the way we see itImproving Acquisition inGovernment—RequirementsManagement LeadingPractices:CMMI-ACQ VisualizationJuly 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions

Table of Contents1The Challenge: Increase Acquisition Process Maturity 12The Challenge: Developing Effective Requirements3The Solution: Leverage CMMI Standards to Mature theRequirements Management Process44The Solution: Utilizing Collaborative Techniquesto Mitigate Risks & Accelerate Results6The Solution: Utilizing Solution SimulationTechniques to Articulate User Needs andOptimize Return on Investment853About Capgemini Government Solutions10Understanding of the Requirements Definition &Demand Management Processes107Related Publications128Citations136Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved2

the way we see it1 The Challenge: IncreaseAcquisition Process MaturityLeveraging suppliers’ capabilities to rapidly deliver qualitysolutions at lower cost is a trend that continues to accelerate. Thistrend, combined with the scope and complexity of the mission, hasplaced additional stress on the acquisition process for manygovernment agencies.A key factor in the success ofany solution acquisition is theextent to which business needsare clearly articulated. Anotherinvolves demonstrating that theresulting acquisitionrequirements demonstrablysupport the program inachieving its business andmission objectives.According to Dun & Bradstreet, 20 to 25 percent of the largerInformation Technology (IT) acquisition projects fail within twoyears, while 50 percent fail within five years. Factors contributing tosuch project failure include mismanagement, the inability to articulatecustomer needs, poor requirements definition, and uncontrolledchange.The ability to take advantage of suppliers’ capabilities to deliverquality solutions more rapidly and at a lower cost, requires moremature acquisition processes and better, more direct communicationwith suppliers.A key factor in the success of any solution acquisition is the extent towhich business needs are clearly articulated. Another involvesdemonstrating that the resulting acquisition requirementsdemonstrably support the program in achieving its business andmission objectives.Today’s government executivesincreasingly seek to “serviceorient” aspects of theiroperating model in order toenhance agility, particularly inareas where constituent needsare constantly changing.Challenges for traditional acquisition approaches include accuratelyeliciting user-centered acquisition requirements, while developing anairtight understanding of technology needs in environments involvingdiverse stakeholders, poorly aligned performance measures, or anunclear vision of the solution. Today’s government executivesincreasingly seek to “service-orient” aspects of their operating modelin order to enhance agility, particularly in areas where constituentneeds are constantly changing. New levels of collaboration acrossorganizational silos in achieving the promised benefits of ServiceOriented Architecture (SOA), are required to develop associatedbusiness requirements and such a robust business architecture.Innovative acquisition practicesexist to improve communicationand collaboration, and tostreamline processes andreduce program risk.Successful IT programs increasingly adopt the principle of strongacquirer-supplier communication. Mature acquisition processes resultin the continued involvement of business stakeholders throughout theacquisition lifecycle to ensure the supplier delivers capabilities thatRequirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved1

meet customer needs. Innovative acquisition practices exist toimprove communication and collaboration, and to streamlineprocesses and reduce program risk.Capgemini has helped pioneer the implementation of serviceorientation in global commercial, government, and militaryorganizations. By supporting our clients in transformative programsin both acquirer and supplier roles, we have refined our CollaborativeAcquisition Management approach. This includes operational supportand process improvement services in: Program Planning, Management & Control; Requirements Development & Management; Performance Measurement & Value Achievement; Organizational Alignment & Change Management; and Acquisition Validation & Verification.This whitepaper shares some of the approaches, techniques, andleading practices that have proven effective in addressing thosechallenges specifically associated with acquisition requirementsdevelopment and requirements management.In elaborating upon these approaches, techniques, and leadingpractices, we will use the term “acquisition” to describe the process bywhich user needs are satisfied, while allowing the “supplier” toperform the necessary tasks to develop and provide for the solution.The term “acquisition” should not be confused with the procurementprocess the government uses to purchase services and products.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved2

the way we see it2 The Challenge: DevelopingEffective RequirementsWhile systems engineering processes have been a focus ofimprovement for over a decade, organizations increasinglyrecognize that immature processes for translating user needs intoclear requirements are barriers to rapidly deploying new businesscapabilities for the IT organization.Capgemini’s approach torequirements managementleverages leading practices,industry knowledge, andlessons learned fromthousands of public sector andcommercial transformationprograms.We understand that one of thekey objectives of therequirements managementprocess is to improve theefficiency and effectiveness ofdefining end-user requirements.We leave no ambiguitysurrounding the needs of thecustomer.Capgemini’s approach to requirements management leverages leadingpractices, industry knowledge, and lessons learned from thousands ofpublic sector and commercial transformation programs.Capgemini understands that one of the key objectives of therequirements management process is to improve the efficiency andeffectiveness of defining end-user requirements. We leave noambiguity surrounding the needs of the customer. Conceptually, whenthese acquisition requirements have been developed and agreed to byall stakeholders, the supplier is able to design, build, and implementthe desired solution with minimal change to the supplier agreement.This objective is shared by organizations in software-intensiveindustries, including healthcare and government, which mustefficiently and cost-effectively deploy differentiating solutions inresponse to customer and regulatory demands. While systemsengineering processes have been a focus of improvement for over adecade, organizations increasingly recognize that immature processesfor translating user needs into clear requirements for the ITorganization are a barrier to rapidly deploying new businesscapabilities. Closely related is the trend for managing the delivery ofIT services to the organizations through managed service levelagreements that depend on increased IT process maturity and effectiveIT governance.In Capgemini’s experience, these trends are resulting in better definedprocesses and improved collaboration between the business in need ofa new capability (the “acquirer”) and the IT organization charteredwith delivery of the capability (the “supplier”). The collaborationbetween acquirer and supplier utilizing mature, well-defined processesis critical to successful the delivery of IT products and services.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved3

3 The Solution: Leverage CMMIStandards to Mature theRequirements ManagementProcessMulti-sourcing strategies to obtain new or enhanced capabilitiesare driving the adoption of standard, mature processes to assurethe acquirer-supplier relationship results in maximum value.Learn more about thiscollaborative effort betweengovernment and industry byvisiting www.sei.cmu/edu:HCarnegie Mellon SoftwareEngineering Institute (SEI)H,along with General Motors’Information Systems andServices (GM IS&S)department and top officialsfrom HHPH, HCapgeminiH andthe U.S. government - formallyunveiled a comprehensive newmodel, called HCMMI forAcquisition (CMMI-ACQ)H, itbelieves will revolutionize theway governments andbusinesses around the worldacquire or outsource theirsoftware-intensive systems andservices.The ability to leverage industry standards and best practices willenable the organization to mature the requirements managementprocess. Two applicable industry standard models are provided byCarnegie Mellon’s Software Engineering Institute (SEI). SEI’smission is to “advance software engineering and related disciplines toensure the development and operation of systems with predictable andimproved cost, schedule, and quality.” The two models are CMMI forAcquisition (CMMI-ACQ) and CMMI for Development (CMMIDEV): CMMI-ACQ. This model was released in November 2007 and its developmentwas a collaborative (government- and industry-led) effort that included GeneralMotors Information Systems and Services, HP, and Capgemini. As described onits website ( “CMMI-ACQ is a model designed foruse by acquirers who obtain needed capabilities (products and services) fromsuppliers. This model is a continuation of work to define leading best practicesfor organizations that acquire products and services or outsource development andsupport.” A subset of the CMMI-ACQ processes focuses on developing andmanaging the development of acquisition requirements. This is represented inFigure 1.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved4

the way we see itFigure 1. CMMI-ACQ Selected Project Processes(Source: Carnegie Mellon, System Engineering Institute) CMMI-DEV. SEI description: “CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV) is amodel designed for use by suppliers who develop products and services.”Figure 2. Roles of Business “Customer” and IT “Suppliers”The Acquisition lifecycle process integrates with the engineering/development lifecycle to assure capabilities are delivered withmaximum ROI.Figure 2 depicts Capgemini’s recommended view of how theseCMMI models should be used to help define a framework forimproving the requirements management process. Paraphrasingcomments by SEI, CMMI-ACQ provides a comprehensive set ofleading best practices for acquiring products and services. Based onthe acquisition requirements, CMMI-DEV focuses on the associatedsolution design and development effort.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved5

4 The Solution: UtilizingCollaborative Techniques toMitigate Risks & AccelerateResultsEnsure your organization accelerates the decision–making processand resolves challenges before they become major program issues.Capgemini follows leadingpractices that mitigate risks andaccelerate results utilizinggroup design techniques knownfor achieving consensus andidentifying barriers early in thedevelopment of newcapabilities requirements.By bringing the right people inthe room together at the righttime, we are able to acceleratethe decision-making processand resolve challenges --indays rather than months,before they become majorprogram issues.Capgemini has helpedaccelerate results forgovernment clients that includeHHS, DHS and the U.S. AirForce.The ASE reduces risksassociated with complexproblem solving and helpsorganizations achieve faster,better, more sustainableresults. ASE sessions havehelped organizations reduceproject duration by 50% andresource costs by up to 35%.As is true with all transformational programs spanning multipleorganizations’ divisions and business units, there are considerablechallenges in achieving program objectives. Challenges often resultfrom the inability of the acquisition process to reach agreement onrequirements at a sufficient level of specificity needed to guide thesupplier. Requirement ambiguity transfers risk to the supplier of thenew capability. But, at what cost?It is important to establish the necessary techniques to manage internalbattles, dissenting opinions, losing sight of the vision, lack ofalignment, and the inability to reach group decisions that eventuallyprevent programs from realizing expected outcomes.Capgemini follows leading practices that mitigate risks and accelerateresults utilizing group design techniques known for achievingconsensus and identifying barriers early in the development of newcapabilities requirements. We have found that identifying problemsearly in the process minimizes requirements changes and associatedrework, when it is more expensive to rework the supplier’s solution.To mitigate risks, we bring the parties together in a neutral setting andguide them through a highly structured process to reach concurrenceon key decisions regarding topics such as vision, strategy,requirements, solution designs, and implementation programs andplans. By bringing the right people in the room together at the righttime, Capgemini Government Solutions is able to accelerate thedecision-making process and resolve challenges -- in days rather thanmonths -- before they become real, long-term problems.To implement this leading practice, we utilize a unique, provenmethodology, process, and facility called the Accelerated SolutionsEnvironment (ASE). Over the past 12 years, Capgemini hasconducted more than 3,500 ASE events with organizationsrepresenting the commercial (including 55 percent of the Fortune 500)Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved6

the way we see itas well as government side of business, including the Departments ofHealth and Human Services, Homeland Security, and the U.S. AirForce. Figure 3 below depicts a conceptual picture of the ASEenvironment along with quotes from key clients that have realizedvalue in using the ASE to mitigate risk and accelerate their initiatives.The ASE reduces risks associated with complex problem solving,aligns key stakeholders, and helps organizations achieve faster, better,more sustainable results. ASE sessions have helped organizationsreduce project duration by 50% and resource costs by up to 35%.Figure 3. Capgemini Customers Value Our ASECapgemini utilizes a unique process and a one-of-a-kind facilityknown for applying a variety of techniques that address differentlearning styles, singular approaches to problem solving, thepsychology of teams, and whole system thinking.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved7

5 The Solution: Utilizing SolutionSimulation Techniques toArticulate User Needs andOptimize Return on InvestmentIf one creates an approach to solution development that providesstakeholders the ability to assess the project’s feasibility, allowingend users to test the solution before it is built, the return on thedevelopment investment is significantly improved—at reducedcosts to the government.We combine the latestsimulation and Web 2.0 toolswith new insight on how peoplecreate complex businessapplications, creating a visualROI, uniting business and ITefforts by clearly demonstratingthe interaction betweenInformation Systems, workflowand business applications.Capgemini’s Rapid Design andVisualization (RDV) can helporganizations reduce the risk ofdelivery by testing requirementswith end users, reducing reworkcosts by up to 70%, with a 20%faster time to market.Due to poor requirements-gathering, analysis, and management, veryfew acquisition requirements documents accurately capture the userneeds, ultimately leading to ineffective solutions. Root problems suchas lack of a clearly articulated and shared vision, defining success astechnology delivery instead of business results, and failure todocument sufficient requirements are contributing factors to suchineffectual solutions. Capgemini addresses these issues by utilizing aninnovative approach to identifying user needs, which we call RapidDesign & Visualization (RDV). RDV originated from a simplenotion: If one creates an approach to software development that givesstakeholders the ability to assess the project’s feasibility and allowsend users to test the solution early in that process, the return on thedevelopment investment is significantly improved at reduced costs tothe government.The RDV methodology is based on incorporation of earlyvisualization and a defined end-user interaction design used to drivehigher adoption of internal and external systems. RDV, thus, bridgesthe gap between the business user and IT by doing the following: By observing users and formulating design insights, scenarios and requirementsare derived from how users behave, think, and learn; By reviewing, refining, and validating scenarios and requirements to clearlydefine critical paths and pain points; By creating functional simulations for use in testing, consensus-building, anddesign specification through collaborative design workshops; Through design, consensus, visualization, ideation, and iteration, a vision of thefuture is created with an understanding of the present.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved8

the way we see itRDV combines the latest simulation and Web 2.0 tools with newinsight on how people create complex business applications. RDVvisualizations are built from defined user needs into highly functionalrepresentations of current or future systems. By applying this uniqueapproach to development, RDV becomes synonymous with animproved “visual ROI.” RDV has clearly demonstrated it can helporganizations: Unite business and IT efforts by clearly demonstrating the interaction betweenInformation Systems, workflow, and business applications; Improve accuracy in development cost estimation by better confirming theaccuracy of system requirements; Reduce the risk of delivery by testing requirements with end users, reducingrework costs by up to 70%, with a 20% faster time to market.One of Capgemini’s clients used RDV to demonstrate the envisionedglobal application and discovered the systems integrator had missed40% of their requirements.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved9

6 About Capgemini GovernmentSolutionsCapgemini Government Solutions is a member of the Capgeminiglobal family of companies (“Capgemini”). For four decades,Capgemini has served the strategic, technological, and operationalneeds of local and national governments around the world.Capgemini has the experience, knowledge, tools, and methodsrequired to effectively manage and accelerate change.Capgemini provides government agencies deep transformation,consulting, and IT expertise. There are three key reasons why clientsbenefit from collaborating with Capgemini to improve theirAcquisition process: 1) the identification of requirements managementleading best practices, 2) the definition of the framework for theRequirements Management Process, and in 3) the detailed planningfor the implementation of this framework.Understanding of the Requirements Definition & DemandManagement ProcessesCapgemini brings to its clients an unparalleled level of understandingof the issues and challenges involved. We also pay special attention tothe importance and sensitivity of requirements definitions and demandmanagement processes.In addition, we have worked with our customers to: Develop solution delivery methodologies encompassing: Strategy Requirements Design Development Test, implement, and operate Develop requirements packages for inclusion in Requests for Proposals (RFPs)and other solicitations where our customer wished to procure software/solutiondelivery services; and, Develop solutions based on requirements defined by the customer (an opportunityto learn from what works and does not work).Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved10

the way we see itBy providing public and private sector experience, leading bestpractices, and proven tools and methodologies tailored for the U.S.government’s very demanding and unique requirements, we help ourclients expand their knowledge and capabilities as we work together todrive their requirements management agendas.As industry-recognized leaders in strategy, planning, and acquisitionof new capabilities, Capgemini offers a unique blend of industryleading practices, domain-specific expertise, and proven methods andtools that accelerate long-lasting results. Our understanding ofgovernment’s most challenging issues is best demonstrated by thework we do and the relationships we build with our customers.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved11

7 Related PublicationsAccelerating Collaboration in Mission-Critical ProgramsRapid Design and VisualizationRequirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved12

the way we see it8 CitationsSpecial permission to reproduce and paraphrase portions of “CMMI for Acquisition, Version 1.2,” CMU/SEI-2007-TR-017, copyright2007 by Carnegie Mellon University and “CMMI for Development,Version 1.2,” CMU/SEI-2006-TR-008, Copyright 2006 by CarnegieMellon University, is granted by the Software Engineering Institute.THIS CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY AND SOFTWAREENGINEERING INSTITUTE MATERIAL IS FURNISHEDON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITYMAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHEREXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING,BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FORPURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, EXCLUSIVITY, ORRESULTS OBTAINED FROM USE OF THE MATERIAL.CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DOES NOT MAKE ANYWARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOMFROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHTINFRINGEMENT. Capability Maturity Model, CMM, and CMMI are registered in theU.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.Requirements Management—Leading PracticesCopyright 2008 Capgemini Government Solutions – All rights reserved13

www.capgemini-gs.comCapgemini Government Solutions2250 Corporate Park Drive, Suite 410Herndon, VA 20171For more information aboutthis whitepaper, contact us comW08-004-1

Carnegie Mellon’s Software Engineering Institute (SEI). SEI’s mission is to “advance software engineering and related disciplines to ensure the development and operation of systems with predictable and improved cost, schedule, and quality.” The two models are CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ) and C