MaineSoil & AgronomyWorkshopFebruary 22, 2017UMPI, Campus Center
Maine Soil and Agronomy WorkshopFebruary 22, 2017, UMPI Campus Center8:00 a.m. Registration8:15 a.m.Introductory RemarksDr. Jason Johnston,Professor, Department Chair, UMPIGeneral Soil and aGronomy SeSSion8:30 a.m.Gold Sponsor:Improving Farm Income:Rotational Crop and Potato IrrigationDr. Lakesh Sharma,Soil & Crop Specialist, UMCE & UMPI11:10 a.m. Soil Health in the Potatoand Grain RotationPatrick Toner,Soil Management Specialist, Agriculture,Aquaculture and Fisheries11:30 a.m. Fertilizer and Liming in SoilDr. Lakesh Sharma,Soil & Crop Specialist, UMCE11:50 a.m. lunCH (On your own)1:30 p.m.Soil Health, Yield Stability,and an Overview of Soil Health StrategiesDr. Ellen Mallory,Assoc. Professor & Sustainable AgricultureSpecialist University of Maine1:50 p.m.Forms and Efficiencyof Applied Phosphorus in SoilBruce Hoskins,Maine Soil Testing Service’and Analytical Lab, UMaine2:10 p.m.Soil Productivity and No-Tillin Potato SystemsSam Wright, Cavendish Agri-Services2:30 p.m.Cover Crops and Soil Moistureand Temperature IssuesTony Jenkins, NRCS, Bangor2:50 p.m.Nurse Crops - Strengths WeaknessesDr. John Jamison,Extension Professor, UMCE3: 10 p.m.Strategies to Keep Soil in PlaceEric Giberson, NRCS, Fort Kent3: 30 p.m.Adjourned9:00 a.m. Wireworm Survival in Soil and Its ControlJim Dwyer, Crop Specialist, UMCE9:20 a.m.Economic Benefit of Using PrecisionAgriculture ToolsSukhwinder Bali,Professional Educator, UMCE & UMPI9:40 a.m. Black Beans - Do They Have a Place inMaine Crop Rotations?Jake Dyer,Agronomist, Maine Potato Board10:00 a.m. Nematodes Survival in Soiland their ControlDave Lambert,Professor of Plant Pathology, UMaine10:20 a.m. Coffee BreakSoil HealtH SeSSion10:30 a.m. Soil Information SystemTM,Soil Mapping TechnologySam Delano, McCain Foods10:50 a.m. How to Determine Soil HealthWill Brinton,Woods End Laboratories Inc.23
Improving Farm Income: Rotation Crop and Potato IrrigationLakesh Sharma and Sukhwinder BaliJames D. Dwyer,University of Maine Cooperative Extension and University of Maine at Presque IsleCrops Specialist/Extension Professor, University of Maine Cooperative ExtensionThe Maine Potato Industry has a positive impact onMaine’s economy. Potato yields over last 20 years havebeen consistent, with little improvement compared toother potato producing states. Cost of potato productionduring this time has increased significantly, putting potatogrowers under intense pressure to compete in order to remain viable and sustainable. Nutrient management is a keyfor sustainable potato production. Extensive work has beendone on nitrogen (N) management in Maine, but most ofthat work has been conducted exclusively at the AroostookResearch Farm where soils may not be typical of farmedsoils throughout Aroostook or the rest of the state. An effective nutrient management program is required to increaseproduction efficiency and yields. Using precision agriculture tools have been found successful in grain productionsystem and high value crop. There is huge potential to usesite specific farming approach in Maine to improve farmincome by reducing input cost such as apply less fertilizers, pesticides, and use of farm machinery without affectingquality and yield. It has been documented in several studiesthat use of precision agriculture tools helped in improvingyield, quality, and ultimately higher profit. Following arethe feature of using precision agriculture tools: Provide Information on Crop health. Detect insect and diseases foot prints Help in scheduling nitrogen and water applicationAs a rotation crop, maltand feed barley has a hugepotential. Thebarley industryFigure 1: Use of GPS to protect inputs in Maine hasa crop value offrom overlapping. Photo Courtesy: 2.4 million andSolberg et al., 2006with the 874million brewing industry, and a workforce development ofmore than 10,000 jobs, the economic impact of increasingMaine’s barley production is significant. In Maine, the av erage barley yield is significantly lower (see Figure 1) (60bu/acre average from last 16 years) than the national aver age (73 bu/acre) (USDA, NASS crop production). Therehas been no natural calamity of disease epidemic reportedfrom the last sixteen years in barley. However, huge yieldfluctuations (figure 1) indicate inappropriate cultural prac tices. Additionally, growers are using N and P recommen-4Wireworm Survival in Soil and Control Strategiesdations from other states (North Dakota, Minnesota, Ida ho, and Montana) resulting in poor synchrony between Napplication and plant N uptake.Site-specific recommendations for Maine’s productionarea are needed because available soil N and crop N uptakebehavior vary with soil properties (texture, structure, anddevelopment). Regional climate conditions and their interactions also result in variation in N optimal rates within thefield and among growing seasons (Melkonian et al., 2007;Zhu et al., 2009). Feed barley does not have any late season N requirement. However, malt barley requires smallamounts of N at several growth stages for optimum pro tein development in grains. Excessive N in grain can leadto lodging, small grain size, lower yield, and head blight(Franzen and Goos, 2015). The malting industry rejectsbarley that has excessive N.Because of different quality requirements, feed andmalting barley require separate fertilizer recommendations.With a growing livestock market in southern Maine andbrewing market near Portland and throughout Maine,northern Maine can be a source of barley for both feedand malt markets. Growers can adopt barley as a rotationalcrop with variable N and P rate management practices toimprove yield (feed and malting barley), quality (maltingbarley), and reduce input costs.Inseason N application could help in improving protein value in barley required for high malt quality. Therare selected varieties for feed and malt barley starbdarizedby Ellen Mallory, University of Maine Cooppertaive Ex tension. For more information please contact her on [email protected] 1: Trend of barley yield per acre and price perbushels from last sixteen years. Source: New EnglandAgricultural Statistics, 2015.The wireworm is the immature form of the click beetle.The wireworms associated with potatoes in Maine tend tobe yellow-orange in color, hard bodied, which is wire-likeand can vary in size from less than ¼ of an inch to about2 inches. The adult form of this insect is the click beetle,so named because of its ability to create an audible “click”sound. Upon close examination of the adult one can seea spine-like projection on the prosternum of the thorax,which it can fit into a notch on the mesosternum and bymanipulating these, it can jump to escape predators orright itself if on its back. When making this movement theinsect makes a distinctive “click” sound, hence the name“click” beetle.Wireworms, which attack potato tubers and otherplants, are attracted to carbon dioxide. When seed germinates, the seed releases carbon dioxide into the soil. This isan attractant to the wireworm, which is how the wirewormlocates the food source. The adult wireworm, the click beetle, is also attracted to grass species. Typically, each femaleclick beetle can lay 200 to 400 eggs.There are four common wireworm species found within the potato growing regions of Maine:Agriotes mancusWheat wirewormHemicrepidius decoloratumno common nameHypnoidus abbreviatesAbbreviated wirewormMelanotus spp.Corn wirewormWireworm larvae have a characteristic hard, wire-likebody, which consists of nine-segments with three pairs ofthoracic legs. The ninth segment is considered the mostimportant determinant of wireworm genus and species.Other structures useful in identification include the caudalnotch, urogomphi (the structures surrounding the caudalnotch), mandibles, and body shape.Wireworms overwinter by burrowing deep into the soiland by secreting glycerol into their hemolymph (insectequivalent to blood). This survival strategy allows the wireworm to avoid some of the cold temperatures of winter andthe glycerol acts as a natural antifreeze.Wireworms will travel up through the soil profile inthe spring being attracted to warmer surface temperaturesand when close enough, to the CO2 being given off bygerminating plant material. Wireworm management strat egies should consider this behavior pattern, when planningmanagement strategies.Rotation and tillage strategies can also be an important component of a wireworm management plan. Whenchemistry is employed as a management component oneshould consider efficacy, timing, rates, residual, toxicity and the environmental aspects when planning to use aproduct. The application method is also an important consideration.Economic Benefit of Using Precision Agriculture ToolsSukhwinder Bali and Lakesh SharmaUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension and University of Maine at Presque IslePrecision agriculture is the technique of using the rightamount of input (such as fertilizer, pesticide, water, seed )at the right time and at the right location to increase production, decrease inputs, and protect the environment.Precision agriculture is using both the technology and thetechniques. Precision agriculture initially requires bothtime and investment. It gives short term pay off but willprovide huge benefits in future. Site-specific databases andprecision management tools will provide a long-run competitive advantage and profit. Precision agriculture technology is now used worldwide and provide decent returnlike three-hour extended workday from a GPS-linked guid-ance systems resulted in an additional 1.63/acre return(Griffi n et al., 2008) also save about 30 percent of thetime by minimizing overlap. Environmentally, it reducesthe fertilizer and pesticide use by about 2 percent. Kochet al. (2004) In Colorado, found that in irrigated cornzone-directed application require 6 to 46 percent less Nand net returns ranged from 7/acre to 11.60/acre for thepractice. The most robust savings that farmers can make inprecision agriculture is the development of managementskill and databases. The purpose of Precision agriculture isto manage adoption of precision agriculture technology forfuture payoff.5
Black Beans – Do They Have a Place in Maine Crop Rotations?Jake Dyer, Maine Potato BoardDry beans come in several classes (kidney, pinto, navy,and black), seed sizes (800-2800 seeds per pound), growthhabits (determinate or indeterminate), and types (I, II, III,and IV). Depending on seed size and plant architecture,some varieties of edible dry beans require specialized har vesting and handling equipment not common to Maine’spotato and grain farm operations.Black beans are a class of edible dry bean with a smallseed size (2300-2800 seeds per pound), upright type II(short vine, narrow profile,) indeterminate architecture,and relative maturity ratings of 98-100 days. Black beanscan be planted in either narrow or wide rows (15-36 inch es), have good resistance to lodging, and can be cut direct ly with a traditional grain combine without damaging theseed coat.Although considered a warm season crop, black beansare produced in several cooler regions of the United Statesand Canada. Michigan and North Dakota are the largestUS black bean producing states while New York, Minne sota, and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontarioalso produce several thousand acres.This project will be an effort to develop best manage ment plans for producing black beans in Maine. Collab orating growers throughout Aroostook County will plantfield scale experiments to evaluate varieties, plant popula tions, fertility practices, crop protectants, and adaptabilityto direct cutting.Average 5 year prices ranging from 33 - 37 per hun dredweight and possible yields of 20-30 hundredweightper acre make black beans an attractive alternative cropoption to Maine potato and grain producers. A market op portunity exists for black beans in New York and with thepossibility of a local grain elevator as a delivery point, blackbean production deserves a closer look.Nematodes Survival in Soil and their ControlDave Lambert, Professor of Plant Pathology, UMaineNematodes are roundworms, ubiquitous in terrestrialand aquatic habitats. About twenty-five thousand speciesare known, with many more suspected. Their life cycle in cludes adults, eggs and several larval stages accompaniedby molting. In some species, eggs may survive for 20 yearsor more. Nematodes found in soil are generally thin, small(0.5 to 2 mm long} and include species adapted to feed onbacteria, fungi, other nematodes, larger fauna and plants.With numbers as great as one million per square meter,they are an important component of the soil food web.Species feeding on insects have been commercialized as bi ological controls. Species pathogenic to humans and otheranimals may also persist dormantly or actively in soil.Nematodes develop more rapidly in warmer soils andtend to be a greater problem in areas with longer growingseasons. Coarser soils with larger pores facilitate movement.Adequate water films within pores are also a requirementthat may limit spread. Host-specific species are often ableto detect specific chemical attractants and hatching factorsin their environments. Some plants, such as marigolds,produce compounds that hinder development.Plant feeding nematodes have stylets that inject salivaand withdraw cell contents. Depending on species, theyeither feed at the root surface, invade and move throughplants, or feed inside plant roots without moving. Sur 6face-feeders generally have the widest host range, and allplants experience some root feeding. Certain species mayvector viruses, including the agent causing “corky ringspot in potato. Migrating nematodes include Ditylenchus,causing “garlic bloat” and Aphelenchoides, which infectthe foliage of hundreds of plant species. Pratylenchus in vades roots and increases the severity of “early dying” inpotato. Stationary forms include cyst nematodes, whichhave precipitated potato-growing regulatory actions andrestrictions in parts of New York and Idaho. Root knotnematodes infect numerous plants, including potato.Damage to plants is roughly proportional to nematodenumbers, and management efforts are directed towards re ducing the size of populations. Regulations are designedto assure clean stock and to prevent transfer of contam inated soil, equipment and other material from infestedareas. These measures include normal sanitation. Cropbreeding strategies may reduce the production of plantspecies-specific attractants or the ability of nematodes tocomplete their life cycle. Use of parasitic bacteria and fungias biological controls is not widespread, but “trap” or othercrop strategies to actively reduce populations may be. Croprotation is effective for nematodes having more restrictedhost ranges. Nematicides or insecticide/nematicides, suchas Vydate and Mocap, also reduce populations.Soil Information System “An Industry Leading Soil Mapping Technology” by TrimbleSam Delano, Agronomist, McCain FoodsSoil Information System (SIS) is a soil mappingtechnology that using sensors, intelligence targeting, andgeo-processing algorithms produces high resolution 3-Dsoil and topographic maps. McCain Foods and Trimblecollaborated to trial this technology in Maine and NewBrunswick in 2015 and 2016. Data was collected on ap proximately 300 acres and the information is being usedto make operational decisions on the farm.The process of collecting information using the SISsystem can be divided into four on farm processes. Us ing GPS RTK technology the first step is to determinethe boundary of the field. Boundary data can be importedinto the system if the shapefiles already exist from previousfield work.The next step is “surfing” the field, the process of col lecting electromagnetic conductivity of the soil by drag ging a Dual EM sled across the field in a determinedspacing width. In the project fields discussed a thirty foot(intermediate) spacing was used.The software then uses the Dual EM data to determinevariability within the field and develops zones that will beprobed to collect further information, this is step three. Inthis step, also called “diving” a tractor mounted automaticsoil sampler with four foot horizontal probe equipped withmultiple sensors collects data such as horizontal and verti cal compaction, moisture content, vertical electromagneticconductivity, horizon thickness, and much more.Using data collected in both step two (surfing) and stepthree (diving) the software will then determine of whichlocations soil analysis will be collected. This is step four ofthe field work and is called “coring”. Coring is the processwhere using the tractor mounted automatic soil samplerwith a four foot horizontal coring tube soil samples aretaken.In this project samples were taken from both the sur face and sub-surface layers of the field. Determination ofthe break between the two layers was visually made bylooking at the structure of the soil core. Coring soil sam ples can be sent to lab of your choice, in this project allchemical and physical analysis of soil was completed bythe UMO lab in Orono, ME. Normal chemical analysiswas completed, as well as a textural analysis on both sur face and subsurface samples. Analysis results from the lab,in excel format, where then forwarded to Trimble’s SIS an alyst who maps all the data. 3-D maps produced include amultiple array of information that helps to give a full anal ysis of on farm chemical and physical properties of the soil.The data can also be exported from the Trimble programvia shapefile and imported into farm management soft ware, thus producing zones to make variable rate decision.Data collected on this trial was used to develop pre scriptions for variable rate irrigation and variable rate seedspacing and fertility on a subsequent Russet Burbank crop.Further analysis and comparison of growers yield maps todata collected using the SIS technology will help to findthe layers of data that are most limiting yield in Maine.7
How to Determine Soil HealthFertilization and Liming in SoilLakesh Sharma and Sukhwinder BaliWill Brinton, Woods End Laboratories IncSoil health tests are of increasing interest to growers.One way to gauge health is by microbial respiration tests.Such tests are a means to determine biological functioningwhich relates to soil health. Soil labs across America in cluding University of Maine are now able to perform CO2testing through the use of the new available technologyinvented here in Maine, called Solvita . The test mea sures the aggregate of soil biological response by nature ofUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension and University of Maine at Presque Islethe fact that all soil organisms breathe in oxygen and giveoff CO2. The turnover of this CO2 is directly related toseveral important mechanisms: nitrogen mineralization orthe supply of available N to crops, and aggregate structurebuilding, or the ability of soil to resist water dispersion.The presentation will follow some of the developments inuse of biology tests and relate them to each other and showsome practical examples of value to farmers.Soil Health in the Potato and Grain RotationPatrick TonerSoil Management Specialist, Agriculture, Aquaculture and FisheriesResults will be presented on a 2012-2013 trial con ducted by the Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conserva tion Centre and NB Department of Agriculture, Fisher ies and Aquaculture. A one hectare grid pattern was usedon a total of six fields located in proximity to St Andre,Drummond and East Glassville NB, that were in grain2012 and potatoes 2013. Grain yield monitors measuredand mapped yield. Soil samples were taken at each gridpoint and assessed using Cornell Soil Health parameters.Statistical analysis of each of the sites was done to estab lish zones of individual soil health parameters along withgrain yield zones and comparisons made to determine anyrelationships.In 2013, potato yield samples were taken byhand harvesting ten foot strips at each fields grid points. Inaddition to soil health parameters, historical land use pat terns such as field consolidation was obtained from aerial8photography and local knowledge. The spatial variabilitydistributions of grain and potato yields across all fields didnot appear to strongly relate with soil health test findings.However, soil pH, phosphorous levels, compaction, his torical land use, topography and erosion all showed somepotentially manageable crop-limiting patterns. Funding forthis trial was only available for one rotation and several ro tation cycles would be needed to provide more insight onpotential benefits with relation to yield and soil health.Since completion of the above trial, soil and potato pro ductivity has been assessed with various BMP’s 2014-2016.Some insight into influence on soil health parameters (i.e.infiltration, aggregate stability, soil moisture differences)along with impact on yield will be provided as a result ofthe use of compost across the same rotation cycle and nursecrops within the potato production year.The potato industry has a significant impact on Maine’seconomy ( 540 million impact annually), personal income(more than 233 million), State and local taxes ( 32 mil lion), and workforce development (6100 jobs) (USDA,2003). Despite stable yield during the last 20 years, grow er’s profit has declined (Halloran, 2013). Growers canadopt variable N rate management practices to improveyield and reduce input cost; but there is a need to under stand N behavior under different climate and soil condi tions and development of improved N recommendationswith accessible mobile application.Soils differ in yield potential as well as in their potentialfor nitrogen mineralization and losses; therefore, fertiliz er recommendations according to specific soil type are re quired to achieve target yield increases while also reducingfertilizer use. Soil series consists of groups of soils whichpossess the same characteristics across the landscape. A bet ter understanding of soil series helps in proper fertilizer ap plication management, as different classes of soils responddifferently to the fertilizers. Available N and crop N up take behavior varies with soil properties (texture, structure,and development), regional climate conditions, and theirinteractions which results in variability in optimal N ratesspatially and temporally. To compensate for this variabili ty, farmers struggle to apply optimum N. Geographically,Maine is in the areas of high inorganic N deposition buthow much N is supplied by this pool is unknown. Thepotential soil available N, a reason for low nitrogen useefficacy, causes an environmental pollution from denitri fication, volatilization, and ammonia leaching to surfaceand groundwater. National nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)across all crops is approximately 40%. The beneficial effectof N in potatoes is unquestionable, but excess N not onlyis an environmental pollutant but contributing reason forhigher input costs and poor quality of produce.Applying optimum N rates has potential to improveN use efficiency, profitability, and crop yield with lowenvironmental health risks; however N rate applicationadjustment based on soil and weather conditions has notbeen established in potatoes. Most of the current N recom mendations do not include temperature, rainfall, and soilas predictive variables. Weather and soil textures are themajor determinant for soil organic matter decompositionand N response. Under wet climate conditions, yield andN response improves significantly on coarse, textured soilcompared to fine textured soils due to high water holdingcapacity of fine textured soils resulting in N volatilizationand denitrification.The N is usually applied at planting; but holding Napplication until tuber initiation might help in increasingtuber bulking duration, thus improving yield. However,success of in-season N application also depends on weatherand soil types because high rainfall after planting causes Nloss and after in-season application helps in high N uptake,ultimately a yield increase. Also, using petiole sampling asa tool for inseason N application is limited and expensive.Determining the best N rate for specific field and varietyof potato is challenging. The concept of “need basis” us ing sensing tools was proposed by Schepers et al. (1995) toaid in reducing environmental contamination from excessnitrate in corn production. This approach used the SPADchlorophyll meter measurements which helped estimatethe crop N status against a standard color and then apply ing N as required. This technique helped to maintain theoptimum yield with less fertilizer application. The GBAOsensors have been successfully used in wheat, corn, cotton,sunflower, and sugar beet.In conclusion, apply your fertilizer according to yoursoil types. On a sandy soils, inseaon N application is highlysuccessful. On medium textured soils apply N according tothe moisture soil levels or look at the weather predictions.Using ammonium sulfate has a highly potential to cre ate acidic soils therefore more lime required to compen sate for optimum pH. In Maine use of ammonium sulfateis common due to its slow release N characteristic but ithighly recommended to use on acidic soils. It creates threetime more acidity into the soil compared to any other Nfertilizer. In conclusion we will recommend using blendedN fertilizer with ammonium nitrate, poly-coated urea, orany avlaibility cheaper slow release N fertilizer to reducethe effect of ammonium sulfate towards soil acidity.9
Availability and Efficiency of Phosphorus in SoilBruce Hoskins, Maine Soil Testing Service’ and Analytical Lab, UMainePhosphorus is one of the most environmentally sensi tive nutrients that we manage. Widespread eutrophicationof surface waters has given rise to increasingly restrictiveregulation of P applications. Given the finite supply ofphosphate resources and the ongoing problem of waterquality issues, it is imperative that we manage phosphorusfertility as efficiently as possible.Phosphorus chemistry in soil is exceedingly complexand variable. P will bond with whatever constituents areabundant and chemically active in the soil: aluminum,iron, and other metals in acidic soils, calcium and magne sium in alkaline soils, and with organic matter and humusat any soil pH. Plant uptake is restricted to free ionic phos phate (ortho-phosphate) in soil water. However, the vastmajority of soil P is held in stable compounds or complex es, some of which are temporarily or permanently unavail able to plants. In simple terms, phosphorus fertility man agement consists of minimizing its loss to these unavailableforms. Dozens of extraction and fractionation methodshave been developed to characterize the forms of P in thesoil, its availability to growing plants, and the tendency ofsoil to hold or release P to plants and the environment.Environmental test methods include Water-Soluble P(WSP) and the P Saturation Index (PSI). WSP is used todetermine the relative risk of soil P loss to the environmentduring periods of surface flow or from eroded sediment inrunoff. PSI is used to gauge the soil’s capacity to safely holdapplied P. A PSI greater than 15-25 % has been associatedwith greatly increased WSP and potential environmentalrisk.Routine soil test P (STP), such as the Morgan andMehlich 3 methods, index plant available P to determinethe likelihood of a positive yield response to further P ap-plication. The Fixation Index is an experimental methodused to gauge potential loss of applied P & K, using max imum soil contact, to determine the relative efficiency ofapplied fertilizers. When measured on Maine Potato andDairy soils, 70-95 % of applied P can be lost according tothis method. This points out the benefit of banding phos phate fertilizers, to limit soil contact and loss to unavailableforms.Incubation studies also highlight the limits of applied Pavailability to plants. In a greenhouse study, Montgomeryand Ohno (2004) contrasted identical rates of P appliedfrom 3 types of manure, 4 types of biosolids, and triplesuperphosphate (TSP). Uptake of applied P by ryegrass was 10% from all sources, but uptake from organic sources(up to 7%) was nearly double that from TSP (4%). Resid ual P availability in the soil after cropping was more thandouble for the organic sources (up to 7%) vs TSP (2.5 %).A 2014 incubation of natural fertilizers also found 5 – 20% of applied P remained available at the end of 16 weeks.These studies point out the limited, but improved and ex tended availability of P from non-chemical sources, such asmanures and cover crops.The tendency of all soils to tie up applied P in unavail able forms is compensated for by the efficiency factors builtinto soil test recommendations. Maine recommendationsassume 15 – 30 % efficiency, depending on typical cropmanagement scenario and crop removal allowances. Inforage production, less P is recommended to build STPlevels (assuming higher efficiency) than with other crops.Average Soil Test P levels for forage crops have shown noconsistent trend over the past 20 years, but are showingsome increase in the proportion of Below Optimum testlevels. For PotatoSoil Productivity and No-Till in Potato SystemsSam Wright, Cavendish Agri-ServicesThe rich soils of Aroostook County have been the back bone of potato production for many years. As potato crop ping systems have developed rapidly with the changingworld, how have our soils been considered and how can wemaximize their effect in our system. The Maine Soil HealthTeam is looking at strategies that go beyond holding soil in10place to realize the true potential of our soil and implementpractices to reach this potential. One such practice is theuse of No-Till in the non Potato years to determine if thereduction in disturbance in a two and three year rotationcan p
Maine Soil and Agronomy Workshop February 22, 2017, UMPI Campus Center . 8:00 a.m. Registration . 11:10 a.m. Soil Health in the Potato and Grain Rotation ; . Maine Soil Testing Service' Maine Crop Rotations? and Analytical Lab, UMaine : Jake Dyer, Agronomist, Maine Potato Board : 2:10 p.m.