Transcription

EM–1ENGINE MECHANICAL–ENGINE MECHANICAL

EM–2ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (4A–FE)DESCRIPTION (4A–FE)The 4A–FE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder, 1.6 liter DOHC 16–valve engine.

EM–3ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (4A–FE)The 4A–FE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder engine with the cylinders numbered 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 from thefront. The crankshaft is supported by 5 bearings inside the crankcase. These bearings are made of aluminumalloy.The crankshaft is integrated with 8 weights for balance. Oil holes are placed in the center of thecrankshaft to supply oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and other components.The ignition order is 1 – 3 – 4 – 2. The cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy, with a cross flow typeintake and exhaust layout and with pent–roof type combustion chambers. The spark plugs are located inthe center of the combustion chambers.The intake manifold has 4 independent long ports and utilizes the inertial supercharging effect to improveengine torque at low and medium speeds.Exhaust and intake valves are equipped with irregular pitch springs made of special valve spring carbonsteel which are capable of functioning no matter what the engine speed.The exhaust camshaft is driven by a timing belt, and a gear on the exhaust camshaft engages with a gearon the intake camshaft to drive it. The cam journal is supported at 5 places between the valve lifters of eachcylinder and on the front end of the cylinder head. Lubrication of the cam journals and gears is accomplishedby oil being supplied through the oiler port in the center of the camshaft.Adjustment of the valve clearance is done by means of an outer shim type system, in which valveadjusting shims are located above the valve lifters. This permits replacement of the shims without removalof the camshafts.The resin timing belt cover is made of 3 pieces. A service hole is provided in the No.1 belt cover foradjusting the timing belt tension.Pistons are made of high temperature–resistant aluminum alloy, and a depression is built into the pistonhead to prevent interference with the valves.Piston pins are the semi–floating type, with the pins fastened to the connecting rods by pressure fittings,allowing the pistons and pins to float.The No.1 compression ring is made of stainless steel and the No.2 compression ring is made of cast iron.The oil ring is made of a combination of steel and stainless steel. The outer diameter of each piston ringis slightly larger than the diameter of the piston and the flexibility of the rings allows them to hug thecylinder walls when they are mounted on the piston. Compression rings No.1 and No.2 work to preventgas leakage from the cylinder and the oil ring works to scrape oil off the cylinder walls to prevent it fromentering the combustion chambers.The cylinder block is made of cast iron. It has 4 cylinders which are approximately twice the length ofthe piston stroke. The top of each cylinder is closed off by the cylinder head and the lower end of thecylinders becomes the crankcase, in which the crankshaft is installed. In addition, the cylinder blockcontains a water jacket, through which coolant is pumped to cool the cylinders.The oil pan is bolted onto the bottom of the cylinder block. The oil pan is an oil reservoir made of pressedsteel sheet. A dividing plate is included inside the oil pan to keep sufficient oil in the bottom of the paneven when the vehicle is tilted. This dividing plate also prevents the oil from making waves when thevehicle is stopped suddenly and the oil shifts away from the oil pump suction pipe.

EM–4ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (3S–GTE)DESCRIPTION (3S–GTE)The 3S–GTE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder, 2.0 liter DOHC 16–valve engine.

EM–5ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (3S–GTE)The 3S–GTE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder engine with the cylinders numbered 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 from thefront. The crankshaft is supported by 5 bearings inside the crankcase. These bearings are made of aluminumalloy.The crankshaft is integrated with 8 weights for balance. Oil holes are placed in the center of thecrankshaft to supply oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and other components.The ignition order is 1 – 3 – 4 – 2. The cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy, with a cross flow typeintake and exhaust layout and with pent–roof type combustion chambers. The spark plugs are located inthe center of the combustion chambers.The intake manifold has 8 independent long ports and utilizes the inertial supercharging effect to improveengine torque at low and medium speeds.Both the intake camshaft and the exhaust camshaft are driven by a single timing belt. The cam journalis supported at 5 places between the valve lifters of each cylinder and on the front end of the cylinder head.Lubrication of the cam journals and cams is accomplished by oil being supplied through the oiler port inthe center of the camshaft.Adjustment of the valve clearance is done by means of an outer shim type system, in which valveadjusting shims are located above the valve lifters. This permits replacement of the shims without removalof the camshafts.Pistons are made of high temperature–resistant aluminum alloy, and a depression is built into the pistonhead to prevent interference with the valves.Piston pins are the full–floating type, with the pins fastened to neither the piston boss nor the connectingrods. Instead, snap rings are fitted on both ends of the pins, preventing the pins from falling out.The No.1 compression ring is made of steel and the No.2 compression ring is made of cast iron. The oilring is made of a combination of steel and stainless steel. The outer diameter of each piston ring is slightlylarger than the diameter of the piston and the flexibility of the rings allows them to hug the cylinder wallswhen they are mounted on the piston. Compression rings No.1 and No.2 work to prevent gas leakage fromthe cylinder and the oil ring works to scrape oil off the cylinder walls to prevent it from entering thecombustion chambers.The cylinder block is made of cast iron. It has 4 cylinders which are approximately twice the length ofthe piston stroke. The top of each cylinder is closed off: by the cylinder head and the lower end of thecylinders becomes the crankcase, in which the crankshaft is installed. In addition, the cylinder blockcontains a water jacket, through which coolant is pumped to cool the cylinders.The oil pan is bolted onto the bottom of the cylinder block. The oil pan is an oil reservoir made of pressedsteel sheet. A dividing plate is included inside the oil pan to keep sufficient oil in the bottom of the paneven when the vehicle is tilted. This dividing plate also prevents the oil from making waves when thevehicle is stopped suddenly and the oil shifts away from the oil pump suction pipe.

EM–6ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (5S–FE)DESCRIPTION (5S–FE)The 5S–FE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder, 2.2 liter DOHC 16–valve engine.

EM–7ENGINE MECHANICAL–Description (5S–FE)The 5S–FE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder engine with the cylinders numbered 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 from thefront. The crankshaft is supported by 5 bearings inside the crankcase. These bearings are made of aluminumalloy.The crankshaft is integrated with 8 weights for balance. Oil holes are placed in the center of thecrankshaft to supply oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and other components.The ignition order is ”I – 3 – 4 – 2. The cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy, with a cross flow typeintake and exhaust layout and with pent–roof type combustion chambers. The spark plugs are located inthe center of the combustion chambers.The intake manifold has 4 independent long ports and utilizes the inertial supercharging effect to improveengine torque at low and medium speeds.Exhaust and intake valves are equipped with irregular pitch springs made of special valve spring carbonsteel which are capable of functioning no matter what the engine speed.The intake camshaft is driven by a timing belt, and a gear on the intake camshaft engages with a gearon the exhaust camshaft to drive it. The cam journal is supported at 5 places between the valve lifters ofeach cylinder and on the front end of the cylinder head. Lubrication of the cam journals and gears isaccomplished by oil being supplied through the oiler port in the center of the camshaft.Adjustment of the valve clearance is done by means of an outer shim type system, in which valveadjusting shims are located above the valve lifters. This permits replacement of the shims without removalof the camshafts.Pistons are made of high temperature–resistant aluminum alloy, and a depression is built into the pistonhead to prevent interference with the valves.Piston pins are the full–floating type, with the pins fastened to neither the piston boss nor the connectingrods. Instead, snap rings are fitted on both ends of the pins, preventing the pins from falling out.The No.1 compression ring is made of steel and the No.2 compression ring is made of cast iron. The oilring is made of a combination of steel and stainless steel. The outer diameter of each piston ring is slightlylarger than the diameter of the piston and the flexibility of the rings allows them to hug the cylinder wallswhen they are mounted on the piston. Compression rings No.1 and No.2 work to prevent gas leakage fromthe cylinder and the oil ring works to scrape oil off the cylinder walls to prevent it from entering thecombustion chambers.The cylinder block is made of cast iron. It has 4 cylinders which are approximately twice the length ofthe piston stroke. The top of each cylinder is closed off by the cylinder head and the lower end of thecylinders becomes the crankcase, in which the crankshaft is installed. In addition, the cylinder blockcontains a water jacket, through which coolant is pumped to, cool the cylinders.The oil pan is bolted onto the bottom of the cylinder block. The oil pan is an oil reservoir made of pressedsteel sheet. A dividing plate is included inside the oil pan to keep sufficient oil in the bottom of the paneven when the vehicle is tilted. This dividing plate also prevents the oil from making waves when thevehicle is stopped suddenly and the oil shifts away from the oil pump suction pipe.

EM–8ENGINE MECHANICAL–TroubleshootingTROUBLESHOOTINGENGINE OVERHEATINGPossible causeProblemEngine overheatsCooling system faultyIncorrect ignition timingRemedyTroubleshoot cooling systemReset timingPageCO–5IG–25, 29, 37HARD STARTINGPossible causeProblemRemedyPageEngine will not crankor cranks slowlyStarting system faultyTroubleshoot starting systemST–2Engine will not start/hard to start(cranks OK)No fuel supply to injector:Troubleshoot EFI systemFI–13Repair as necessaryPerform spark testIG–6,10,15 No fuel in tank Fuel pump not working Fuel filter clogged Fuel line clogged or leakingEFI system problemsIgnition problems: Ignition coil Igniter DistributorSpark plug faultyHigh–tension cords disconnected or brokenVacuum leaks: PCV line EGR line Intake manifold T–VIS valve (3S–GTE) Throttle body ISC valve (3S–GTE and 5S–FE) Brake booster lineAir suction between air flow meter andthrottle body (3S–GTE)Low compressionInspect plugsInspect cordsRepair as necessaryIG–7, 11, 16IG–7, 11, 16Repair as necessaryCheck compressionEM–31ROUGH IDLINGPossible causeProblemRough idle, stalls ormissesRemedyPageSpark plug faultyHigh–tension cord faultyIgnition problems:Inspect plugsInspect cordsIG–7, 11, 16IG–7,11,16 Ignition coil Igniter DistributorIncorrect ignition timingInspect coilInspect igniterInspect distributorReset timingIG–8, 13, 17IG–9, 14, 19IG–9, 13, 18IG–25, 29, 37Vacuum leaks:Repair as necessary PCV lineEGR lineIntake manifold

EM–9ENGINE MECHANICAL–TroubleshootingROUGH IDLING (Cont’d)ProblemRough idle, stalls ormisses (Cont’d)Possible causeRemedyPageVacuum leaks (cont’d): T–VIS valve (3S–GTE) Throttle body ISC valve (5S–FE and 3S–GTE) Brake booster lineAir suction between air flow meter andthrottle body (3S–GTE)Incorrect idle speedIncorrect valve clearanceEFI system problemsEngine overheatsLow compressionCheck ISC system(3S–GTE and 5S–FE)FI–208, 211Adjust idle speed (4A–FE)Adjust valve clearanceRepair as necessaryCheck cooling systemCheck compressionMA–8EM–13,17,22CO–5EM–31ENGINE HESITATES/POOR ACCELERATIONProblemEngine hesitates/poor accelerationPossible causeRemedySpark plug faultyHigh–tension cord faultyVacuum leaks:Inspect plugsInspect cordsRepair as necessary PCV line EGR line Intake manifold T–VIS valve (3S–GTE) Throttle body ISC valve (3S–GTE and 5S–FE) Brake booster lineAir suction between air flow meterand throttle body (3S–GTE)Incorrect ignition timingIncorrect valve clearanceFuel system cloggedAir cleaner cloggedEFI system problemsEmission control system problems:(cold engine)Repair as necessary EGR system always onEngine overheatsLow compressionReset timingAdjust valve clearanceCheck fuel systemCheck air cleanerRepair as necessaryCheck EGR systemCheck cooling systemCheck compressionPageIG–7, 11, 16IG–7, 11, 16IG–25, 29, 37EM–13,17,22MA–5EC–9, 22, 38CO–5EM–31

EM–10ENGINE MECHANICAL–TroubleshootingENGINE DIESELINGProblemEngine diesels(runs after ignitionswitch is turned off)Possible causeRepair as necessaryReset timingCheck EGR systemEFI system problemsIncorrect ignition timingEGR system faultyPageRemedyIG–25, 29, 37EC–9, 22, 38AFTER FIRE, BACKFIREProblemPossible causeRemedyMuffler explosion(after fire) ondeceleration onlyDeceleration fuel cut system always offCheck EFI (fuel cut) systemMuffler explosion(after fire) all thetimeAir cleaner cloggedEFI system problemsIncorrect ignition timingCheck air cleanerRepair as necessaryReset timingEngine backfiresEFI system problemsVacuum leaks:Repair as necessaryCheck hoses and repair asnecessary PCV line EGR line Intake manifold T–VIS valve (3S–GTE) Throttle body ISC valve (3S–GTE and 5S–FE) Brake booster lineAir suction between air flow meterand throttle body (3S–GTE)Insufficient fuel flowIncorrect ignition timingIn

The 4A–FE engine is an in–line, 4–cylinder engine with the cylinders numbered 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 from the front. The crankshaft is supported by 5 bearings .