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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES1

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUESDr. Prabhat PandeyDr. Meenu Mishra Pandey Bridge Center, 2015BRIDGE CENTERBuzau, Al. Marghiloman 245 bis, 120082Tel. 0728394546e-mail: [email protected], European UnionPrinted in RomaniaFirst published, 2015ISBN 978-606-93502-7-0All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means,without permission. Any person who does any unauthorisedact in relation to this publication may be liable to criminalprosecution and civil claims for damages.The publishers have applied for copyright permission forthose pieces that need copyright clearance and dueacknowledgement will be made at the first opportunity.The views and contents of this book are solely of the author.The author of the book has taken all reasonable care to ensurethat the contents of the book do not violate any existingcopyright or other intellectual property rights of any personin any manner whatsoever. In the event the author has beenunable to track any source and if any copyright has beeninadvertently infringed, please notify the publisher in writingfor corrective action.2

Dr. Prabhat PandeyDr. Meenu Mishra PandeyRESEARCH METHODOLOGY: TOOLSAND TECHNIQUESBridge Center20153

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CONTENTSPreface .6Chapter 1 – Research .7Chapter 2 - Research Process 13Chapter 3 - Research Design .18Chapter 4 - Research Problem .23Chapter 5 - Variables and Their Types . .29Chapter 6 - Formulation of Hypothesis .32Chapter 7 – Sampling .40Chapter 8 - Tools of Data Collection 57Chapter 9 - Data Analysis .70Chapter 10 - Interpretation of Data .75Chapter 11 - Research Methods .78Chapter 12 - Descriptive or Survey Method .84Chapter 13 - Experimental Method .89Chapter 14 - Research Proposal .101Chapter 15 - Research Report . . 110Bibliography . .1165

PREFACEThe authors felt during their several years of teaching experience thatstudents fail to understand the books written on Research Methodologybecause generally they are written in technical language. Since thiscourse is not taught before the Master’s degree, the students are notfamiliar with its vocabulary, methodology and course contents.The authors have made an attempt to write it in very nontechnical language. It has been attempted that students who try tounderstand the research methodology through self-learning may alsofind it easy. The chapters are written with that approach. Even thosestudents who intend to attain high level of knowledge of the researchmethodology in social sciences will find this book very helpful inunderstanding the basic concepts before they read any book onresearch methodology.This book is useful those students who offer the ResearchMethodology at Post Graduation and M.Phil. Level. This book is alsovery useful for Ph.D. Course Work examinations.Dr. Prabhat PandeyDr. Meenu Mishra Pandey6

1ResearchIntroduction:Research is an essential and powerful tool in leading man towardsprogress. Without systematic research there would have been very littleprogress.John W. Best has rightly said, “The secret of our culturaldevelopment has been research, pushing back the areas of ignorance bydiscovering new truths, which, in turn, lead to better ways of doingthings and better products.”Scientific research leads to progress in some field of life. Newproducts, new facts, new concepts and new ways of doing things arebeing found due to ever-increasing significant research in the physical,the biological, the social and the psychological fields. Research today isno longer confined to the science laboratory.Meaning of Research:Word ‘Research’ is comprises of two words Re Search. It means tosearch again. So research means a systematic investigation or activity togain new knowledge of the already existing facts.Research is an intellectual activity. It is responsible for bringingto light new knowledge. It is also responsible for correcting the presentmistakes, removing existing misconceptions and adding new learning tothe existing fund of knowledge. Researches are considered as acombination of those activities which are removed from day to day life7

and are pursued by those persons who are gifted in intellect and sincerein pursuit of knowledge. But it is not correct to say that the research isrestricted to such type of persons, however, it is correct to say thatmajor contribution of research comes from highly gifted and committedworkers. Thus the research is not at all mysterious and is carried on byhundreds of thousands of average individuals.Research is also considered as the application of scientificmethod in solving the problems. It is a systematic, formal and intensiveprocess of carrying on the scientific method of analysis. There are manyways of obtaining knowledge. They are intuition, revelation, andauthority, logical manipulation of basic assumptions, informed guesses,observation, and reasoning by analogy. One of the branches of researchknown as empirical research is highly goal-oriented technique.Definitions of Research:The following are the important definitions of research:“Research is an endeavor / attempt to discover, develop and verifyknowledge. It is an intellectual process that has developed overhundreds of years ever changing in purpose and form and alwaysresearching to truth.”J. Francis Rummel“Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts andtheir meanings or implications with reference to a given problem. Theproduct or findings of a given piece of research should be an authentic,verifiable contribution to knowledge in the field studied.”P.M. Cook“Research may be defined as a method of studying problems whosesolutions are to be derived partly or wholly from facts.”W.S. Monroes“Research is considered to be the more formal, systematic intensiveprocess of carrying on the scientific method of analysis. It involves a8

more systematic structure of investigation, usually resulting in somesort of formal record of procedures and a report of results orconclusion.”John W. Best“Research comprises defining and redefining problems ,formulatinghypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting ,organizing and evaluatingdata, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefultesting the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulatedhypothesis.”Clifford Woody“Research is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge.”Redman & Mori“Social research may be defined as a scientific undertaking which bymeans of logical and systematized techniques aims to discover newfacts or verify and test old facts , analyse their sequences , interrelationships and casual explanation which were derived within anappropriate theoretical frame of reference , develop new scientifictools , concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and validstudy of human behavior.”P.V. YoungePurpose of Research:The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through theapplication of scientific procedure. The main aim of research is to findout the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.Though each research study has its own specific purpose, some generalobjectives of research below:(i) To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insightsinto it. (Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory orformative research studies).9

(ii) To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual,situation or a group.(Studies with this object in view are known asdescriptive research studies).(iii) To determine the frequency with which something occurs or withwhich it is associated with something else. (Studies with this objectin view are known as diagnostic research studies).(iv) To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.(Such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).Characteristics of Research:Following are the characteristics of research;(i)(ii)(iii)Research is directed toward the solution of a problem.Research requires expertise.Research emphasizes the development of generalizations,principles, or theories that will be helpful in predicting futureoccurrences.(iv) Research is based upon observable experience or empiricalevidences.(v) Research demands accurate observation and description.(vi) Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-handsources or using existing data for a new purpose.(vii) Research is characterized by carefully designed procedures thatapply rigorous analysis.(viii) Research involves the quest for answers to un-solved problems.(ix) Research strives to be objective and logical, applying everypossible test to validate the procedures employed the datacollected and the conclusions reached.(x) Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.(xi) Research is carefully recorded and collected.(xii) Research sometimes requires courage.10

Types of Research:There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it intodifferent categories.(A) On the basis of nature of information:On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research intotwo types;(i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitativedata.(ii) Quantitative Research: When information is in the form ofquantitative data.(B) On the basis of utility of content or nature of subject matter ofresearch:On the basis of these criteria we can categorize the research into twocategories.(i) Basic/ Fundamental /pure or Theoretical Research: Its utility isuniversal.(ii) Experimental or Applied Research: Its utility is limited.(C) On the basis of approach of research:We may classify research into two different categories.(i) Longitudinal Research: Examples of this category are historical, Casestudy and Genetic research.(ii) Cross-Sectional Research: ExamplesExperimental and Survey Research.ofthiscategoryare(D) On the basis of method of research :On the basis of research method we may classify a research into fivedifferent categories.(i)Philosophical Research: It is purely qualitative in nature and we arefocusing on the vision of others on the content of research.(ii) Historical Research: It is both qualitative as well as quantitative innature and deals with past events.11

(iii) Survey Research: It deals with present events and is quantitative innature. It may further be sub-divided into; discretional, correlationaland exploratory type of research.(iv) Experimental Research: This is purely quantitative in nature anddeals with future events.(v) Case-Study Research: It deals with unusual events. It may bequalitative as well as quantitative in nature depending upon thecontent.12

2Research ProcessResearch process consists of series of actions or steps necessary toeffectively carry out research. These actions or steps are;(i)Formulating the Research Problem(ii)Extensive Literature Survey(iii)Developing the Research Hypothesis(iv)Preparing the Research Design(v)Determining the Research Design(vi)Collecting the Research Data(vii) Execution of the Project(viii) Analysis of Data(ix)Hypothesis Testing(x)Generalization and Interpretation(xi)Preparing of the Report or Presentation of the Result(i) Formulation of Research Problem:At the very outset, the researcher must decide the general area ofinterest or aspect of a subject matter that he would like to inquire intoand then research problem should be formulated.(ii) Extensive Literature Survey:Once the problem is formulated the researcher should undertakeextensive literature survey connected with the problem. For thispurpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or13

unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to academicjournals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc. mustbe tapped depending on the nature of the problem.(iii) Development of Working Hypothesis:After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear termsthe working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working hypothesis is tentativeassumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empiricalconsequences. It’s very important or it provides the focal point forresearch.(iv) Preparing the Research Design:After framing hypothesis we have to prepare a research design i.e. wehave to state the conceptual structure within which research would beconducted. The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be asefficient as possible yielding maximal information. In other words, thefunction of research design is to provide for the collection of relevantevidence with optimum effort, time and expenditure. But how all thesecan be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose.(v) Determining Sample Design:A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data is actuallycollected for obtaining a sample from a given population.in censusinquiry we involve a great deal of time, money and energy so it it notpossible in practice under many circumstances. Sample designs can beeither probability or non-probability. With probability samples eachelement has a known probability of being included in the sample butthe non-probability samples do not allow the researchers to determinethis probability.14

(vi) Collecting the Data:There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differconsiderably in context of cost, time and other resources at the disposalof the researcher. Primary data can be collected either throughexperiment or through survey. In case of survey, data can be collectedby any one or more of the following ways;By observation, Through personal interview, Through telephonic inte