e ev wnmvemg ‡n A ev iwÿZ Avq wn‡m‡e ’vbvšÍ‡ii Rb †h Rv‡e v vwLjv cÖ vb Kiv nq Zv‡Kmgvcbx vwLjv e‡j 2. Meigs and Others g‡Z, "Closing entries is journal entries made at the end of the period for thepurpose of closing temporary accounts (revenue, expenses and Owner's drawings accounts) andtransferring balances to the owner's Capital account" A vr mgvcbx vwLjv n‡jv wnmveKvj †k‡l A ’vqxwnmve ‡jv‡K (Avq, e q, Ges gvwj‡Ki D‡Ëvjb wnmve eÜ Kiv Ges DØ„Ë gvwj‡Ki g jab wnmv‡e ’vbvšÍiKivi Rv‡e v vwLjv Ó)myZivs ejv hvq, wnmveKvj †k‡l Avw K weeiYx cÖYq‡bi mgq AvqÑe q evPK wnmvemg ‡ni eÜ K‡i wbU djvdjgvwj‡Ki g jab wnmv‡e ev iwÿZ Avq weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍ‡ii Rb †h vwLjv † Iqv nq Zv‡K mgvcbx vwLjv e‡j wecixZ vwLjvmg nReversing entrieswbw ó wnmveKvj †k‡l †h mgb q vwLjv † Iqv nq, cieZ x wnmveKv‡ji cÖ g ev c‡njv Zvwi‡L Zvi wecixZ vwLjv † Iqv nq wnmve cÖwµqvi GwU GKwU Hw”QK avc †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb Zvi wnmve †KvW msL v Kgv‡bvi Rb we‡klZ Kw úDUvivBR wnmve c wZ‡Z wecixZ vwLjv w ‡q v‡K Hermanson & others Gi g‡Z, “Reversing entries is journal entries made on the first day of the nextaccounting period to reverse the effects of the adjusting entries to which they relate”.BDwbU wZbc„ôv 80

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqweweG †cÖvMÖvgZ‡e mKj mgb q Rv‡e vi Rb wecixZ vwLjv w ‡Z nq bv:(i) AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP ïiæ‡ZB m úwË wnmve wjwce n‡j (ii) AwMÖg cÖvß Avq ïiæ‡ZB vq wnmv‡e wjwce n‡j (iii)AbywgZ dvmg n †hgbÑ Kz-FY, AvqKi mwÂwZ Ges AePq mvaviYZ: wb œewY Z mgb q vwLjvi †ÿ‡Î wecixZ vwLjv † Lv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i:(i) cÖ‡ q ev e‡Kqv LiP Ges cÖvc ev e‡Kqv Av‡qi †ÿ‡Î (ii) AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP hv ïiæ‡ZB LiP wnmv‡e wjLv n‡q‡Q Ges AwMÖg cÖvß Avq hv cÖv wgKfv‡e Avq wn‡m‡ewjwce Kiv nq myZivs †Kv‡bv Avw K mgqKvj ev †Kv‡bv Avw K eQi †k‡l bM UvKvq m úvw Z gybvdv RvZxq Avqe ‡qi e‡Kqvev AMÖx‡gi †h mgb q Rv‡e v nq cieZ x eQ‡ii ïiæ‡Z D³ Avw K Avqe ‡qi e‡Kqv AMÖx‡gi mgb q Rv‡e vi †hwecixZ Rv‡e v ev vwLjv †iKW Kiv nq Zv‡K wecixZ vwLjv e‡j mvims‡ÿc:†Kv‡bv wnmveKvj †k‡l cÖwZôv‡bi Avw K djvdj wbiƒcYv‡ hveZxq bvwgK ev Avq-e q I jvf-†jvKmvbwnmv‡ei †Ri ‡jv Avw K weeiYx‡Z ’vbvšÍ‡ii Rb †h mKj Rv‡e v wjLb † Iqv nq, Zv‡ i‡K mgvcbx Rv‡e ve‡j Avevi, wbw ó wnmveKvj †k‡l †h mgb q vwLjv † qv nq, cieZ x wnmveKv‡ji cÖ g ev c‡njv Zvwi‡L ZvwecixZfv‡e wj‡L wecixZ vwLjv † Iqv nq BDwbU wZbc„ôv 81

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqcvV-3.5wnmveweÁvb bxwZmgš q vwLjv: MvwYwZK mgm v I mgvavbAdjusting Entries: Mathematical Problems and SolutionsD‡Ïk G cvV †k‡l Avcwb wnmveKvj †k‡l mgš q vwLjv ‡jv †jLvi †KŠkj e vL v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb mgš q msµvšÍ MvwYwZK mgm vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb mgš q vwLjv: MvwYwZK mgm v I mgvavbAdjusting Entries: Mathematical problems and solutionswbw ó mg‡qi Avq wba viY Ges Av‡qi mv‡ e q mgb ‡qi Rb †h Rv‡e vi cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K mgb q vwLjv ejvnq c ‡e i cvV † ‡K Avgiv †R‡bwQ, mgb q Gw›Uª † Iqvi d‡j cÖwZôv‡bi wbw ó wnmveKv‡ji mwVK gybvdv ev ÿwZ†hgb Rvbv hvq †Zgwb cÖwZôv‡bi m úwË, vq I gvwjKvbv Z¡ m ú‡K mwVK Z Rvbv m e nq wnmveKv‡jiAcwi‡kvwaZ LiP, cÖvc Avq, m úwËi AePq, AwMÖg cÖ Ë LiP, AwMÖg Avq‡K wnmv‡e aiv bv n‡j cÖwZôv‡bimwVK m úwË, vq, gvwjKvbv Z,¡ gybvdv ev ÿwZi cwigvY Rvbv m e n‡e bv wb‡ œ KwZcq mgš q Rv‡e v msµvšÍMvwYwZK mgm v I Gi mgvavb † Iqv n‡jv:Example 1: Anamika B.D.S., opened a dental practice on January 1, 2020. During the first month ofoperations the following transactions occurred.1. Performed services for patients who had dental plan insurance. At January 31, Tk. 875 of suchservices was earned but not yet recorded.2. Utility expenses incurred but not paid prior to January 31 totaled Tk. 520.3. Purchased dental equipment on January 1 for Tk. 80,000, paying Tk. 20,000 in cash and signing a Tk.60,000, 3-year note payable. The equipment depreciates Tk. 400 per month. Interest is Tk. 500 per month.4. Purchased a one-year malpractice insurance policy on January 1 for Tk. 12,000.5. Purchased Tk. 1,600 of dental supplies. On January 31, determined that Tk. 400 of supplies were on hand.Requirement: Prepare the adjusting entries on January 31 (Omit explanations). Account titles are:Accumulated Depreciation-Dental Equipment, Depreciation Expense, Service Revenue, AccountsReceivable, Insurance Expense, Interest Expense, Interest Payable, Prepaid Insurance, Supplies, SuppliesExpense, Utilities Expense, and Utilities Payable.Solution :AnamikaGeneral Journal (Adjusting Entries)Account TitlesDate2020Jan. 31 Account ReceivablesService Revenue31 Utilities ExpensesUtilities Payable31 Depreciation ExpensesAccumulated Depreciation-Dental Equipment31 Interest ExpensesInterest Payable31 Insurance Expenses (Tk. 12,000 12)Prepaid Insurance31 Supplies Expenses (Tk. 1,600 – Tk. 400)SuppliesBDwbU wZbRefDebit (Tk.)Credit v 82

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqweweG †cÖvMÖvgExample 2: Mr. Atik opens the Lawn Care Company on April 1, 2020. On April 30, the trial balanceshows the following balances for selected accounts :Tk.3,60,00028,0002,00,0004,2001,800Prepaid insuranceEquipmentNotes payableUnearned revenueService revenueAnalysis reveals the following additional data.1.Prepaid insurance is the cost of a 2-year insurance policy, effective April 1.2.Depreciation on the equipment is Tk. 500 per month.3.The note payable is dated April 1, It is a 6–month 12% note.4.Seven customers paid for the company’s 6 months’ lawn service package of Tk. 600 beginning inApril. These customers were serviced in April.5.Lawn services provided other customers but not recorded at April 30 totaled Tk. 15,000.Requirement:Prepare the adjusting entries for the month of April and show computations.Solution :Mr. Atik Lawn Care CompanyGeneral Journal (Adjusting Entries)Account Titles and . 3030303030BDwbU wZbInsurance expensesPrepaid insurance(To record prepaid insurance expired : Tk. 3,60,000 24 )(2)Depreciation expensesAccumulated depreciation – equipment(To record monthly depreciation on equipment)(3)Interest expensesInterest payable(To record accrued interest on notes payable : Tk. 2,00,000 12% 1/12)(4)Unearned service revenueService revenue(To record revenue for services provided earned: Tk. 600 6 Tk. 100; Tk. 100 per month 7 Tk. 700)(5)Account receivablesService revenue(To record revenue for services provided on ,000c„ôv 83

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqwnmveweÁvb bxwZExample 3: Surma River Resort opened for business on June 1 with 10 air-conditioned units. Its trialbalance before adjustment on August 31 is as follows :Surma River ResortTrial BalanceAugust 31, 2019Account TitlesCashUtilities ExpenseSalaries ExpenseRepair ExpensesRent RevenueSurma River Resort CapitalSurma River Resort DrawingPrepaid InsuranceLandCottageFurnitureAccounts PayableUnearned RentMortgage payableSuppliesDebit (Tk.) Credit 0Other date :1. Insurance expires at the rate of Tk. 300 per month.2. Account of August 31 shows Tk. 500 of supplies on hand.3. Annual depreciation is Tk. 3,000 on cottages and Tk. 1,800 on furniture.4. Unearned rent of Tk. 2,000 was earned prior to August 31.5. Salaries of Tk. 500 were unpaid at August 31.6. Rentals of Tk. 500 were due from tenants at August 31.7. The mortgage interest rate is 10% per year (the mortgage was taken out on August 1).Requirement:Journalize the adjusting entries on August 31 for the 3 month period June 1-August 31.Solution :Date2019August31""BDwbU wZbSurma River ResortGeneral Journal (Adjusting Entries)Account Titles & Explanation(1) Insurance expenses (300 X 3)Prepaid Insurance(To record expire insurance expenses)(2) Supplies expense (3,700 – 500)Supplies(To record supplies used as expense.)(3) Depreciation expenses (3,000 4)Accumulated Depreciation–Cottages(To record depreciation expenses–Cottage)Ref. Debit (Tk.)Credit (Tk.)9009003,2003,200750750c„ôv 84

evsjv‡ k Dš§y³ wek we vjqDate"""""weweG †cÖvMÖvgAccount Titles & Explanation(3) Depreciation Expenses (1,800 4)Accumulated Depreciation–Furniture(To record depreciation on furniture)(4) Unearned Rent RevenueRent Revenue(To record unearned rent that is earned)(5) Salaries expenseSalaries Payable(To record salaries payable)(6) Account ReceivablesRent Revenue(To record rent accrued)(7) Interest Expenses–MortgageInterest Payable(To record interest on mortgage payable for current month)Ref. Debit (Tk.) Credit (Tk.)4504502,0002,000500500500500500500Example 4: The Sky Line Motel opened for

(c) Payroll Expense Accrued (c) Payroll Expenses Payroll Payable 2. Prepaid Expenses initially recorded as assets (AwMg LiP cv_wgKfv ‡e m ú wnmv ‡e wjwce n ‡j) (a) Pr