3OOLS AND EQUIPMENTTOOLS AND EQUIPMENT3.1 Importance of Tools and EquipmentBUILDING RURAL ROADSProper tools and equipment are essentialfor the effective operation of any civilworks site. Equipping the constructionsite with the correct tools and equipmentplays an essential role in achievingtimely and good quality results. For everyconstruction activity there is an optimalcombination of tools, equipment andlabour. Depending on the nature andcontent of the works, the technical staffneeds to know which tools to use andhow to effectively combine them withmanual labour.Once on site, equipment requires trainedoperators and supervisory staff whoare prof icient in its operation andmaintenance.Faulty equipment is a common reasonfor delays on construction sites. Amajor responsibility of the projectmanagement is to ensure that tools andequipment are maintained in a goodcondition and are readily availablewhen required for the various workactivities.W hen applying labour-based workmethods, the use of hand tools supportedwith selected items of light equipmentcan produce results comparable withthose achieved when using only heavyequipment. For every constructionactivity there is an optimum combinationof equipment and labour. In order toutilize the equipment and labour in themost effective way, the use of equipmentneeds to be carefully coordinated withthe output of the work gangs.For certain construction activities,particularly hauling of materials andcompaction, high labour productivityand good quality of work may bedifficult to achieve using only manual1 1 6

3.2 Quality of Toolslabour and hand tools. In such cases,using light construction equipment canincrease the efficiency of work.Site supervisors need to know how touse the tools and how to operate theequipment in order to secure goodwork progress and the expected highquality results. It is also important thatstaff know the full potential, as well asthe limitation, of the use of manual andequipment-based works methods.Providing workers with strong, durabletools helps to increase productivity. Ifthe workers discover that their tools arenot very strong, they will tend to usethem more gently, and less productivelyso as to avoid breaking them. Brokentools on site cause interruptions to work,and reduces productivity, while the toolsare repaired or replaced.Ergonomically efficient hand tools arecomfortable to use, well adapted toparticular construction tasks and suit thephysical characteristics of the workers.Ergonomically efficient tools and correctworking techniques allow the workers touse the major body muscles effectivelyand make the most productive use of theirenergy. The proper use of suitable toolswill also prevent injuries on site.BUILDING RURAL ROADSFinally, tools and equipment need regularmaintenance, requiring good workshopfacilities, a reliable supply of spare partsand qualified mechanical staff.Ha nd tools a re used much moreintensively on labour-based constructionwork than in agriculture. Many toolscommonly used for agriculture workare not strong enough for use onconstruction sites and will quicklybreak if used intensively. It is thereforeessential that the tools used on a civilworks project are properly designedto stand the heavy wear and tear of aconstruction site.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTHand tools are the main instrumentsused by the workers to carry out theactivities involved in building a roadusing labour-based work methods.It is therefore important that projectstaff know how to select and maintainthe tools since they have a significantinfluence on the work outputs.1 1 7

3.3 Characteristics of Suitable Hand Tools3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTHand tools should be of good qualityand designed so that they are efficientin use. The tools should be strongenough to withstand intensive use atthe work site, and resistant to wear sothat they have a long working life. Formost tools this means that the metalhead should be made from carbonsteel, heat-treated to give the correctstrength and wear characteristics. Forthe main excavation and striking toolssuch as hoes, pickaxes, mattocks andsledgehammers, the tool heads shouldbe forged in a single piece. Cast orfabricated and welded tool heads do notprovide sufficient quality.The timber handle should be madefrom a tough, preferably light, seasonedhardwood. The wood should be straightgrained, with the grain lying alongthe length of the handle. The handlesshould not have any splits or knots,since these lead to handles breakingwhen used.Tool handles should be smoothlyfinished and carefully shaped witha raised grip at the end to preventthe workers hands sliding off. Longhandled tools are generally preferredsince they allow the workers to stand inan upright position, which is less tiringthan having to bend or crouch down.The handle should be a tight, secure fitin the head of the tool.Good quality tools are inevitably moreexpensive than poor quality tools.However, it is wrong simply to purchasethe cheapest tools available. This willonly result in problems on site, andthe need for the frequent replacementof broken tools. Efficient hand toolsallow workers to achieve the maximumproductivity from their efforts. Efficienttool heads should: have the correct shape in orderto work efficiently, be of suitable weight for thestrength of the workers, andBUILDING RURAL ROADS1 1 8

be properly sharpened along theworking edges.The optimal choice of tools also variesfrom place to place, depending on the siteconditions, type of works carried out,type of soils and local skills and practice.Site supervisory staff needs to be trainedin the proper use and maintenance oftools. Since the labour is temporarilyemployed, they are not provided withany formal training in the use of handtools. However, the supervisors areresponsible for instructing the workersand ensuring that tools are properly usedand maintained.The workers are often very conservativeconcerning the use of hand tools. Localtraditions may create some reluctanceamong workers to use new tools. WhenHoesThe hoe, in addition to being veryuseful in agriculture, is also a commonlyused tool when using labour-based workmethods for rural road works. It can beused for excavating soft soils and is oftenused in combination with stretchers orhead baskets. Hoes are also effectivewhen excavating drains, cutting backslopes and removing topsoil. The mostefficient way of using the hoe is whenthe workers can stand slightly below thelevel being excavated.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTIt is possible to obtain good quality,efficient tools manufactured locally.Before extensive purchases of tools aremade, their cost, strength, durabilitya nd de si g n s hou ld b e c a re f u l tools are introduced, it is importantto provide adequate instruction in theirproper use. It is also worthwhile toassess the effectiveness of the new toolsas compared to the local traditionalwork methods.As it is commonly found and used infarming communities, its use is wellknown among the workers and wouldnormally not need any instruction inhow it is effectively used.Hoes are produced in a variety of shapes.BUILDING RURAL ROADS1 1 9

3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTThey consist of a blade and a handle.Both pieces are commonly found inlocal markets. Local workshops andblacksmiths can provide repairs andmaintenance for this tool.The hoe should have a handle of suitablelength so that the worker can workstanding upright. Handles used forhoes vary in length. The most commondimensions are from 70cm to 1.3m.The blade of the common hoe has astraight cutting edge. Narrow bladesare useful for excavating hard or stonysoils, and are used as an alternative tothe pickaxe. Wider blades are effectivefor spreading and levelling works. Thestandard digging hoe has a blade widthof 20 to 25 centimetres and a length ofaround 25 cm.Good handles are manufactured fromseasoned hardwood. R ather thanproducing spare handles on site, it isrecommended to purchase qualityhandles made by skilled artisans usinghigh-grade materials.The eye can be round or oval, althoughfor excavation works the oval eye isrecommended. Replacing the handleis easier with the round eye. Thedisadvantage is that blades with a roundeye tend to turn while working in hardsoils.BUILDING RURAL ROADSPickaxes and MattocksPickaxes and mattocks are tools used forexcavating hard or stony soils, difficultto penetrate with hoes. Pickaxes areeffective when breaking hard or stonyground. When excavating side drainsin hard soils, the pickaxe is particularlyeffective. Mattocks are useful forshaping slopes in hard soils, and alsoto cut roots. Make sure whoever isoperating a pickaxe has sufficient spaceto operate by ensuring that all otherworkers are at a safe distance.Both these tools always come withan oval shaped eye so that the handle1 2 0

3cannot turn in the eye. Both thepickaxe and the mattock are ratherheavy. The pickaxe usually weighsbetween 2.7 and 3.6kg and the mattockbetween 1.8 and 2.7kg. For this reason,it is important that they are fitted withproperly shaped, good quality handles.Loose handles on these tools are apotential hazard to the workers.Handles for these tools are producedin a variety of lengths, each designedfor specific work activities. Shorterhandles, ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 metresin length, are commonly used onspades and shovels primarily used forexcavation works. Longer handles (1.2- 1.4 metres) are more useful when thetools are used for loading and throwing.The advantage of a long-handled shovelis particularly clear when loading into ahigh-sided truck or throwing materialBUILDING RURAL ROADSAs they are double edge striking tools,they are fitted with a straight handlewith an elliptical rather than circularcross-section. The handle shouldpreferably be provided with a raisedsafety grip, which prevents it fromslipping out of the worker's hands.A spade has a stronger square shapedblade and is primarily intended fordigging in denser soils and is lesssuitable for t hrowing or loadingactivities. The spade is essentially aheavy-duty forged tool. In hard soils,the spade is more efficient because itcan be pushed into the ground withoutbending the blade. Placing a foot onthe top of the blade and pressing itdown increases the pushing force.This however requires that the workeris provided with boots or shoes withhard soles.TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTShovels and SpadesShovels are used for scooping upmaterial and loading it on to a trailer,truck or wheelbarrow, or throwingit directly to where the material isneeded. The shovel has a rounded orpointed blade making it suitable forboth digging and loading purposes.1 2 1

out of a deep trench. Long handledshovels are also used for cleaningculvert pipes.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTShovels and spades should not havesharp joints, which may da maget he ha nds of t he workers. L oosehilts or handles need to be repairedimmediately, so they do not cause harmto the workers. Loose or faulty handlesalso compromise the performance ofthe workforce.BUILDING RURAL ROADSSpades a nd shovels provide a nalternative to hoes. The optimal choicedepends on the prevailing soil andworking conditions and the choice ofhaulage methods. The advantage ofusing shovels is mainly related to theireffectiveness when loading of throwingmaterials. A good example in thisrespect is when excavating side drains.Workers equipped with shovels can thenthrow the excavated materials from thedrain directly onto the road surface,which is then used to form the camber.CrowbarsThe crowbar, like the picka xe, ismostly used for penetrating or breakingup stony or hard soils. It is also usedfor moving boulders or heavy items, byusing it as a lever. The crowbar needsto be made from high-grade steel sothat it does not bend easily.Crowbars are usually manufacturedeither as round or octagonal sectionrod s. For i n f r a st r uc t u re work, adiameter of 30mm provides a good andfirm grip. The length should be from 1.5to 1.8 metres. With these dimensions,the crowbar gains sufficient weight topenetrate hard and compact soils andallows the worker to stand up rightwhen operating it. The bar can be fittedwith a pointed or a chisel end – or both.The pointed end is used to penetrateand break loose material, while thechisel end is more useful for leverage.Rakes and SpreadersRakes are used in road works forraking out vegetation from loose soil.Commercially produced rakes have 10to 16 teeth, each about 75 - 100mmlong, with an overall length about 400- 450mm.Spreaders are useful when forming thecamber and when spreading gravel.Spreaders are made of sheet metal (2- 3mm thick) with ridges on one side,which are used to level the road surfaceaccording to set levels and gradients.1 2 2


The handles for both tools shouldbe long enough to allow the workerto operate comfortably in a standingposition.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTHand RammersHand rammers are used for compactingsoil and gravel. It consists of a weightwith a long handle.The effectiveness of a hand rammerdepends on its weight and the area thathits the ground. Ideally, the weightshould be as heavy as possible and thearea as small as possible (without therammer penetrating the soil). Theweight can be made of various materialssuch as steel, concrete or solid wood.Rammers made from concrete or woodcan be manufactured locally.A rammer that can be handled effectivelyby a worker should therefore have aweight of some 6 – 8kg. The diameterat the bottom end should be between 13to 15cm. The handle needs to be longenough to allow the workers to lift therammer without bending their back.Using hand rammers on large surfacesis expensive and diff icult to applyevenly. Hand rammers are most usefulin small and confined areas such asaround culverts, when filling potholesand other places where it is impracticalor difficult to access with rollers.BUILDING RURAL ROADSSawsSaws are manufactured in a numberof varieties. Cutting trees and bushesrequires a crosscut saw, i.e. a saw witha blade designed to cut wood at a rightangle to the direction of the grain.The size of the trees will obviouslydetermine the size of the saw. Largersaws require two operators while smallerversions can be used single-handedly.Steel framed bow saws are commonlyused for cutting sma ll trees a ndbranches. A narrow blade is held in1 2 4

it, and the operator should use all theavailable protective gear.The advantage of the bow saw is that itis a relatively large saw, which can stillbe used by a single person. For largerjobs this saw can also be operated bytwo persons.Recent years have seen a proliferationof light and inexpensive chainsaws.The current versions are fitted withair cleaners, chain brakes, etc. Thismodern piece of equipment has createda completely new approach to treefelling and stump removal. When inuse, a skilled person should operateThe eye of the axe is oval and is fixedto the handle with a wedge. Handlesare normally 70 to 90cm long madefrom seasoned hardwood shaped in anergonomically sound fashion. Smalleraxes, also referred to as hatchets, are oftenused for cutting small trees and branchesinstead of a bush knife. They are alsoused for producing setting out pegs.The axe needs to be properly sharpened.A sharp axe will cut faster and is saferBUILDING RURAL ROADSPeg teeth blades are used for cuttinghardwood. The peg and gullet combinationteeth blade is used for cutting soft wood.On most saws, the teeth are designedto cut when the saw is being pushedthrough the wood.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTtension by the frame. A quick releaselever applies tension to the blade. Thelever, combined with an oval sectionedframe, provides a comfortable handgrip.Blades are 20-25mm wide and areproduced in a standard length. Theframe is made of mild steel and the bladeis made of high carbon alloy steel. Theycan be supplied with various shapedteeth to cut different types of wood.AxesAxes are essential tools when fellingtrees. They are also useful duringbush clearing for cutting tree branchesand stripping branches of felled trees.The head of the axe can be shapedwith a single or a double cutting edge.Although the single bit is safer to use,the double bit with its two blades canbe used for a longer duration before itneeds to be sharpened.1 2 5

3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTto use. When operating an axe, it isimportant to position yourself so thatyou are chopping in a direction awayfrom your body. If the axe misses itstarget, the axe will not hit you. Alsomake sure that any other workers areat a safe distance. When transportingor storing an axe, the blade shouldbe sheathed to protect it from beingdamaged as well as causing injury.Bush KnifesBush knifes are used for clearingbush and dense grass along the roadalignment. The shape and design ofbush knifes vary from one country toanother. To avoid supply problems, itis advisable to follow local practicesand purchase the version commonlyapplied where the road is located,whether it is a panga, machete, cutlassor bush knife. As they are often usedin agricultura l work, loca l shopsshould have a good supply.BUILDING RURAL ROADSThe bush knife consists of a steel bladewith a round wooden handle. Pangas,machetes and cutlasses are made froma sharpened steel plate fitted with awooden grip.Grass CuttersThe grass cutter, or slasher, is a simpleand inexpensive tool used for trimminglight grass. It consists of a metal strip50mm wide and 3mm thick. Thebottom 20cm is cranked and sharpenedon both sides. The slasher therefore cutswhen swinging it in both directions,and can be held alternately with bothhands. The top end of the blade is fittedwith a wooden handle, riveted on to themetal strip.Routine maintenance workers commonlyuse a grass cutter for clearing thevegetation on road shoulders and inside drains. It is also used when initiallyclearing the road reserve. It is an efficienttool for light and moderately dense grassor bush. Thicker and denser grass orbush would normally require a strongercutting tool such as a bush knife.1 2 6

3The strongest and most comfortablewheelbarrows have a pneumatic rubberwheel and a tray made of 1.6mm to2mm steel sheets. The tray should bereinforced around the rim and properlyattached to the chassis with bolts, nutsand washers.Wheelbarrows are used to transportmaterials over short distances. If theground is soft or very stony, planksshould be laid to provide a smooth andfirm running surface. The use of planksis also good for helping wheelbarrowsup steep sections. When using severalwheelbarrows, the best performanceis achieved when the hauling route isorganised as one-way runs. Assigning aseparate route for hauling the materialto the dumping location and returningempty by a different route avoids any"traffic congestion".BUILDING RURAL ROADSA wheelbarrow consists of a body ortray that rests on a chassis with attachedhandles, a wheel and legs. The chassisis normally made from tubular steel,although wooden wheelbarrows are stillcommon in some countries. The frameneeds to be strong enough to carrythe loads without bending or twisting.Check the handles for cuts or burrs thatmight catch unwary fingers.TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTWheelbarrowsThe wheelbarrow is a useful piece oftransport equipment for short distances(up to 200 metres). Wheelbarrowsare used for earth and concrete works,transporting construction materialssuch as soil, gravel, sand, aggregate,stone, concrete, etc. Wheelbarrowsare made in many different types andqualities. A good wheelbarrow shouldbe able to take a big load (struckcapacity approximately 60 to 70 litres)and be easy to balance and tip.1 2 7

3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTWheelbarrows should give years ofservice, provided they are used andstored properly. They shou ld bestored upright or turned over in a dryenvironment, and never left holdingdamp items, or where they will catchrainwater. If they have been used forhauling concrete, they need to bethoroughly cleaned at the end of theday to avoid any concrete stickingpermanently to the wheelbarrow. Thetray is usually made of sheet steel andis susceptible to rust. Paint the outsidewhen required, and oil the inside of thetray once a month.The body is attached to the frameeither by spot-welds or nuts and bolts.Check that welds are intact, or nuts andbolts are tight. If a bolt is lost, it shouldbe replaced before the wheelbarrow isused again. Riveting on sheet metalpatches can repair holes in the tray,provided the tray is still in a basicallysound condition. Spare parts for thewheelbarrow should be available at site.Wheelbarrows have either solid orpneumatic tyres. Although they aremore expensive and liable to puncture,pneumatic tyres are recommended,as they are easier to use in muddyconditions. The storekeeper should besupplied with a pump and patchingequipment.The wheel is usually held on by twobearings bolted to the chassis. Thebolts should not be over tightened, orattempts made to free the bearings witha hammer. The bolts should be oiledregularly to ensure they do not rust upand make removal difficult.BUILDING RURAL ROADS1 2 8

StretchersStretchers are locally made devicesfor carrying soil over short distances.They are often made from rice sacksor simila r materia ls. The ea siestmethod of producing a stretcher isby cutting openings at both ends of arice sack and threading two woodenor bamboo poles about 2m long alongthe length of each side of the sack.The soil is placed on the cloth (sackmaterial), and the device is carried likea stretcher, hence it's name.TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTSoil BasketsSoil baskets are also used for carrying soilover short distances. On some sites, it isthe main tool for moving soil over shortdistances. A typical basket can be loadedwith 5 to 6 kg of soil. It can be madefrom local basket making materials, usedtyres or manufactured in plastic.3Baskets made from organic materialsa r e on l y s u it a ble f or d r y s oi l s .Although they are not as durable asthe ones made from plastic, they canbe manufactured from local materialsand cost about half the price. Plasticand rubber tyre baskets are moredurable and are not damaged whenused to carry wet soils.BUILDING RURAL ROADSStretchers and soil baskets are usedas an alternative to wheelbarrows. Awheelbarrow can carry a larger load,and as compared to the stretcher,only requires one person to operate.The advantage of the stretchers andbaskets is that they can be easily usedin wet and soft terrain. Wheelbarrowsneed solid ground to run on. In softand muddy terrain, the wheelbarrowswill sink into the soils and require animproved running surface.Standard Lists of Hand ToolsEarthworksThe number of tools described in thetable below is required for carryingout earthworks activities, including1 2 9

3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTbush clearing, top soil removal, soilexcavation, borrowing and spreadingusing stretchers. Rollers are used forcompaction of earthworks. Whenwheelbarrows are used, the appropriatea mount depend s on t he hau la gedistance and the productivity in theexcavation and spreading activities.BUILDING RURAL ROADSGravel WorksThe hand tools described in the tablebelow are used for the spreading ofgravel and reshaping the sub-base. Theequipment used for hauling material andcompaction is described in Section Maintenance andRepair of Hand ToolsMost of the implements required tocarry out maintenance and repair oftools are inexpensive and simple to use.Depending on the number and typesof tools on site, a set of tools for repairwork should be made available on site.Although the hand tools on site may beof good quality, they still need regularmaintenance to remain effective. Whentools have been used for some time,handles eventually need to be replacedand cutting edges require sharpening.If the workers are equipped withpoorly maintained hand tools, theirperformance will be compromised.Establishing repair facilities on site istherefore justified through the savingsmade by repairing tools rather thanbuying new ones, and through anincrease in worker productivity whensupplying the workforce with tools ingood condition. The cost of the servicesof a blacksmith and a carpenter tosharpen tool cutting edges and carryingout other repairs can therefore easily bejustified.On projects with a large workforce, itis useful to employ a person specificallyto maintain and repair the hand tools.Alternatively, it is always useful tocheck in the local villages if there areany blacksmiths or carpenters who canprovide repair services.The site camp will need a work placefor repairing tools, equipped witheffective sharpening instruments and asufficient supply of spare parts.1 3 0

The fine cutting edges of axes, bush knifesand grass cutters are normally maintainedby sharpening with whetstones.The edges of earthworks tools, suchas hoes, pickaxes, mattocks, shovelsand spades should be sharpened with agrinding stone or by filing. The cuttingedge of a hoe or a mattock shouldbe sharpened on the side facing theoperator of the tool.The blade of a good shovel will notbend or crack but will wear. The edgeof the blade will eventually be so wornthat it becomes blunt and for thisreason difficult to push into the soil. Toimprove the worn blade it can be cutand sharpened so that the shovel canbe used effectively again. This requiresvery strong tools and should be done ina workshop.For saws, small triangular shaped fileswith a side about twice the depth of theteeth are appropriate for sharpening. Bowsaws are easier to deal with as the bladescan be replaced. Axe blades are bestsharpened using a grindstone and files.BUILDING RURAL ROADSWhen the length of the blade is lessthan 150mm, the hoe is no longerefficient for digging. However, it canstill be useful for other purposes, suchas grubbing and levelling works.TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTIf the blade has been chipped or piecesbroken off, the hoe should not be useduntil it is repaired. The repair can bedone by cutting or filing off the edgesto re-establish a straight edge and thensharpening it.3The axe is fixed to a vice, to allow forthe use of both hands when using afile for sharpening. File into the edge,1 3 1

is the best tool when axes, mattocks,pickaxes, bush knifes and similar toolsneed major reshaping works. Avoidusing electric grinders, as it will mostprobably draw the temper from thesteel, leaving it too soft to hold an edge.A grinding wheel is slow enough toavoid removing too much and as longas it is moistened with water, maintainscool temperatures.3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTtoward the centre of the axehandle, as this creates the leastamount of burr to remove on theother side. After reshaping theblade edge, the final sharpeningis carried out using a whetstone.When applied by skilled workers,this final process puts a razorsharp edge on the blade. Finally,it is useful to coat the blade withoil or wax to protect it fromrusting.BUILDING RURAL ROADSWhen axes and other tools used forearthworks have been severely bluntedit may be necessary to grind a newcutting edge. A manual or treadleoperated grinding wheel, which iscontinuously moistened with water,If a grinding wheel is not available, thesharpening should be carried out usingfiles. Light sharpening can be carriedout with the tool held in the hand, butremoval of heavier burrs is best donewith the assistance of a workbench anda vice.A whetstone is used to provide thefinal sharpness to the edge. It is usefulto equip bush clearing gangs with awhetstone so they can maintain thesharpness of their cutting tools whilethey are in the field.Using FilesFiles for sharpening tools come with asingle or a double cut pattern. A singlecut file has one set of parallel teeth withan angle of 60 to 80 degrees from theedge. Double-cut files have two series ofparallel teeth set 45 degrees to each other.The double-cut file is used for restoringthe shape of an edge, while the single-cutfile is used for the final finishing work.Rounded blades require files with a roundsurface. In general, it is more effective touse large files, however, some tools, suchas saws, need smaller files to fit into thegrooves of the blade.Files only sharpen on the push stroke. It1 3 2

should be lifted away from the surfaceon the return stroke. When applying a"sawing" motion with the file, it will fillwith metal particles and not cut well.Files should be protected from eachother and other tools when stored andtransported.3The size of the store depends on thequantity of tools to be stored. Whenthe work site is very isolated, the storehas to be well stocked and will thereforebe larger.Tools should be stored in a dry andsecure place. They should be stackedneatly so that they can easily becounted. Stack different items anditems of different sizes separately.Employ a watchman to guard the storeswhen the storekeeper is off duty.ReportingReporting on tools stocked on site iscarried out using a standardised form.The table below shows an example of atools inventory form.BUILDING RURAL ROADSStorageTools are issued to the workers everymorning by the storekeeper, and returnedin the afternoon after completion ofworks. The supervisors need to ensurethat the workers are issued the correcttype of tools according to the workactivities they will be carrying out. Thestorekeeper is responsible for keepingfull records of the tools and controllingthe issue of tools to the workers. Thetotal number of tools on site needs to beTOOLS AND EQUIPMENTcounted and reported regularly back toproject management.1 3 3

3.5 Construction Equipment3TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTIn most rural road construction works,there is always a demand for a certainamount of construction equipment.We l l - m a i nt a i n e d e q u i p m e nt i si mp or t a nt a s it d e t e r m i ne s t heproductivity and quality of the workscarried out. Malfunctioning or poorlyperforming equipment is the mostcommon reason for slow progress of aroad works project. Equipment is alsoexpensive and can easily be destroyedif it is not operated correctly andsupervised by competent staff.Constructi

OOLS AND EQUIPMENT 3.1 Importance of Tools and Equipment Proper tools and equipment are essen