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11/4/2009APA EExposeddEverything You Always Wanted to KnowAbout APA Format but Were Afraid to AskPresented by Wendy K. Mages, Ed.D.Last Updated: November, 2009Tutorial FeaturesNotes Full TranscriptMake sure your computer audio is on.1

11/4/2009Tutorial Outline This tutorial consists of four modules:– ModuleM d l 1:1 APA FormattingFtti BasicsB i– Module 2: Citing Sources– Module 3: Reference Citations in the Text– Module 4: ReferencesLearning Objectives At the end of this tutorial you will be able to:– Recall reasons for using the APA format– List basic APA formatting requirements– Explain the author-date method– Identify requirements for citing references using theAPA format2

11/4/2009Publication Manual of theAmerican Psychological AssociationThe 6th edition of APA'sPublication Manualhttp://apastyle.org/manualWhy use the APA format? Looks Professional Communicates Important Information– Is this information from a journal or a book? Avoids Inadvertent Plagiarism– You want to give credit where credit is due– AND you don’t want to take credit for someone else’smistakes3

11/4/2009Module 1APA Formatting BasicsDiscussed in this section: Line spacingMargin sizeTypeface and FontUnbiased LanguageHeadingsLast Updated: November, 2009Spacing Double SpacingAPA manual tells you that you mustdouble-spaceNo single spacing!4

11/4/2009Margins At least 1 inch margins on all four sides1 in.Margins are used togive feedback1 in.1 in.1 in.Typeface and FontAPA Prefers: 12 point Times New Roman5

11/4/2009Unbiased Language What is meant by unbiased language? Language that is unbiased in terms xual OrientationGenderheshes/heA child “he or she” or “she or he”Children “they”Five-Heading SystemThree Points to Remember1. All headings of equal importance are given thesame heading level.2. Use only as many heading levels as needed.3 If a section can be divided into two or more3.subsections, assign each subsection a heading.6

11/4/2009Heading Level 1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase HeadingMethodText text text text text text text.text Text text text text text text text.text Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text.ResultsText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text.DiscussionText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text tex text text text text text.ReferencesReferences references references references references references references. Referencesreferences references references references references references references.Heading Level 2Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase HeadingMethodText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text.ParticipantsText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text.MeasuresText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text text text text text text.ResultsText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text text text text text text.7

11/4/2009Heading Level 3Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.MethodText text text text text text texttext. Text text text text text text texttext. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text.ParticipantsAdult participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Child participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.MeasuresText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text. Text text text text text text tex text text text text text. Text text text text.Heading Level 4Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with aperiod.MethodT text text text text text text. TextTextT text text text text text text. TextT text text text text.ParticipantsAdult participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Child participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Preschool children. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Kindergarten children. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.First-grade children. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.8

11/4/2009Heading Level 5Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.MethodText text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text texttext text text text. TextT text text text text.ParticipantsAdult participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Child participants. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Preschool children. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text.Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Preschool boys. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Texttext text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Preschool girls. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Texttext text text text text text. Text text text text text text text. Text text text text text text.Module 2Citing SourcesDiscussed in this section: How to use the author-date method How to use a direct quote When to use a block quoteLast Updated: November, 20099

11/4/2009What is the Author-Date Method? The name of the author is followed DIRECTLY by thedate– Author (Date)Harris (1989) notes .– (Author, Date)A recent study (Harris, 2003) indicates that .Research shows.Studies indicate.Always cite the studies!What if there’s a direct quote? Include the page number(s) when using a direct quoteHarris (1989) notes, “Children can also imagine believing something that they knowt betob ffalse”l ” ((p. 77)77).No author’s name in the text:“Children can also imagine believing something that they know to be false”(Harris, 1989, p. 77).Quote Ending in ?Dixon (2005) poses the question, “How does the case ofSingapore fit into the interdependence hypothesis?” (p.43).Quote Ending in !To successfully search the internet, Eagleton andGuinee (2002) advise students, “Be specific!” (p. 42).10

11/4/2009What if the quote is from an electronic source? Electronic source materials are becomingmore important Helpful Tips:– Always choose PDF– Make a hard or electronic copy– Note the date you retrieved the materialfrom the WebWhat if the quote is from an electronic source? No page numbers– Use the abbreviation “para.”(Rabinovich-Einy, 2008, para. 5) No page or paragraph numbers– Cite the heading and the number of the ¶following it to direct the reader to the locationof the quoted material.(Darling-Hammond, 1994, Conclusion section, para. 1)11

11/4/2009When should I use a block quote? Use a block for any quotation of 40 words or more.39 words or less block quote Use your computer to count the words Best to limit your use of long block quotesFormatting a block quoteHarris (1989) writes,O thOnthe otherth handh d if childrenhildreallyll dod findfi d it difficultdiffi lt tot recognizeiambivalent feelings they should continue to do so even if all difficulties ofmemory and invention are removed. For example, if they are told aboutambivalent situations rather than asked to remember or invent them theyshould still not recognize that mixed or opposing feelings would beprovoked. (p. 112)He then ggoes on to note .12

11/4/2009Formatting a block quoteHarris (1989) describes how to test whether memory affects children’s abilityto recognize ambivalent feelings:On the other hand if children really do find it difficult to recognizeambivalent feelings they should continue to do so even if all difficulties ofmemory and invention are removed. For example, if they are told aboutambivalent situations rather than asked to remember or invent them theyshould still not recognize that mixed or opposing feelings would beprovoked. (p. 112)He then goes on to note .Formatting a block quoteHarris (1989) writes thatOn the other hand if children really do find it difficult to recognizeambivalent feelings they should continue to do so even if all difficulties ofmemory and invention are removed. For example, if they are told aboutambivalent situations rather than asked to remember or invent them theyshould still not recognize that mixed or opposing feelings would beprovoked. (p. 112)He then goes on to note .13

11/4/2009Formatting a block quoteHarris (1989) writes that5 spacesOn thOthe otherth handh d if childrenhildreallyll dod findfi d it difficultdiffi lt tot recognizeiambivalent feelings they should continue to do so even if all difficulties ofmemory and invention are removed. For example, if they are told aboutambivalent situations rather than asked to remember or invent them theyshould still not recognize that mixed or opposing feelings would beprovoked. (p. 112)He then ggoes on to note . No quotation marks around the quote! No punctuation after the parenthesesModule 3Reference Citations in TextDiscussed in this section: How often to cite a sourceHow to cite works with either single or multiple authorsHow to cite a secondary sourceHow to cite a lectureLast Updated: November, 200914

11/4/2009The Paragraph Cite the source completely– The very first time you refer to the work– EveryEtimetiyou referf tot theth source ini a new paragraphh Within a single paragraph you do not need to includethe year in subsequent references to a single source,as long as it cannot be confused with other sourcesyou are citingHarris (1989) notes, “Children can also imagine believingsomething that they know to be false” (p. 77). Harris thenstates .Research shows, “Children can also imagine believingsomething that they know to be false” (Harris, 1989, p. 77).Harris (1989) then states .What if a reference has two authors? Always cite BOTH names everytitimeththe referencefoccursPiaget and Inhelder (1969) state Some theorists (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969) contend .15

11/4/2009What if a reference has three to five authors? Cite ALL authors the FIRST time thereference occursPeng, Johnson, Pollock, Glasspool, and Harris (1992)found . In subsequent citations include the name ofthe first author followed by “et al.”Peng et al. (1992) found . If it is the first citation of the reference within aparagraph include the yearWhat if a reference has six or more authors? Cite only the surname of the first authorfollowed by et al.Harris et alal. (1989) An Alternative Approach to “et al.”– Some HGSE faculty members prefer thatauthors use “and colleagues” instead of“et al.” in the textHarris and his colleagues (1989) .– However “et al.” is still used within theparenthesesAnother study (Harris et al., 1989) .16

11/4/2009What if I did not actually read a study, butit was cited in a study I did read? Cite the Secondary Source(the source you actually read) in the text:Dunn, Kendrick, and MacNamee (as cited in Harris, 1989) found that Other studies use mothers’ reports to assess children’s comfortingbehaviors (Dunn, Kendrick, & MacNamee as cited in Harris, 1989) Cite ONLY the Secondaryy Source ((the source yyouactually read) in the References:Harris, P. L. (1989). Children and emotion. Oxford: Blackwell PublishersInc.How do I cite a lecture? Treat it as personal communication Cite personal communications in the text only Give the initials as well as the surname of thecommunicator and provide as exact a date aspossibleB. A. Pan (personal communication, December 20, 2006) noted that.(B A.(B.A Pan,Pan personal communication,communication December 20,20 2006) If the lecture is videotaped and the recording is available on the courseWeb site, you can cite the video You can also cite PowerPoint presentations that are on course sites If you cite these in the text, remember to include them in the references17

11/4/2009Module 4ReferencesDiscussed in this section: How to format the references section of your paper Review the most common reference formsLast Updated: November, 2009References Only include works that you havecited in the text in the referencespaper.psection of yyour p Alphabetize the list of references. If you have more than one entry by the same authorlist them by year of publication with the earliest yearfirst.18

11/4/2009What if I have two entries by the sameauthor in the same year? References by the same author (or by thesame authors in the same order) with thesame ppublication date are arrangedgalphabetically by the title (excluding A, An, orThe) that follows the date. Lower case letters—a, b, c, and so on—areplaced immediately after the year, within theparentheses:Gardner, H. (2000a) .Gardner, H. (2000b) . Use the date and letter when you citethese in the text of your paper.Gardner (2000a) contends .APA Reference Style: Periodical JournalAPA uses only initialsno first names, no middlenamesThe date follows directlyafter the author’s name Periodical:Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article: Subtitleof article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxVolume number initalicsIssue number is inparentheses and not italicizedJournal Title:In Italics using traditional titlecaseChild Development journalChild development bookNo pp. to indicate pagenumbersArticle title:Not in quotes or italicsFirst letter of the title, subtitle, and propernouns are capitalizedi.e.What we did last summer: My trip to Paris19

11/4/2009Citation Linkerhttp://sfx.hul.harvard.edu/citation/sfx localDOI in Articles20

11/4/2009Including a DOI in ReferencesBub, K. L., McCartney, K., & Willett, J. B. (2007). Behavior problemtrajectories and first-grade cognitive ability and achievement skills: Alatent growth curve analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology,99(3), 653-670. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.3.653What if I found it online? Online Periodical [same as the format we recommend for citing printarticles]:Author, A.AuthorA A.,A Author,Author B.B B.,B & Author,Author C.C C.C (1994).(1994) Title of article.article Title of PeriodicalPeriodical,xx(x), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates ofgrowth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. ChildDevelopment, 76(4), 763-782. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00876.x Example of a PDF of an article with no DOI:Tivnan, T., & Hemphill, L. (2005). Comparing four literacy reform models in highpoverty schools: Patterns of first-grade achievement. Elementary School Journal,105(5), 419-441. Retrieved from http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/loi/esj21

11/4/2009APA Reference Style: Book Book:Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Title of bookIn italicsi.e., Cambridge, MAFirst letter of the title,subtitle, and propernouns are capitalizedBook in PrintHarris, P. L. (2000). The work of the imagination. Oxford, England:Blackwell Publishers.Electronic BookDewey, J. (1922). Human nature and conduct: An introduction tosocial psychology. Retrieved from http://books.google.comAPA Reference Style: Chapter of a Book Chapter in an edited bookTitle of chapterNot in italics or quotesAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter.In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book(pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.Use pp. to indicatepage numbersName of the chapterauthor or authorsPut the initial beforethe last name for theeditor or editorsTitle of bookIn ItalicsFirst letter of title, subtitle,and proper nouns arecapitalized22

11/4/2009Example: Chapter of a BookOchs, E., & Schieffelin, B. B. (1984). Language acquisitionand socialization: Three developmental stories and theirimplications In Rimplications.R. AA. Shweder & RR. AA. LeVine (Eds.),(Eds )Culture theory: Essays on mind, self, and emotion (pp.276-320). Cambridge, England: Cambridge UniversityPress.What about an online document? Online Document:Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Retrieved from sourceBoston Public Schools. (2009, June). Family matters: A newsletter from the BostonPublic Schools to strengthen home-school connections. Retrieved 06.pdf23

11/4/2009How do I cite a PowerPoint presentation from the web?Title of presentationIn ItalicsIn the references section:First letter of title, subtitle, and anyproper nouns are capitalizedGehlbach, H. (n.d.). Reliability and validity: The bada and bing of yourtailored survey design [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved fromhttp://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/S 15val rel.pptIn the text:Gehlbach (n.d.)Recap During this tutorial we discussed:– Reasons for using APA format (Introduction)– Basic APA formatting requirements (Module 1)– The author-date method (Module 2)– Requirements for citing sources in the text (Module 3)– Format references cited in your paper (Module 4)24

11/4/2009 2 Tutorial Outline This tutorial consists of four modules: - M d l 1 APA F tti B iModule 1: APA Formatting Basics - Module 2: Citing Sources - Module 3: Reference Citations in the Text - Module 4: References Learning Objectives At the end of this tutorial you will be able to: - Recall reasons for using the APA format