SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWAREDigital transformation: HowSiemens EDA helps you engineera smarter future fasterExecutive summaryWe are living in an age of ever accelerating digital innovation, where world-wide knowledge,commerce and communication are broadly accessible and literally at our fingertips. Over the past sixdecades, thousands of companies in the tech sector have worked diligently to bring new, ever-moresophisticated electronic innovations to market daily, culminating in today’s age of digitalization,which is rapidly changing how we live, travel, conduct business and communicate. This pace ofdigital transformation will accelerate even more rapidly as more companies begin to incorporateartificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) into their systems to leverage and evenmonetize the exponentially increasing amount of data produced by seemingly “everything digital.”Siemens EDA is dedicated to helping more companies advance in their digital transformation andengineer a smarter future faster.Mike Santarini, EDA content directorSiemens Digital Industries

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterContentsIntroduction 3Digitalization, big data and AI 5Semiconductors at the heart of digitalization 6Digital transformation begins with ICs designedwith the end-system in mind 8Digital transformation for next-generationelectronics systems design 11Conclusion 13SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE2

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterIntroductionWith the 2017 acquisition of Mentor Graphics byTo deliver optimal, safe, secure and truly innovativeSiemens AG’s PLM (product lifecycle management)products to market requires not only designing,business, the newly formed Siemens Digitalverification/validation and testing the functionalityIndustries Software (Siemens PLM plus Siemensof each of these systems individually but alsoEDA) became the first tech company to tear downtesting them running together virtually in thethe barriers between engineering disciplines tocontext of the end-system or entire ecosystemfacilitate the design of entire digital ecosystems.before committing to manufacturing. And afterSiemens recognized that to develop tomorrow’smanufacturing, the data from the designdigital innovations more rapidly, the most successfulend-product running in the field and the manufac-companies and their suppliers either have adoptedturing processes can be analyzed to ensure safety,or are in the process of adopting a system ofbuild better next-generation products, and optimizesystems mindset, in which “the system” is no longermanufacturing and business processes.just the IP core your team is developing, or the IC,PCB, the embedded software, the ECU, or evenautomobile your team is developing. Rather it is allthose electrical, software and mechanical systemsand the network connecting all those systemsintegrated into smart business environments, smartfactories, smart infrastructure and smart cities – it isthe whole ecosystem your enterprise or yourMirroring what is happening with customers,Siemens, with its Xcelerator portfolio, is alsoadopting a system-of-systems mindset by buildingthe industry’s most comprehensive, integratedproduct design ecosystem to enable morecompanies to design with the end-system/ecosystem in mind and deliver tomorrow’sinnovations to market todaycustomers’ enterprises are building (Figure 1).(Figure 2).WhatWhat isis digitalization?digitalization?It’sIt’s AppleSiriCortanaDriveiCloudPages, Numbers,Keynote, Mail, Calendar,Contacts, FacetimeApple PayHealthApple TVCarplayiTunesHomekitApple Watch, iPhone, iPad, Macs, MacbooksDocs, Spreadsheet,Presentation, Google ,Groups, HangoutsGoogle PayOffice 365Google TVWord, Excel, PowerPoint,One Drive, SkypeYouTube MusicAndroid Wear Android Auto NestGoogle Wear, Glass, Android phones & boxMicrosoftHome OSAutomotiveWindows Phone, Surface, Windows 10Figure 1. The most successful companies and their suppliers design with the end-system ecosystem in mind.Page 1Restricted Siemens 2021 Joe Sawicki Executive Vice President, IC EDA Siemens Digital Industries Software Where today meets tomorrow.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE3

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterSiemens’ acquired Mentor to help its customersoff-the-shelf, trunk-size product by 2.5x while alsomake their digital transformation faster. Siemens’conserving 10x more energy. This computer hasacquisition of Mentor came at a time when abecome a key differentiator, which has helped Teslagrowing number of the largest and most successfulmaintain its dominant 79 percent market share leadsystems and ecosystems customers – many of whichin the electric vehicles market.were already customers of Siemens PLM software –started to bring not only electrical system development but even chip development in house.Likewise, Apple has increasingly brought more chipdevelopment in house to achieve new levels offunctionality, performance and profitability, whileMany systems and ecosystems companies today arebetter guarding their trade secrets and upcomingfinding that developing their own ICs or, alterna-product specifications. Roughly a decade ago, thetively, hiring semiconductor companies to developcompany developed its own system on chip (SoC)custom ICs or application-specific ICs (ASICs) specifi-processor architecture for its iPhone line. Buildingcally for their end-systems are far more preferableon that success, the company has more recentlythan using off-the-shelf generic systems. Thesebuilt its own SoC architecture to power its Mac PCsASICs deliver better power, performance and areaand tablet lines – all of which are tightly tied into its(aka, PPA) optimization while offering competitivemany subscription services.differentiation from those that purchase the sameoff-the-shelf chips to create easily cloned productsthat commoditize once hot markets.Both Apple and Tesla represent system companiesthat became ecosystem companies by whole-heartedly embracing digitalization to consistently intro-Apple and Tesla are two ecosystem companies thatduce disruptive innovations to the world andexemplify how internal IC development and scalingbecome iconic leaders. They are fortifying theirhas reaped many benefits. For example, rather thanleadership positions and digitalization dominancegoing with an off-the-shelf, self-driving computerby creating their own SoCs. And with the aid ofsystem (announced at CES 2019 1/2019), TeslaSiemens Digital Industries Software, a number ofdeveloped and announced at Tesla Autonomy Dayother companies are following their formula for(in April of 2019) its own book-size, product that reportedly outperformed anXcelerator for electronic design automationXcelerator for electronic design automationIC Design, Verification and ManufacturingIC Packaging Design and VerificationPCB Systems Design and ManufacturingFigure 2. Siemens EDA is the first, foundational step for companies and their suppliers designing with the end-systemecosystem in mind.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE4

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterDigitalization, big data and AIWhen people in the high-tech industry hear “digi-Indeed, the realities of the COVID-19 pandemic havetalization” or “digital transformation” referred to aslaid bare the frailties of businesses that do not have“emerging trends,” they may be quick to dismissa robust digital presence or that partner withthem as something they accomplished 20 yearscompanies and manufacturers that are not digitallyago. However, today there are still a vast numberrobust. The disruption the pandemic created hasof companies that are not fully digital – primemade evident the value and even necessity ofexamples being the myriad of small businessesinvestment in new digital transformation technolo-and larger enterprises in the factory sector thatgies (Figure 3).Siemens serves. Further, with the pace of innovation producing more digital systems annually andin turn generating exponentially more data to beanalyzed and potentially monetized, digital transformation is a perpetual journey, as even thosecompanies that have been digital for decadesrecognize. To stay viable and competitive theyneed to continually update and improve theirdigital transformation and partner with likeminded companies in their supply chain.“Digital transformation isthe integration of digitaltechnology into all areas ofa business, fundamentallychanging how you operateand deliver value tocustomers.”Digitalization rapidly accelerating and providing real benefitsAccelerated changes due to COVID-19Benefits accrued63%56%55%24%22%Increased use ofcloud and/orautomationtechnologiesPermanentreduced travelpolicies due tovideo/collaborationtechnologiesPermanent workfrom-anywhereand/or flexiblehoursarrangements forsome employeesRevenueimprovement fordigital vs.non-digitalmanufacturersover last 5 yearsProfitabilityimprovementover 5 yearsfor digital vs.non-digitalmanufacturersSources: KPMG Global Semiconductor Industry Survey 2021 & KPMG CEO Outlook COVID-19 Special Edition,IDC Manufacturing Insights’ Global Performance Index Analysis 2015-2020Figure 3. The COVID-19 pandemic has made evident the benefits of having a robust digital enterprise.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE5

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterSemiconductors at the heartof digitalizationThe integrated circuit is the heart of many genera-data, the worldwide volume of which is expected totions of modern electronics innovations and every-skyrocket from 897 exabytes in 2020 to 392,540thing involved with digitalization. Every two years,exabytes by 2030, due in large part to more busi-in step with Moore’s Law (devised by Intelnesses becoming digitalized and thus consumingco-founder Gordon Moore in 1965), the manyand generating more data. Tech industry analystscompanies involved in the design, development andpoint to dramatic demand growth in the sensor andmanufacturing of ICs work together (thoughactuator market used for collecting data, a 10competitively) to deliver a new silicon processpercent CAGR for connected devices consuming andtechnology, which engineering teams can leverageproducing data, and continued growth in demandto deliver new ICs with greater hardware function-for the various devices used to more efficiently storeality and faster performance to power newer andthis ever-growing amount of data (Figure 4) as keybetter electronic innovations.indicators that growth in data, supercharged bygrowth in digitalization, translates to dramaticToday semiconductor industry growth is driven bygrowth for semiconductors.key digitalization trends mostly centered aroundSemiconductor growth driven by digitalization trends454035302520151010 percent CAGR for connected devicesBillions of devicesBillions of unitsSensor and actuator annual unit shipments201420162018202020222024Source: IC Insights 2020Global byte shipments by storage media typeCisco Annual Internet Report (2018 – 2023) 3/9/2020Data traffic (exabytes)1,455X Growth Rate in data traffic392,54092% CAGRSource: Data Age 2025, sponsored by Seagate with data from IDC 201889716,024202020252030Source: IBS, Impact of AI on Electronics and Semiconductor Industries, April 2020Figure 4. Digitalization will further accelerate the creation and consumption of data and drive new uses of AI/ML to find ways to leverageand ultimately monetize data.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE6

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterVLSI Research predicts digitalization adoption byAs an example, in a keynote at the Samsung SAFEbusinesses worldwide will become the prime(Scaled Agile Framework) event in October of 2020,revenue driver for the semiconductor industry theRaja Koduri, senior vice president of Architecture,foreseeable future, vaulting the semiconductorGraphics and Software at the world’s largest semi-industry to new highs. Meanwhile, research firm IBSconductor company, Intel, outlined how after inno-predicts the semiconductor market will become avating the 1980’s era of “digitize everything,” the 1 trillion market with a 9.9 percent CAGR by 20301990’s era of “network everything,” the 2000’s era of(IBS, January 2021).“mobile everything” and today’s era of “cloud every-Underlying collecting, transferring and storing data,an increasing number of semiconductor, softwareand system companies are turning to artificialintelligence and machine learning to help filter,sort, interpret, and analyze that data faster to speedbusiness processes and derive new ways to monetize that data.thing,” we are today readying “the emerging era ofIntelligent Everything,” where AI-enabled ICs will beat the heart of 100B intelligent, connected devicesworldwide. “Today, with the world generating closeto 175 zettabytes of data a day, we are generatingdata faster than our ability to analyze, understand,transmit, secure, and reconstruct it in real-time,”said Koduri. The way to address this explosion ofIn fact AI/ML is quickly becoming pervasive as it isdata growth is for the tech industry to workfinding its way into an increasing number of pointstogether to enable “exascale compute performancein the ecosystem (and all the key markets predictedfor everyone,” said Koduri. To make that a reality byto drive semiconductor growth), from embedded2025, Koduri said it would require a 1000X improve-accelerator and pattern recognition blocks in ICs inment in AI computing, which would need to beedge devices and ADAS and autonomous vehicles,aided by advancement in three areas, which can beto new generations of wireless infrastructure trans-summarized as: scaling of IC process technology, ICferring data, to datacenters storing the data in thedesign, and, and throughout the software running acrossall those systems as well as the software to designall the components of those systems.To stay ahead of the game, the companies at theheart of digitalization are constantly looking fornew ways to increase compute power. And for this,they are increasingly turning to AI/ML and extraordinarily complex architectures and manufacturingtechnologies.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE7

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterDigital transformation beginswith ICs designed with theend-system in mindSiemens EDA is the electronics division of Siemensstrained physics of new manufacturing processes.Digital Industries Software. Siemens EDA offersTo address these increasing complexities, Siemensdesign flows for:EDA has been a pioneer in the use of AI/ML technol- IC design, verification and manufacturing IC packaging design and verification Electronic systems design and manufacturingogies inside of EDA tools to enable those tools toproduce more accurate results faster. Meanwhile, tobetter address growing capacity and compute powerchallenges, Siemens EDA offers high-performancecomputing configurations via on-demand fog andJoseph Sawicki, executive vice president of IC EDA,public cloud configurations for those verificationruns Siemens EDA’s IC EDA business. AJ Incorvaia,tasks that are especially compute intensive.senior vice president, Electronic Board Systems EDAruns Siemens EDA’s IC packaging and verificationas well as its Electronic Systems Design andManufacturing businesses. Both report to TonyHemmelgarn, CEO of Siemens Digital IndustriesSoftware.To enable process technology scaling, Siemens EDAworks closely with foundry partners and customersto deliver Calibre signoff quality physical verification, design for manufacturing (DFM), lithographyand Tessent yield and test tools for each emergingprocess technology node. These enable the found-In recent keynotes, Sawicki has outlined the visionries to bring up new process nodes quickly as well asfor how Siemens EDA is enabling process tech-help IC design teams ensure they are getting thenology, design, and systems scaling as fundamentalhighest PPA possible and that their ICs aresteps to helping companies deliver IC innovationscompleted as fast as possible.and accelerate their and their customer’s digitaltransformation.For companies wanting to achieve “More thanMoore” densities for their ICs, Siemens EDA hasEnable process technology scaling The semicon-worked with foundry partners and design customersductor and EDA businesses are unique in that withto deliver Xpedition advanced packaging solu-the introduction of new silicon process technologiestions, which enable customers to use chiplet andevery two years, the EDA tools and methods tostacked die methodologies to develop 2.5D and 3Ddesign and manufacture ICs on these new siliconICs and system-in-package products to achieveprocesses not only have to scale in capacity andoptimal PPA for their end-systems.compute power to handle much larger design filesand exponentially more foundry design rules, theymust also scale to address new complexities and theSIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE8

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterTo speed data on and off chip faster, Mentor is alsoThey can use Catapult HLS to synthesize the C codea pioneer in silicon photonic design tools, with itsinto RTL code and then use Catapult HLS to verifyLightSuite Photonic Compiler. Though not a main-the algorithm’s overall performance with one partstream technology yet, silicon photonics brings fiberrunning in custom logic and the other part runningoptics directly onto the IC for IO speed hungryas software on the embedded processor. They canapplications such as high-speed communications,refine the hardware and software mix until theyhigh-performance computing, storage in datareach their desired PPA for the end-system specifica-centers and LiDAR for military and autonomoustion and then advance the design to the rest of thedriving systems.IC design process, ensuring they are developing anSiemens EDA also offers full custom, analog, andanalog/mixed-signal and MEMS design (Tanner )optimal mix of hardware and software for their endsystem.and verification (Analog FastSPICE ) flows forWhat’s more, they can leverage PowerPro powercompanies developing custom, MEMS and analog ICanalysis in Catapult HLS throughout the entire flow,designs and those developing AMS (Symphony )from C-level design down to implementation, tohigh-speed IOs. It also pioneered AI-powered libraryensure their designs do not stray from the intendedcharacterization with its Solido technology.power budget. They can then use the Questa lineEnable design scaling As companies take a moreholistic systems-of-systems view of their chipdesigns and integrate AI/ML into their SoCs, the chipand system architects who plan the system candevelop mathematic algorithms representing theend-functionality they want their system or the AI/ML functions in their system to accomplish.of functional verification tools and Veloce FPGAbased prototyping platforms to ensure the functionality of the RTL is correct. They can then use VeloceStrato emulation system to verify the functionalityof the entire SoC running in the context of the endsystem. They can then use Siemens Embeddedsolutions to get an early jump on softwaredevelopment while the SoC design is movingInstead of jumping right into designing the silicon atthrough the implementation flow (with Oasys-RTL the register transfer level (RTL), using a hardwarelogic synthesis and Aprisa place and route), thendesign language, and perhaps going down a wronggets verified with Calibre, and then manufacturedpath, they can transfer that mathematic algorithmand tested with Tessent .into C code (using a tool from MathWorks). Theycan then run that C code on a standalone processor,SoC or FPGA-based prototyping system to see whichfunctions of the algorithm run fast and what runsslow. To speed up the slow parts of the algorithmand achieve the goal of best PPA, they can useCatapult HLS to harden those parts by implementing them as logic gates in an SoC design andrun the rest of the algorithm as software in theSoC’s embedded processor.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWAREEnable systems scaling When EDA and semiconductor veterans hear the term digital twin floated asa new concept, they are typically quick to point outthat companies have been creating “twins,”“models” and “prototypes” of their ICs since theearliest days of semiconductors – with solutionsevolving from breadboards to SPICE models totoday’s emulation systems digitally modeling multibillion gate9

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterprocessors and SoCs. But semiconductor andinsert specialized IP blocks into their ICs. Theseconventional EDA companies typically stop there –blocks monitor, in real-time, on-chip faults, security,at their IC system – when it comes to addressing apower and performance of ICs and potentially ECUsdigital twin. With Mentor now a part of Siemensas well as the full systems they are built into. In anDigital Industries Software, Siemens is in a uniqueautomotive configuration, companies can configureposition to offer the industry’s only true system-the blocks to report warnings to the vehicle’s occu-level, cross-discipline, comprehensive digital twin.pants, to the dealership for preventative mainte-As an example, in 2019 Siemens announced its PAVEnance and part ordering or to the tier-1 chip supplier360, which ties Siemens EDA’s IC tool flow withor even the OEM to head-off recalls and improveSiemens EDA’s Veloce emulation system to a slew ofderivative designs and even manufacturingSiemens PLM technologies to enable automotiveprocesses. To deploy this technology to its fullOEMs and their suppliers to essentially verify auto-potential not only requires a partner, like Siemensmotive IC designs and validate related software inEDA, with the right IP, but also the ecosystem soft-virtual driving scenarios before committing theware infrastructure, like Siemens Digital Industriessilicon and the rest of the system to manufacturing.Software, to interpret and take action on that data.While PAVE 360 is an automotive-specific implemen-While Sawicki’s group in Siemens EDA is innovatingtation of a comprehensive digital twin, there arenew IC design technologies for companies wantingmany other systems and ecosystem opportunitiesto speed and optimize their digital transformationthat will benefit from such cross-disciplinary,into digital ecosystems, AJ Incorvaia’s group iscomprehensive digital twin environments in the notextending digitalization from the PCB and intercon-too distant future.nected electronic systems into the mechanicalSiemens EDA also pioneered a silicon lifecycledesign technology called TessentMissionMode (released in 2017) and last yearacquired UltraSoC, which enables companies toSIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE10

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasterDigital transformation fornext-generation electronicssystems designWhere IC design is constantly challenged by theIncorvaia describes five core transformationalcomplexities of new process nodes and the market’scapabilities that are required to deliver these keys torelentless demand for greater functionality andproduct differentiation, profitability and fasterperformance, PCB systems design is relatedly chal-time-to-market:lenged with adequately powering and cooling thesecomplex, faster ICs as well as routing and maintaining signal and thermal integrity of every highspeed signal between the ICs on a board. Rapidly,the challenges, and thus the technology to designand analyze them, must encompass all the boardson a system and be synchronized with relatedmechanical systems. Increasingly, design teamsmust deliver these ever more complex PCBs and1. Digitally integrated and optimized multi-domaindesign Enterprises must choose a PCB designenvironment that not only scales with thecomplexities of design, but also facilitates adigital thread that enables design teams andmanufacturing to stay up to date on project status and collaborate worldwide across engineeringdomains.interconnected electronic systems with best-in-classA digital thread between design and manufac-performance at the lowest power possible and do soturing enables design and manufacturing teamswithin shrinking time to market windows. But theto better collaborate to speed up the designchallenges are not limited to design complexity andprocess and minimize the respins. Streamliningtime-to-market pressure.the transition to manufacturing requires sharingIn a series of keynotes, Incorvaia has outlined howthe technologies (Xpedition Enterprise and PADS Professional design flows as well as the tightlyintegrated HyperLynx and Valor analysis suites)from Siemens Digital Industries Software uniquelyenable customers to address product, organizational, and process complexities that havepersistently hindered organizations from deliveringPCBs and interconnected electronic systems on timea complete understanding of the product andenabling early downstream access to the data.Using a digitally integrated platform helps teamsdevelop a complete and accurate multi-domainbill of materials that companies can easily integrate with a wide variety of other enterpriseapplications. Design teams can also developtemplates that help teams enterprise wide toreuse best practices and enforce standards.with minimal revisions or respins.SIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE11

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future faster2. Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) Totrade-offs in different domains from a functionalfacilitate a system-of-systems mindset, manylevel, earlier in the design cycle. Because each ofsystems companies are turning to model-basedthese trade-offs may have an impact in each ofsystems engineering (MBSE), where sub-systemsthe individual domains, the earlier it can befrom the electrical, mechanical and softwaredetermined what tradeoffs work best for thedomains are each functionally modeled andoverall product, the better the product will be.brought together in a comprehensive digital twinFurthermore, by looking at the entire systemat a systems architecture level, before designthrough a model-based systems perspective,begins.teams can not only look at the electrical ICALVERIFICATIONREQUIREMENTSfunctional trade-offs earlier in the design cycle,but also product trade-offs that might be basedon such things as weight, cost, or even availablecomponents.3. Digital-prototype driven verification To shortentime-to-market and maximize profitability,leading design teams perform analysis during thedesign process in iterative, short loops – ratherthan performing analysis only after the designhas been completed or is in the lab after a IRINGENGINEERical prototype of the board or system has beenassembled. Environments such as Xpedition allowdesign groups to perform analysis iteratively andcreate a digital-prototype of their systems formuch earlier TYENGINEERMFGENGINEERFigure 5. Choosing a multi-domain, trans-geography solution isimperative for digital transformation.What’s more, having a comprehensive system notonly allows for localized iterative loops forcorrect-by-construction design, but also facilitates broad system analysis. In today’s environ-With an MBSE methodology, the architectures forthe electronic sub-systems are extracted andcommunicated as a bill-of-functions, which arethen used to drive the electronic system definition with appropriate configurations. At thebeginning of the process, the systems architectsdefine all the external interfaces for harness andcable design. The electronics are then placed intotheir appropriate logical and subsequent physicaldesign implementations. The comprehensivement, it is no longer viable to analyze only a fewindividual parts of a design outside the context ofthe entire system. Performance must be analyzedand verified at the largest system level – from 3Delectromagnetic modeling of complex designstructures to the creation of multi-substrate,digital, system-level models that feed poweraware system-level signal analysis.Heterogeneous silicon integration and advancedIC packaging require true, system-level thermaldigital twin allows engineers to start working onSIEMENS DIGITAL INDUSTRIES SOFTWARE12

White Paper – Digital transformation: How Siemens EDA helps you engineer a smarter future fasteranalysis along with concurrent analysis, where5. Supplier strength and credibility To embark uponIC thermal effects on packages and the corre-a digital transformation and then continue tosponding PCB are modeled in the context of thegrow throughout that transformation to deliverentire system.generations of innovation to market requires4. Capacity, performance, productivity, efficiencyThe companies who have been most successfulin making a digital transformation choose designenvironments that scale to their organization’ssize, challenges and design team expertise. Inaddition, the most sophisticated environmentsenable companies to catalog and leverage designreuse across their organization. In the IC designspace, this has proven to have several benefits forreducing cost as well as design time by enablingpartnering with reliable suppliers who not onlyoffer leading solutions for today, but also arec

just the IP core your team is developing, or the IC, PCB, the embedded software, the ECU, or even . big data and AI “Digital transformation is the integration of digital technology into all areas of . edge devices and ADAS and autonomous vehic