27' FOOT LAND TOWERKIT For AIR WINDMODULETMMade in the USA by:Primus Wind Power938 Quail StreetLakewood, CO 80215(303) 242-5820AIR is a trademark ofPrimus Wind Power, Inc.

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV A27 Foot LAND TOWER KITCONGRATULATIONS! You have just received the simplest, most economical tower kitavailable for your AIR wind turbine. This kit is designed to be very easy to assemble and erect,however it is important that you read this manual thoroughly before beginning assembly. Ifyou have any questions on proper installation or usage please call either Primus Wind Power oryour dealer for more information.Notice: This information is believed to be reliable: however, Primus Wind Power assumes noresponsibility for inaccuracies or omissions. The user of this information and product assumesfull responsibility and risk. All specifications are subject to change without notice.CONTENTSpageIntroductionTower Kit FeaturesSafetyParts ListTools NeededStep 1:Site SelectionStep 2:Mast and Hardware SelectionStep 3:Tower, Base and Anchor LayoutStep 4:Guy Wire Anchor InstallationStep 5:Tower Base AssemblyStep 6:Assembly of Tower and TurbineStep 7:Attachment of Guy WiresStep 8:Raising the TowerStep 9:Adjustment of Guy WiresStep 10:J-Box and Lightning Arrestor Installation233445679121214161617

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AIntroductionThis tower kit is designed specifically for the Primus Wind Power AIR 30 and AIR 40 windturbines. To our knowledge this is the most economical and user friendly tower kit available forthe “AIR” wind turbines. Guy wire supported construction allows the use of lightweight tubingwhile providing plenty of strength for all but hurricane conditions. Two people can easily erect atower with this kit in an hour or so. Since the turbine and the tower kit are light in weight, nowinches, vehicles or beasts of burden are needed to erect the tower. All that is required is a littlebit of “elbow grease”. We recommend that at least two people be present when the tower israised, although it is conceivable that a single person could actually raise a tower on their own.The AIR tower kit includes a simple yet effective elbow/tee for its base. Combined with a shortlength of tubing this type of base eliminates the need for a concrete pad, base plate and a swivelfor the base of the tower.A simple extruded aluminum, coupling clamp allows the use of a wide selection of different kindsof tubing, depending on availability, site requirements and customer preference. Threadedcoupling points are eliminated, allowing lighter materials to be used with the same or greaterstrength than a threaded pipe tower. Pre-cut and swaged guy wires eliminate wire measuring andcutting.We believe this kit and assembly method is the easiest way possible to put the AIR windmodule up in the air. Thank you for purchasing our products and for your interest in renewableenergy. We expect that you will enjoy the benefits of your wind powered electrical system formany years to come. If, after reading this manual, you have any further questions pleasecontact your local dealer or Primus Wind Power and we will do our best to assist you.Safe InstallationSafety is the most important consideration to take into account when installing a tower andwind turbine. It is very important to remember that any wind turbine has high speed spinningparts and can be very dangerous if not installed properly! Be sure that the tubing or pipe used forthe tower is of adequate strength, that all bolted connections are tight and that the guy wireanchors are suitable for your soil conditions. All of these elements are explained in further detaillater in this manual. Important! Choose a very calm day to do your installation. A gust ofwind at the wrong moment could cause A VERY SERIOUS ACCIDENT!PLEASE .READ ALL OF THIS MANUAL BEFORE DOING ANYTHING !27 Foot Tower Kit Parts ListYour tower kit includes:Tower BaseQuantity13

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AWire setTower Base Staples3/8” x 1 ½” Bolts3/8” LocknutsCable ThimblesCable Clamps122248Figure 1 (Parts List)Tools Needed:Round or Half Round File5/16” or 8mm Wrench, Socket or Nut Driver (preferred)(2) 9/16” or 15mm Wrenches or SocketsSledge HammerPliersCarpenters Level5/16” allen wrench (supplied with turbine)Items Not Included In This Kit:Anchors (The type of anchors used will depend on the soil conditions at your tower site. This isexplained further in the “Anchors” section of this manual.)Ground Rod and Clamp *Lightning Arrestor *Junction Box and Adapter *Flex Conduit and Fitting *4

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AElectrical WireWire Connectors (preferably copper split bolts)Pipe Insulation (to prevent wire “rattle” inside pole) *Electrical tapeTubing for the tower (this is explained in Step 2 on page 6)* optional items (these are explained in detail in their relevant assembly sections)Step 1:Site SelectionSite selection is the most important factor affecting the performance of your wind turbine!The energy in the wind is the kinetic energy of the moving air mass. What a wind turbine does isconvert some of that kinetic energy into mechanical energy which can then be converted toelectricity. The formula for the amount of power in the wind is a cube function of the wind speed.This means basically that an increase in wind speed of 10% (say from 9 mph to 10 mph) willresult in approximately a 30% increase in the power available from the wind and a similardifference in turbine performance. In almost all locations the wind speed increases as you gethigher off the ground. This is why a tall tower is very important at most wind sites. As a rule, theturbine should be mounted as high in the air and as far away from obstructions as is possible.To find the best location to erect your tower and wind turbine, study the area available and takenote of how the prevailing (most common) winds blow through it. If there are trees, buildings,hills or other obstructions take note of how high they are and where they are in relation to theusual wind direction. The best site for your tower and turbine will be upwind and above anyobstructions which may exist. If there are houses or trees in the surrounding area it is best tomount the turbine at least twice as high as any obstruction in the area. If the turbine is to bemounted at the crest of a hill or on a beach where winds come from across the water, a smallertower may be acceptable.The next consideration in siting your tower and turbine is the distance from the turbine to yourbatteries. The shortest distance will require the least amount of wire and reduce the amount ofpower lost through the wiring. If a long distance is required between your tower and the batteriesit will be necessary to use heavy gage wire to reduce the resistance of the wire. The powerconsumed buy the wires can be calculated using the formula:Power Current x Current x ResistanceSince the resistance of the wire is directly proportional to its length, making the run shorter willdramatically reduce the amount of power “lost” in the wires.The other concern with long wires is the voltage drop through the wire. Voltage drop through thewires can be calculated using the formula:Voltage Current x ResistanceThe effect of the voltage drop is most apparent when the turbine has good wind and is activelycharging the batteries. The AIR turbine’s internal voltage regulator senses battery voltage, andwill measure the combined voltage drop from the batteries and from the current passing throughthe resistance of the wires. This causes the turbine to sense a higher voltage than that of thebatteries and regulate its power accordingly to prevent overcharging. When this happens theturbine may not fully charge the batteries. Adjusting the regulation set point of the turbine tocompensate for this at higher wind speeds can cause the turbine to overcharge the batteries in5

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV Alighter wind conditions. If a long distance between the tower and batteries is necessary, using alarge wire size will help to address this issue. The person laying out your power system should beaware of these considerations when the system is in the planning stages.Please refer to the section on “Tower, Base and Anchor Layout”. The amount of space availableto assemble and raise the tower may also affect where your tower can be placed.Step 2:Mast Tubing and Hardware SelectionDue to the high cost of shipping and the widespread availability of the tubing or pipe used for ourtowers these materials are not provided by Primus Wind Power. These materials are readilyavailable through most fence suppliers or plumbing companies and will cost much less whenpurchased locally than if they were shipped from our factory.The AIR wind module is designed to be mounted on a 1.875 in. outside diameter pole. This isthe same outside diameter as 1 ½ in. steel water pipe where the “1 ½” is a nominal size indicatingan outside diameter that is actually 1.875 in. Whether the pipe is “schedule 20”, or “schedule40”, the outside diameter will be the same and the schedule number will determine the wallthickness of the pipe. If the pipe is lighter than “schedule 20”, it is referred to as “tubing”, andthe actual outside diameter and wall thickness is usually specified.The design of this tower kit allows pipe (or tubing) of various different wall thickness to be useddepending on the severity of the wind at your site location.Use the following table to determine the acceptable pipe size(s) for your tower and wind severity.In most locations structural steel tubing with a wall thickness of .065 inches is sufficient for theconditions and preferable in terms of cost and ease of assembly. Electrical conduit must beavoided for use in your tower assembly, since it is generally not designed for strength.Use the following table for Pipe / Tubing wall thickness guidelines:MaximumWind Speed90 mph.100 mph.120 mph.RecommendedWall Thickness.065 inch (1.65 mm).090 inch ( 2.3 mm).140 inch ( 3.6 mm)PipeSchedule“Tubing”Schedule 20Schedule 40Although the design of this tower kit will allow different wall thicknesses of pipe to be used inthe same tower, we recommend that the same thickness pipe be used for both the upper and lowersections.6

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AThree Pieces Are Needed:24 foot length of pipe for tower (wall thickness selected for local conditions)3 foot length of pipe for tower (wall thickness selected for local conditions)6 foot length of tubing for tower base (.065 in. wall thickness)****In some areas there are subsidies and grants available for installing renewable energysystems. If you live in one of these areas and need an engineering analysis for this towerassembly to satisfy your local authorities please contact us. We have an engineering analysisavailable for this tower kit.Step 3:Tower, Base and Anchor LayoutThis tower kit must be erected on a calm day (no wind). The tower base and anchors shouldbe laid out as described in the drawing on page 8. As a time saver, a piece of tape on the 24foot length of tower pipe can be used as a measuring stick between the tower base and anchorlocations.The tower will be assembled laying on the ground and then tilted up into position.If the tower is being erected on the side of a hill it will be much easier to raise the tower if it isassembled to the uphill side of the base as it will already be part way up once it is assembled. Inthis case two opposing anchors should be at the same height on the hill as the tower base, oneanchor should be directly uphill and one directly downhill from the tower base.If the tower is to be erected on flat ground and there is a breeze blowing the tower should beassembled towards the wind if possible, so that the wind may help slightly as the tower is raisedrather than working against you. If your tower is on the side of a hill and there is a breezeblowing ignore the breeze and assemble the tower on the uphill side.7

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV ABe sure that the anchor points and base position are in a line when sighted from anchor to anchor.This will insure that the forces on the guy wires are balanced properly, and will make final guywire adjustments simpler and will help a great deal during the actual raising of the tower. Theside anchors and tower base should also be at the same height. If either of these requirements isnot met, the guy wires will either tighten excessively or become excessively slack as the toweris raised. If the guy wires tighten excessively the tower may buckle and collapse, causingpossible injury or even death and at the very least, damage to both the tower and the turbine.Carefully read the section on raising the tower for further instructions on making the properadjustments in these situations.8

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AStep 4: Guy Wire Anchor InstallationThere are four types of anchors that are most commonly used with our towers; screw in“Auger” type anchors, hammer driven “Duckbill” anchors, cast concrete anchors and expansionbolts (for use only in solid rock). What anchor should be used depends on the soil type thatthe anchors will be placed in. See the following table for our suggestions:Soil TypeSandLoose GravelLoamClayRocky SoilGravely SoilSolid (Soft) RockSolid (Hard) RockRecommended AnchorBuried ConcreteBuried ConcreteAugerDuckbillDuckbillAuger or DuckbillLarge, Long Expansion BoltSmaller Expansion er, Buried ConcreteBuried ConcreteBuried ConcreteLarge Eye Bolt CementNoneThe loads on a single anchor can exceed 500 lb. in a 100-mph gale. Make sure that theanchors chosen can withstand at least this much force or the tower will have to be lowered duringstorms. Augers and Duckbill anchors are frequently available at mobile home supply stores. Wealso sell augers from our factory, however when shipping costs are added they may be moreexpensive than if they are purchased locally. Expansion bolts for anchoring in solid rock can bepurchased at most hardware stores.Augers: If the soil conditions make their use feasible, augers are the simplest anchors to install.Augers screw into the ground by use of a piece of wood, pipe or rod as a “cheater bar”. If amistake is made or if the tower must be removed an auger can be “unscrewed” out of the groundand reused. Augers depend on the soil holding together for their strength and are not suitable forsand or loose gravel. If the soil is rocky or clay-like you may have difficulty screwing them in.An auger is usually installed by screwing it straight into the ground a few inches to get it startedand then tilting it to the desired angle and continuing. A substantial downward pressure is usuallynecessary to get an auger started. Screw the augers in as far as possible for the greatest strength.9

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AAugers depend on the ability of the soil to hold together for their strength. If augers can not bescrewed in, simply digging a hole and burying them will not work. We recommend buyingaugers, and if they can not be screwed in properly, a hole can be dug and the auger cast inconcrete. This will provide a good loop for guy wire attachment and make an excellent anchor inthe concrete.Duckbill Anchors: Duckbill anchors consist of an anchor attached to a cable with a loop on theend. They are driven into the ground using an anchor driver, which is a steel rod with either anenlarged striking surface (for a large hammer) or an attachment for a jackhammer or impactdriver. The rod fits into the anchor and holds it straight while it is being driven into the ground.Once the anchor is sufficiently deep in the ground, the driver is withdrawn and the anchor cable ispulled a short distance to “set” the anchor. As the anchor is being set it will rotate perpendicularto the hole made as it was driven in, making it very difficult to move any further.Please note: Once a duckbill anchor is set in place, it can only be removed by digging it out.Buried Concrete: A buried concrete anchor may be the only solution if the ground is loosegravel or sand or if it is too rocky for an auger or duckbill to be driven in,. Buried concreteanchors will work in any situation other than solid rock. A hole must be dug in the ground at thedesired anchor point. One good tactic is to purchase either augers or duckbills and if they can notbe used as intended, then dig holes and cast them in concrete. Otherwise some other means ofattachment must be created for the guy wires, such as a loop of steel bar (re-bar) or chain.10

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AHoles for concrete anchors should be at least 2 feet in diameter and at least 3 feet deep. Theattachment should be placed in the hole and concrete or cement poured around it to a depth of atleast 1 foot. Once the concrete has set it should be buried before use.Anchoring in Rock: If your tower site has large rocks around it or is located on solid rock,expansion bolts in the rock may be the best means of anchoring your guy wires and base tube. Ahole is drilled into the rock and the bolt is placed in the hole with an attachment hanger, a pieceof chain or other loop to connect to the guy wires.For expansion bolts to work properly the rock must be of good quality and not fracture easily. If therock quality is poor a larger deeper hole can be drilled and a large eye-bolt cemented into it. For veryhard rock such as granite and basalt, a ¼ inch diameter bolt 1 ½-inch deep can be used. For slightlysofter rock such as dacite, welded tufts and some denser varieties of sandstone, a 3/8-inch diameter orlarger bolt at least 3 to 4 inches deep can be used.For softer types of rock, such as sandstone or limestone, a hole 1 inch diameter and 8 inches deep canbe drilled and an eye-bolt 5/8 inch in diameter cemented into it. If cement is to be used, it should bemixed just thin enough to pour and poured into the hole before the bolt is installed. This will help toinsure that the cement goes to the bottom of the hole and help prevent bubbles that may compromisethe strength of the attachment. If expansion bolts are to be used, follow the instructions supplied withthe bolts. There are several different types of expansion bolts that are installed using differentmethods.11

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AStep 5:Tower Base AssemblyTo assemble the base, a 6 foot long piece of tower tubing is positioned half way through the base tee asshown in the drawing below and the set screw tightened to hold it in position (use the 5/16 inch allenwrench included with your turbine).The base “T” should now be placed on the position chosen for the base of the tower, perpendicular tothe direction that the tower will be raised. Once assembled, the tower will pivot on the base tube as itis raised into position.Depending on the nature of the soil at the site, the ground staples (included) should be driven orcemented into the ground so that the base tube is captured. If cement pads are to be used, the basetube can be supported at its ends and used to hold the staples while the cement is setting. If thebase is to be on solid hard rock, expansion bolts and chain should be used in place of the staples.For softer rock the staples can be cut shorter and cemented into holes drilled in the rock.Step 6:Assembly of Tower and TurbineNote:If larger than 6 gauge electrical wire is to be used, it may be necessary to cut or file arelief in the bottom of the lower tower pipe section for increased wire clearance. This should bedone before proceeding. Make sure that the inside edge of the tower pipe is smooth and free ofburrs that could damage the electrical wires (see figure on page 13).12

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AThe basic method you will be using to raise the tower will involve assembling the tower on theground then raising the tower. Assembly of the tower begins as follows:1)The electrical wires for the turbine should be straightened and cut a couple of feet longerthan the tower height.2)Trim and strip the ends of the turbine wires so that the wires are staggered about 2 inches(red wire 12 inches, black wire 10 inches, green wire 8 inches).3)Connect the electrical wires to the turbine wires using copper split bolts or by solderingthe connections. Wrap each connection with a generous amount of electrical tape.4)Extend the wires straight from the turbine and tape them together every 3 feet. They willbe much easier to push through the pipe as a group than one at a time.5)If pipe insulation is to be used on the wires, a short piece (6 inches) should be tapedsecurely onto the wires every 3 feet or so. This will keep the wires from contacting thepipe and will minimize the turbine noise that is transmitted to the tower.6)Slip the guy wire hanger (coupler) onto the lower tower pipe near its top (guy wirestoward the bottom).7)Push the wires down through the lower pipe section. If it is too difficult to push the wires,then slide a guy wire up through the pipe and tape the wires to it. Pull the wires throughthe pipe using the guy wire.8)Mount the turbine to the turbine mounting stub section as described in the turbine owner’smanual.9)Position the turbine mounting stub and lower tower sections together and slide the guywire hanger / coupler over the joint. Tighten the two bolts to 18-20 ft.*lb. of torque.13

PRIMUS WIND POWER10)DOCUMENT 0228 REV ARun the turbine wires through the tower base and slide in the tower pipe. Tighten the setscrew in the tower base to 8-10 ft.*lb. of torque.Step 7:Attaching Guy Wires to AnchorsWith the assembled tower laying on the ground the guy wires at the sides and rear of the towershould be attached now. Make sure that the bottom of the tower is positioned at the tower base sothat the distances from the anchors to the guy wire attachment points on the tower will be thesame as when the tower is vertical. Leave about 6 inches of slack in the wires to allow for anymisalignment or unnoted elevation differences (the wires will be adjusted more precisely later).The side wires can be pulled to their anchors and attached using the wire rope thimbles providedwith your tower kit.Note: The thimbles may need to be spread open to install them on your anchors. This can be donewith a pair of pliers. Be sure to press the open end of the thimbles back together (with pliers)before attaching the guy wires.The rear wire length can be estimated by pulling it to a side anchor and placing a piece of tape onthe wire at the distance of the side anchor. The rear wire will then be attached to its respectiveanchor at the point marked by the tape. This should make its length approximately correct whenthe tower is up (again, it will be readjusted, so don’t worry about a few inches one way or theother). Make sure that none of the guy wires are crossed and that the side wires are straightwithout the rear wire crossed on top of them! Run the tail of the guy wire through the secondclamp twice, forming a safety loop (as shown on page 15). Attach the side and rear wiressecurely as shown in the drawing with two clamps on each wire. Use 6-8 ft.-lb. of torque on eachnut. It is important (for good strength) that the saddle part of each clamp is on the loaded (tower)side of the guy wire.14

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AMAKE SURE THAT ALL GUY WIRES ARE SECURE BEFORE PROCEEDING !At this point the turbine should be propped up on a box, chair, stool or milk crate so that theblades are not damaged when they are installed. Mount the blades onto the turbine at this time.MAKE SURE THAT ALL GUY WIRES ARE SECURE BEFORE PROCEEDING !Step 8:Raising the Tower15

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV ABefore attempting to raise the tower be sure that all side and rear guy wire are attached and thatall clamps are tight. Also be sure that the two bolts on the coupler are tight.If two people are available one person should push the tower up into position while the other pullsby the unattached guy wire. With the tower off the ground a few feet make sure that all the wiresare coming up cleanly. Be sure none of the wires are tangled and that the loops at the attachmentpoints on the tower coupler are straight.If the guy wires are too tight they may cause the tower to bow as it is raised. If this happens,lower the tower back to the ground and reduce the tension on the guy wires. Be sure to retightenthe cable clamps before raising the tower. Once the tower is raised to vertical, attach the last guywire to its anchor.Step 9:Adjustment of Guy WiresFirst look to see if any of the guy wires are too tight and are causing the tower to bow.If they are, then check to see which wire(s) are too tight (the wires act in pairs) and release thetension on one of the wires. To relieve tension on a wire, loosen the two cable clamps until thecable can be slid through them and let out some cable until there is no tension in the wire. It iseasy to over tighten the guy wires, even by hand. The wires should only have the slack taken outwith no real tension.Now walk a short distance from the tower and look to see how straight it is. Focus on the angleof the tower and adjust the cables until the tower is straight up and down (a carpenter’s level heldagainst the tower can be helpful for this). To adjust the angle of the tower you will need to relaxone wire and tighten the wire opposite to it. Repeat the process until the tower is straight.16

PRIMUS WIND POWERDOCUMENT 0228 REV AOnce the tower is straight, make sure that all the cable clamps are tight. If the tower is to belowered, only undo the bolt side cable so that, when the tower is re-erected, only that cable willneed to be readjusted.Step 10:Junction Box and Lightning Arrestor InstallationA junction box for the wire connections can be attached to the tower base. A lightning arrestorcan be installed on this box as well. We recommend an all weather box approved for outdoor useand of sufficient size for the wires to be connected. This should be available from your localelectrical supply store. For the wire connections we recommend copper split bolts also availablefrom your local electrical supply store. One hole of the junction box should hold a short threadednipple attached to 1 ½ in. (nominal size) CPVC pipe adapter. This adapter will fit into the base ofthe tower and can be locked in place with a set screw. The other two holes should hold thelightning arrestor (if used) and a flexible conduit connector to route the wires into the ground.Generally, direct burial wires are used from the batteries to the tower base. These wires should beburied from the batteries (or shed / house) out to the tower base where they are routed into thejunction box. The wires coming out of the junction box should all be trimmed to about 5 in. Theturbine wires and the lightning arrestor should all be stripped and connected together with thesplit bolts. Once connected, they should be thoroughly wrapped with electrical tape and the lid tothe junction box secured.GroundingTo properly ground the tower to the earth a six to eight foot ground rod must be installed as closeto the tower base as possible. A 10 gauge or larger wire should be firmly attached to the towerpipe near the bottom of the tower and clamped to the ground rod. The junction box should alsobe connected to this ground.MaintenancePeriodically check to see that the guy wire tension is set properly and that the cable clamps havenot loosened. There is no other maintenance required for this tower system.17

27' FOOT LAND TOWER KIT For AIRTM WIND MODULE Made in the USA by: Primus Wind Power 938 Quail Street Lakewood, CO 80215 . .READ ALL OF THIS MANUAL BEFORE DOING ANYTHING ! 27 Foot Tower Kit Parts List Your tower kit includes: Quantity Tower Base 1 . PRIMUS WIND POWER DOCUMENT 0228 REV A 4