Name:World GeographyUnit 6: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaChapter 16- Physical Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, andCentral AsiaChapter 17- History and Cultures of North Africa, Southwest Asia, andCentral AsiaChapter 18- North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia TodayGenesis 12:2- I will make you into a great nation and I will blessyou; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing.

Chapter 16 Notes- Physical Geography of Northwest Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaEssential Question- How have natural resources made this region a key player in world affairs?Section 1- Physical FeaturesThe Regions Landforms The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia extends from the coast ofnorthwestern Africa to the middle of Asia. The region is surrounded by oceans, seas, and gulfs that have helped people more easily with therest of Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Strait of separates Africa and Europe and links the Mediterranean Sea with the AtlanticOcean. The Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus Strait together link the Mediterranean andBlack Seas and separate Europe from Asia. The Canal is a human-made waterway that allows ships to pass from the Mediterranean Sea to the RedSea. North of the Arabian Peninsula, the Strait of allows oil tankers to enter and leave the Persian Gulf. The Pass is a narrow gap between mountains in the Hindu Kush, used for centuries as a traderoute linking Southwest Asia to other parts of Asia. The ancient Egyptians relied on the Nile’s yearly , which not only supplied water, but also carried silt—small particles of rich soil that made the land fertile for growing crops. Ancient Mesopotamia was located on an plain, an area of fertile soil left by the flooding of the Tigrisand Euphrates Rivers.Natural Resources Oil is common in the Persian Gulf because the land is made up of rock, or rock created whenlayers of material are hardened by the intense weight of more materials piled above. Over millions of years, heat and pressure below the Earth’s surface helped turn the remains of sea andplants into oil. Some of the region’s countries have used the wealth gained from selling oil to develop new industries and provideto the region’s people. Television and the have exposed the cultures of the oil-rich countries to ideas from other parts ofthe world. Sometimes this results in between people who support new ways and people who favortraditional customs and values. Coal, iron ore, and are also important resources in the region, as are phosphates, mineral salts usedto make fertilizer. Only has enough timber to support a lumber industry.

Poaching—or illegal fishing or hunting—of , the fish whose eggs are used to make caviar, hasharmed the Caspian Sea and hurt the region’s fishing industry. The Sea was damaged during the 1960s when irrigation projects drained water from the two main riversthat feed the sea. The water in the Aral Sea also became saltier—unfit for and harmful to the sea’s fish populations. Farmland is both helped and by irrigation. Because the climate is dry, when irrigation water , it leaves behind a deposit of salt on the landthat makes it less fertile or even worthless for farming. The High Dam on Egypt’s upper Nile River controls the river’s floodwaters and enables farmers togrow and harvest food throughout the year. A disadvantage of the dam is that it has blocked the flow of down the river, forcing farmers to turn tochemical fertilizers, which can pollute the Nile. The Aswan High Dam also causes less to flow downriver. This allows saltwater to back up into the , ruining some farmlands. pollution is a growing problem in the region. A large number of cars in the region are , and they release more pollutants. Chemicals released by , the facilities that turn petroleum into gasoline and other products,also pollute the air.Section 2- Climate RegionsA Dry Region Dry continental air masses warmed by the sun blow over much of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia,creating mostly land with a dry, hot climate. The , the world’s largest desert, covers much of North Africa. Summer temperatures can climb ashigh as 136 F (58 C), but winter temperatures are cooler, averaging about 55 F (13 C). Only about 3 inches (8 cm) of rain fall each year in the Sahara. Dry riverbeds called fill with water whenit rains. Most of the Sahara is dry land covered with or gravel. About 20 percent of the desert is covered by , or large sand dunes. The Sahara also contains where the land is fertile as a result of water from a spring or well. In the south of the Arabian Peninsula lies the Rub’ al Khali, or Quarter, desert, which averages onlyabout 4 inches (10 cm) of rainfall per year. In Central Asia, rain shadow areas created by high peaks along with dry continental winds have formed large deserts—the and the Kyzyl Kum. Both deserts have hot summers but very winters because they are in the middle latitudes. Bordering the region’s deserts are dry, , but grassy plains called steppes.

Steppes are found in areas north of the Sahara, in , and to the east in Central Asia. Steppe areas receive more —between 4 and 16 inches (10 and 41 cm) per year—than do deserts. Some people on the steppe live as , moving across the steppes to find food and water for theirherds. Others in the steppes practice farming, a method in which land is left unplanted every few years so that itcan store moisture.The Need for Water Rainfall is over much of the region, so the growing population does not have adequate water tomeet its needs. A large amount of water is used to dry farmland. Some countries, such as , now draw water from aquifers, or underground rock layers though whichwater flows. Governments, such as those of Jordan and Syria, are dealing with water shortages by , or makinga resource available to people in limited amounts. Another approach to managing water is desalinization, a process for making drinkable.Chapter 17 Notes- History and Cultures ofNorth Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central AsiaEssential Question- How does religion affect the lives of people today?Section 1- History and ReligionEarly Civilizations Two of the world’s civilizations—Mesopotamia and Egypt—arose in Southwest Asia and NorthAfrica about 5,000 years ago. Mesopotamia—present-day —began in the Fertile Crescent, a strip of land that curves from theMediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Beginning about 4000 B.C., people settled along the and Euphrates Rivers where they farmed,watering their crops by irrigation, or bringing water to the fields. By 3000 B.C., many cities had developed in southern Mesopotamia in a region known as . Each city and the land around it, called a , formed its own government. Mesopotamia’s religion was based on , or the worship of many gods and goddesses,and initially was a theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders. The Sumerians created one of the first calendars, were the first to use the wheel and the plow, and developed, an early form of writing.

About 1790 B.C., King Hammurabi invaded Mesopotamia. He created the of Hammurabi, one of thefirst written legal codes. Around 5000 B.C., farm villages began to develop along the River in northeastern Africa. The ancient Egyptians relied on the Nile’s annual to bring water and enrich the soil. unified under a single ruler around 3100 B.C. Egypt was a , and the people worshipped many gods and goddesses. The rulers, called , were believed to be gods as well as rulers. They owned the land and ordered thousands of people to build temples, tombs, and , or a type oftomb. The Egyptians also developed a system of writing called , which used pictures forwords or sounds. Through trade and , the achievements and ideas of Mesopotamia and Egypt spread to otherlands. The measurement of developed by the Sumerians, for example, is still used today. One of the greatest trading empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea as far as present-daySpain, developed in the land of Phoenicia—today’s —around 1000 B.C.Three World Religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major world faiths. All three are examples of , or thebelief in one God. Judaism is the of the three religions. First practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites, Judaism’s followers today are knownas . Their holy book is the , or the Hebrew Bible. In the Tanakh, God made a covenant, or agreement, with Abraham, the father of Judaism, about 1800 B.C., promisingto bless Abraham and his descendants if they would move from Mesopotamia to . Jews believe that God revealed the Ten Commandments and other laws to , a prophet, ormessenger of God. About 1000 B.C. the Israelites under King created a kingdom in the area of present-day Israel,which had Jerusalem as its capital. By 922 B.C., the kingdom had split into two states—Israel and , and the people of Judah were calledJews. In later years, the Jews were forced to leave their . This scattering of Jews across the world is called the . , another monotheistic religion, arose from Judaism.

About A.D. 30, a Jewish teacher named began preaching in what is today Israel and the WestBank. Jesus was greeted by some as a savior sent by God but by others as a traitor under Roman law, and he was, or executed on a cross. Soon afterward, Jesus’ followers declared that he had risen from the dead and was the Son of , and theyspread his message throughout the Mediterranean world. People who follow Jesus’ teachings are known as Christians, and Christianity is the world’s religion,with about 2.1 billion followers. The Testament is part of the Christian Bible, or holy book. The third major monotheistic religion to develop in Southwest Asia was . Islam began in the A.D. 600s in the Peninsula with the teachings of Muhammad. Muslims, or followers of Islam, believe that was the last and greatest prophet of Islam, followingAbraham, Moses, and Jesus. The holy book of Islam is the . After Muhammad died in A.D. 632, leaders known as ruled the Muslim community. Over several centuries, Islam into areas of Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe. From the A.D. 700s to the 1400s, Muslims were the leading merchants in many parts of Asia and Africa, including thecities of , Cairo, and Damascus, which became centers of government and learning. Important developments from Muslim trading were the creation of , which made trade easier, and thecreation of banking.The Region in the Modern World Between the late A.D. 900s and the late 1200s, waves of invaders swept into the Muslim worldfrom Central Asia, ending the Arab Empire. The Muslim Empire next arose and lasted until the end of World War I. By the end of World War I, powers had gained control of large areas of North Africa,Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. The region’s people resented European rule and cultural influences and turned to , or the beliefthat every ethnic group has a right to have its own independent nation. Through wars and political struggles, most countries in Southwest Asia and North Africa won political freedom by the1970s, and several Muslim nations in Central Asia gained their independence after the fall of thein 1991. Today, some groups in the region see themselves as nations, or people with strong ethnicloyalties but no country of their own, such as the 25 million Kurds that live in several different lands. Since 1948, when the United Nations divided into separate Jewish and Arab countries,Israel and its Arab neighbors have fought several major wars. In one conflict, Israel won control of neighboring Arab areas, such as the West Bank and the Strip,leaving many Palestinian Arabs homeless and demanding their own country.

Arab-Israeli conflicts have had an on the rest of the world. America’s for Israel has stirred anger among many people in the region. Israel signed peace treaties with Egypt in and Jordan in 1994. A 1993 agreement between Israel and Palestinian Arab leaders fell apart by 2000, resulting in continuedand distrust. Political based on Islam have arisen in response to regional problems. Some Muslims believe that American and European involvement in the region has kept their nations poor and weakand that they must return to Islamic culture and values in order to . In 1979, an Islamic revolution in overthrew that country’s shah, or king, and made Iran an Islamicrepublic enforcing the strict laws of a traditional Islamic society. Then, from 1980 to 1988, Iran clashed with the dictator of Iraq, , costing a millionlives. Since the 1990s, both Southwest Asia and other areas of the world have seen the dramatic growth of, or the use of violence against civilians to achieve a political goal. A Muslim terrorist group called was formed by a Saudi Arabian named Osama bin Ladenwhose goal is to remove American and European influences from the Muslim world. Al-Qaeda trained its fighters in the country of , where it was helped by a militantMuslim government called the Taliban. On September 11, 2001, members of al-Qaeda attacked the United States by seizing four American passenger planesand flying them into the World Trade Center in New York City and the outside Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed in a field in . The United States declared a war on terrorism and, along with other countries, sent troops to attack Afghanistan,where they defeated the and helped set up a democratic Afghan government. In 2003, a group of countries led by the United States invaded , believing that Iraq’s leader, SaddamHussein, was hiding deadly chemical and biological weapons. The Iraqi army was quickly defeated, and Saddam Hussein was later . For the United States and its partners, rebuilding Iraq was more difficult than overthrowing Hussein because manyIraqis continue to American forces. Also, the and Shia Muslim groups compete for power and fight each other. These conflicts have made it difficult for Iraq to create a and rebuild its society.Section 2- Cultures and LifestylesPopulation Changes Because is scarce in North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, people live along seacoastsand rivers, near oases, or in rainy highland areas. Nomads stay near oases where there is enough to feed their herds.

The vast deserts covering much of the region remain largely of people, except where oil is plentiful. The region’s population is growing because improved health care reduces the number ofinfant deaths and increases the life span of adults. Rural areas where farming is difficult cannot support the growing population, so many villagers are moving to citiessuch as Istanbul, Turkey; , Egypt; Tehran, Iran; and Baghdad, Iraq.Religion, Language, and Arts Islam, divided into the Sunni and groups, is the major faith in the region. Both groups follow the Quran and share many beliefs, but they disagree on how the Muslim faithful should be. Most Muslims in the region and throughout the world are Sunni, but in Iran, Iraq, , and partsof Lebanon and Syria, most are Shia. All Muslims must undertake a holy journey to , or a hajj, once in a lifetime. Most Jews in the area live in . Christians are dominant in and Georgia, with large groups also in Israel, Lebanon, Syria, andIran. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all believe in that one holds all power and created the universe; thatGod determines right and wrong; and that people are expected to love God, obey God’s will, and show kindness toothers. Christians celebrate as their major holy day, but they also set aside special days to honorsaints, or Christian holy people. Armenians and Georgians are Orthodox Christian, but in Egypt, Christians belong to the OrthodoxChurch. In Israel, where three-quarters of the population is Jewish, people follow the traditional practice of marking thefrom sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday. The holiest of Jewish holy days is , the Day of Atonement, when Jews fast, attendservices, and ask God’s forgiveness for their sins. Both Jews and Muslims have laws that state which foods they can and cannot eat and how foodshould be prepared and handled. As Islam spread though Africa and Asia, so did the language. Non-Arab Muslims Arabic in order to read the Quran. As more people became Muslim, Arabic became the language in much of the region. Other major languages include Hebrew in Israel, Turkish in Turkey, and in Iran. Armenians, Georgians, and Central Asians have their languages. A number of great works of have been written in the languages of the region. Many of these works are exciting —tales or poems about heroes and heroines.

For many hundreds of years, the region’s three religions provided inspiration for and architects. Today, the region’s arts also reflect European and American secular, or , influences. Over the centuries, Muslims have developed a distinctive style of that includes largeinteriors, highly decorated surfaces, and brilliant colors. Islamic houses of worship, called , can be seen throughout the Muslim world. Believing the showing of human figures in art might lead to idol worship, Muslim artists featurepatterns and floral designs in their works. They also use , or the art of beautiful writing, for decoration. Other art forms in the region include stone churches with domed roofs and religious music in the Christian countries ofGeorgia and Armenia and making in Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, and the Central Asian countries.Daily Life In North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, some people struggle to earn a living from nomadic herding andsmall-scale farming, while others live in great . Some people have adopted culture, but others have maintained traditional ways. More than percent of the region’s people live in urban areas, sometimes in high-rise apartments, butsometimes in very old stone or mud-brick buildings that still lack running water or electricity. People in the countryside often depend on their own farms or the village for food. City dwellers can shop at supermarkets or the , or the traditional marketplace of stalls. Countries whose economies are based on manufacturing or oil production have relatively standards ofliving, but developing countries have little wealth. Israel has a strong economy with highly skilled workers and exports of high- products. Citizens of Saudi Arabia and have prospered from oil production, and those governments haveused oil revenues, or income, to build schools, hospitals, roads, and airports. Many people in these prosperous nations live in modern cities, work in manufacturing or service jobs, and receiveeducation and health care from their governments. In the region’s developing countries, high population growth has greatly the economies. Many North Africans have migrated to Europe to find not available in their own countries. In some places, such as Afghanistan and , farming and herding are the leadingeconomic activities, and daily life has changed little over hundreds of years. in the region are expected to dress modestly, and many Muslim women wear a headscarf or veil in public. Primary education is free; many students now complete both primary and secondary school, and a small percentageattends . Women in rural areas have always done farm work alongside their husbands, and most urban women in the paststayed at to manage households.

Today, however, many women in the cities have jobs in business, , and government. Saudi Arabian women may not , drive, or travel without a male relative. They may attend universities but must go to separate classes from men, and they may work, but only in professionssuch as teaching and medicine in which they can avoid close with men. In Turkey, women can vote and hold public office, and Turkey and Israel have both had womenministers.Chapter 18 Notes- North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia TodayEssential Question- What effects can conflict have on a region?Section 1- North AfricaEgypt Egypt has a developing economy with about a third of its people—many are peasant farmers called the—working in agriculture in the fertile Nile Valley. Egypt’s main energy resource is oil, and petroleum products and , which are minerals usedin fertilizers, are Egypt’s major exports. Egyptian also make food products, textiles, and other consumer goods. Egypt’s industries have drawn millions of people to Cairo and Alexandria, but the cities cannot provide enough houses,, and hospitals. The result is , heavy traffic, and pollution. From about 300 B.C. to A.D. 300, Egypt was dominated politically by Greece and Rome, but in A.D. 641,from Southwest Asia took control of the country. Most of Egypt’s people began to speak the Arabic language and became . In the 1800s, Europeans and Egyptians together built the Canal, one of the world’s most importantwaterways, which eventually came under British control. In 1952, army officers overthrew the British-supported king, and Egypt became fully . Today Egypt is a with one political party controlling the government.Libya and Maghreb As well as being part of North Africa, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco also form a smaller region known as the. Much of is desert, but aquifers lie beneath the sands. New pipelines carry the water from the desert to Libya’s growing population in the modern cities ofand Benghazi. In recent decades, oil has brought Libya great wealth, which has helped to build schools and hospitals and to improvethe country’s —or roads, ports, and water and electric systems.

Almost all of Libya’s people have a mixed Arab and ethnic background. Berbers are a group that settled Africa before the arrival of the Muslim Arabs in the A.D. 600s. From that point, Libya has been a Muslim and -speaking country. Libya became independent in 1951, but soon Muammar al-Qaddafi set up a , or agovernment under the rule of one all-powerful leader. From the 1970s to the 1990s, supported terrorism and sought to acquire nuclear weapons. The United States and the United Nations forced Qaddafi to chance his policy, or plan of action, by punishing Libyathrough trade barriers called trade . Tunisia is North Africa’s country, and most of its people are of mixed Arab and Berberancestry, speak Arabic, and practice Islam. is the country’s capital and largest urban area. Tunisia gained independence from in 1956 and today has one of the lowest rates of poverty inAfrica as well as many rights for women not found in other Arab nations. Algeria is North Africa’s country, and its Muslim people are of Arab and Berber heritage. Algiers, the modern capital city and major Mediterranean port, is still known for its , or older sectionswith narrow streets and bazaars. In spite of industrial growth from Algeria’s oil and natural gas deposits, widespread poverty remains, and manyAlgerians have moved to to find work. Beginning in 1954, Algerian Arabs fought the French, who had ruled the country since . This conflict between different groups inside a country is called a war. Algeria won independence in 1962 and is now a republic with a strong and a legislature. In the early 1990s, though, another civil war occurred between Muslim factions. Although it ended in 1999, Algeria’s government is still trying to bring to the country. has an Arab and Berber heritage and was for many years a Muslim kingdom. In the early 1900s, Europeans gained control, but in 1956 Morocco became once again. Today Morocco is a monarchy, where a king or queen is head of state but electedofficials run the government. Morocco seized Western in 1975, and since then, groups of Western Saharans have foughtfor independence.Section 2- Southwest AsiaThe Eastern Mediterranean bridges the continents of Asia and Europe.

The country’s mild climate allows farmers to grow food for local use and cotton andtobacco for export. Turkey also produces , steel, and cars. Most of Turkey’s people live in cities or towns such as and Ankara. Most are Muslims, and is the official language. Turkey became a in 1923. Muslim political groups have gained support since the 1990s, but many Turks prefer a , ornonreligious, society. Turkey has not allowed the Kurdish group to break away and form its own county but haspromised to respect the right of Kurds and other non-Turkish groups. Most of Syria’s people live in areas, where they grow cotton, wheat, and fruit. Dams on the River provide water for irrigation and electric power. is the capital. Syria became an independent country in 1946, but since the 1960s, one very strict , orgovernment, has controlled the country. , independent since 1943, produces citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, olives, and grapes. Most Lebanese live in or near , the capital and major port, and work in banking, insurance, andtourism. Most speak Arabic, but their culture Arab, Turkish, and French influences. Religious conflict has been a problem for years, including the 2006 clash between the Muslim groupand Israel. farmers rely on irrigation to grow wheat, fruits, and vegetables. Jordan’s people are mostly Arab Muslims who live in urban areas such as , the capital, and work inservice and manufacturing industries. Jordan’s desert is home to tent-dwelling , or nomads who traditionally raise livestock. In 1946 Jordan gained independence as a constitutional . In 1947, the United Nations gave the control of land where their Israelite ancestors had lived about3,000 years ago. was proclaimed an independent Jewish republic in 1948. Palestinian Arabs who lived in the region believed that Israel was founded on land that belonged to . Arab/Israeli conflict has taken place ever since and has claimed of lives. About percent of Israel’s people are Jews. The rest are Arabs and include both Muslims and Christians.

Israel has a developed industrial economy and produces high-technology equipment, , chemicals,and machinery. irrigation systems allow citrus fruits, vegetables, and cotton to be grown. In an Israeli , farmers share all of the work and property. In a , members share in the work, but each can also own some private property. In 1993 Israel agreed to give self-rule to the Palestinian Arabs living in the Strip and the West Bank inreturn for their government’s recognizing Israel’

The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia extends from the _ coast of northwestern Africa to the middle of Asia. The region is surrounded by oceans, seas, and gulfs that have helped people _ more easily with the . grow and harvest food throughout the year. A disadvantage of the dam is that it has blocked the flow of .