LIGHTNING PROTECTION INTERNATIONAL PTY LTDGUARDIAN PLUSProtection Solutions for HV Power FacilitiesPlacementmethod incompliance withIEEE STD. 998(Substations)Comprehensive Lightning, Surge Protection & Earthing

LIGHTNING PROTECTION INTERNATIONAL PTY LTDMarket-Leading AdvantagesLPI’s award-winning families of enhancedair terminals have the following keycharacteristics: First company to introduce coronaminimising terminals with optimisedblunt design and four independentpanels; Air terminal families designedto meet direct-strike placementmethodologies in compliance withvarious international standards; andProven technology based oninternational research findings,modelling and field testing.Extensive field experience with morethan 50,000 installations over 15 years in more than 75 countriesaround the world;The LPI storyLPI’s range of products and servicescome from its manufacturing baseand research facility located inTasmania, Australia, and via regionaloffices worldwide.Lightning Protection International PtyLtd (LPI) is a fully Australian ownedmanufacturer and supplier of directstrike lightning protection, surge andtransient protection, and earthing /grounding solutions.Active in IndustryThe company has been recognisedwithin Australia for its outstandingexport successes and has beenawarded several prestigious exportawards.LPI has manufactured and suppliedthese products and solutionsworldwide for more than a decade.The LPI engineering team conductsprofessional consultancy services inlightning protection and power systemearthing (utilising CDEGS) across allindustry sectors, mitigating risks toequipment and personnel.LPI maintains a third-partyQuality Management System toISO 9001:2015 along with anEnvironmental Management Systemto ISO 14001: 2015.PLN site in Banjarmasin, Kalimantan, Indonesia.FS 6038752L I G H T N I N GEMS 641121P R O T E C T I O NFS 603875EMS 641121I N T E R N AT I O N A LP T YLT Dw w w. l p i . c o m . a u

LPI GUARDIAN PLUS AIR TERMINALIEEE Standard 998IEEE Standard 998 is the only international standard dealingwith shielding of substations against direct lightning strikes.Other international standards, such as IEC 62305 and AS/NZS 1768-2007, do not consider lightning protection of HVpower systems in their scope.Design MethodologyLeader Inception Theory (LIT)LPI uses the Leader Inception Theory (LIT) for designinglightning protection systems for HV power facilities. LIT is oneof a number of design methodologies detailed in IEEE Std.998.The Leader Inception Theory and model was initially presentedby Rizk (1990, 1994) and was expanded for application tostructures and substations (Rizk 2009, 2010).A fundamental parameter used in the LIT model is the space potentialaround the object created by the cloud and downward leader charges.Designing for Substations using the LIT ModelCase Study: 69 kV substation in IEEE Std. 998.Step 1: Simplify the equipment and buses.Step 2: Perform strike probability analysis (SPA) utilising adynamic EGM and published lightning stroke statistics.Step 3: Position air terminals in optimum locations based on theSPA and attractive radius calculations in accordance with LIT.3L I G H T N I N GP R O T E C T I O NI N T E R N AT I O N A LP T YLT Dw w w. l p i . c o m . a u

LPI GUARDIAN PLUS AIR TERMINALCost EffectiveDesignAdvantages of LITMethodologymodel is backed by decades of Theexperimental results from long-For the 69 kV substation,the LIT methodologyrequires two (2) lightningprotection masts to beinstalled in optimumlocations. The blanketapproach applied whenusing the Rolling SphereMethod (RSM) results ina requirement for five (5)masts.spark testing in high voltagelaboratories Validation against rocket-triggeredand natural lightning experimentsdesign calculation Site-specificcustomised to suit individualprojectsscientific basis which Soundresults in substantialLPI proprietary softwarefor optimal placement andselection of hardware.efficiencies in designs, withexcellent cost benefitsGuardian Plus Air Terminal RangeGuardian PlusRangeThe new Guardian Plus air terminal range has evolved from the original Guardian CATdesign and has been developed after taking into account the latest internationalresearch. Key elements include the effect of space charge and air terminal geometry,characteristics of long sparks, lightning characteristics and statistics, and thelightning attachment process itself. LPI offers Guardian Plusterminals in stainless steel.GPLUS-XYY-ZZThe design of the Guardian Plus air terminals isbased on detailed modelling and calculationswhich optimise corona performance in thequasi-static phase of a thunderstormX: Guardian Plus terminalmodel. Model 1,2 or 3.Three domes sizes to cater for all practicalinstallation scenariosZZ: IM for insulated mast(use with FRP mastand HVSC Plus). CM forconductive mast (2 inchBSP GI pipe adaptor).YY: SS for stainlesssteel model.Tip radius of curvature and tip protrusionis optimised to minimise corona dischargeRobust materials to achieve long service lifeContact LPI or an authoriseddistributor for further detail.How does an LPI Guardian Plus Terminal operate?Space chargeBluntgeometrySTEP1FRANKLIN ROD4Air gapFourelectricallyfloatingpanelsGUARDIAN PLUSL I G H T N I N GP R O T E C T I O NTriggeredarc UARDIAN PLUSI N T E R N AT I O N A LP T YSTEP3GUARDIAN PLUSLT Dw w w. l p i . c o m . a u

LPI GUARDIAN PLUS AIR TERMINALLightning Strike Recorder (LSR2)DownconductorsLPI offers a comprehensive range of downconductors forthe safe and efficient passage of lightning energy into theearthing system.The LPI LSR is easily mounted on adownconductor and effectively countsthe number of lightning strikes capturedby the Guardian Plus air terminal. An LSRtester is available upon request. ContactLPI for details.Ordering Codes: LSR2 LSR - TESTER - MK2Earthing for LightningA special earthing design for lightning is recommended, utilisingradial and vertical earth electrodes, with an overall impedance of10 Ω or less. Such a design for dissipating lightning transients intothe ground ensures that earth potential rise is minimised. Then,all earthing systems should be bonded together in a ring-eartharrangement, to minimise damaging potential differences undertransient conditions.25 x 3 mmCopper TapeA Earth Rods clamped toCopper TapeHVSC Plus has been tested bya certified, independent highvoltage laboratory in Australia.E Tape ClampC Earth RodC Earth PitClampWithstand voltage 500 kVLPI offers a selection ofdownconductors and fixingaccessories:High Voltage ShieldedCable (HVSC Plus)B Each Radial Trenchis treated withEarth EnhancingCompoundD Copper Tape25 x 3 mm, typically3 Radials, no longerthan the criticallengthKey components of a lightning earth include:A Earth Rods –Copperbonded (threaded orunthreaded), Solid Copperor Stainless SteelFlat tapes –Bare, Tinned &PVC CoveredIEC 62561-7AS 2239B Earth EnhancingCompoundsfor lowering earthsystem resistancePVC Coated and barestranded copperconductorC Mechanical Clamps andEarth PitsPolymer earth pitE Downconductor Fixingsand ConnectorsD Earthing Conductor – Use of copper tapeis recommended as it provides greatersurface contact with the soilmass as opposed to circularor stranded copperconductors5L I G H T N I N GP R O T E C T I O NI N T E R N AT I O N A LP T YLT Dw w w. l p i . c o m . a u

LPI GUARDIAN PLUS AIR TERMINALGuardian Plus InstallationTesting of the Guardian PlusAir TerminalThe Guardian Plus range of air terminals is the result ofan extensive research and development program. Theair terminal optimisation was completed via testing atthe state-of-the art “National Engineering Laboratory forUltra High Voltage Technology”(NELUHVT), located nearKunming in China. High voltage testing included coronaperformance under static electric fields and upward leaderinitiation under dynamic fields. The NELUHVT is an outdoorfacility and hence the air terminals were not only testedunder different electrical conditions but also a range ofenvironmental effects.LPI GUARDIAN PLUS TERMINALFRP MASTFREESTANDING MASTSUBSTATIONSTRUCTUREHIGH VOLTAGESHIELDED CABLE(HVSC Plus)LPI INSPECTION PITORDERING CODE: EPIT-PFOOTINGEARTHENHANCINGCOMPOUNDORDERING CODE: GRIP-10RESLO-20SRIM-20Distributed by:LPI LOWERTERMINATION KITORDERINGCODE: LTERMKIT-MK3LPI EARTHING SYSTEMTYPICAL PRODUCTS REQUIREDFOR RADIAL LP EARTH: 4 X CBER1214 1 X EPIT-P 4 X RTC253 1 X GRIP-10 30 X FL6T253CDisclaimerFOOTING LPI maintains a policy of ongoing product development.Specifications are subject to change without notice. Application detail, illustrations and schematic drawings arerepresentative only and should be used as guides. 100% protection cannot be guaranteed for direct-strikelightning, lightning detection, and surge and transientprotection of equipment. This guarantee cannot be providedbecause lightning is a random, natural, atmospheric event.LIGHTNING PROTECTIONINTERNATIONAL PTY LTDABN 11 099 190 897PO Box 379 Kingston, Tasmania, Australia 705149 Patriarch Drive, Huntingfield, Tasmania, Australia 7055 Telephone: Australia:03 6281 2477 61 3 6281 il:Web:2019 Lightning Protection International Pty Ltd. Copyright 2016BR-GUARD-PLUS-V2V3

Guardian Plus Range How does an LPI Guardian Plus Terminal operate? LPI offers Guardian Plus terminals in stainless steel. GPLUS-XYY-ZZ X: Guardian Plus terminal model. Model 1,2 or 3. YY: SS for stainless steel model. ZZ: IM for insulated mast (use with FRP mast and HVSC Plus). CM for conductive mast (2 inch BSP GI pipe adaptor). STEP 1 STEP 2 .