ENGINEERINGManualInnovativeBelt & Chain solutionsfor every industry& application
Engineering ManualInnovative Belt and Chain solutions forevery industry & application
Contents4Section 1Introduction .7Section 2Belt and Chain SelectionBelt and Chain System Selection Process. 8Belt System Surface Options. 9Section 3Design GuidelinesBasic Factors affecting Belt/Chain Lifetime. 14Environmental Considerations. 14Warnings. 15Basic Conveyor Requirements and Considerations. 16Dimension definitions . 17Drive Concept . 18Shaft Selection . 18Torsion Loading. 18Aligning the Shafts . 18Retaining Sprockets . 19Intermediate Bearings. 19Rollers as Idle Shafts and Sprocket replacements . 20Drive Types . 20Straight running Conveyors . 21Elevating Conveyors . 21Incline Conveyor . 21Sideflexing Conveyors . 24Sideflexing Chains . 24Sideflexing Chains, single Track . 24Sideflexing Chains, multiple Tracks . 24Sideflexing Modular Belts . 25Basic L-Shape . 25How does a sideflexing Belt work . 25True Pitch in outside Radius. 26Load Line . 26Reducing overall Dimensions for sideflexing Belt Conveyors. 27Placing the Drive . 27Load & Speed Properties. 28Precautions with Catenary Sags for sideflexing Belts. 28Mounting of Sprockets. 29Spiral Conveyors. 30
Contents5Section 3Transfer Guidelines . 31Side Transfer . 31Inline Transfer. 3190 degree Transfer . 31End Off/End On . 32Dead Plates . 32Finger Plates . 33Roller Transfer . 33Special Design Guidelines . 34Gripper Conveyors . 34Alpine (Serpentine) Conveyors. 34Pasteurizers & Blanchers . 35Vacuum Conveyors . 35Long Conveyors . 36Carousel (endless) Conveyors . 37Thermal Expansion and Contraction. 37Expansion due to Water Absorption. 38Slip Stick/Surging/Pulsation. 38Chordal Action . 39Wearstrip and Support. 40Straight running Chains, single Tracks . 40Straight running Chains, multiple Tracks. 41Sideflexing Chains, single Tracks. 42Sideflexing Chains, multiple Tracks. 43Sideflexing Superflex Chains, open version. 44Sideflexing Superflex Chains, closed version. 45uni Flex Chains . 46Belt Carryways and Returnways . 47Tracking & Control Systems for Sideflexing Belt. 48Returning Belt with Product Supports . 50Anti-sag Carryway Wearstrip Configuration . 50Take-up Methods . 51Control of Belt Length. 51Back Tension . 54Special Take-up Arrangement . 54Compressd Belt Take-up . 55Driving Terminals . 55Section 4MaterialsChain and Belt Material Listing and Properties . 56Plastic Materials, Temperature Range, Load Index and FDA . 56Steel and Stainless Steel . 57Plastic materials . 58Factors . 62Friction Factors . 62Temperature Factors. 62
Contents6Section 5CalculationsChain Calculations . 63Tensile Forces . 63Temperature and Speed dependent Tensile Force. 63Conveyor with straight running and sideflexing Chains . 64Conveyor with Inclination. 65Serpentine . 66Belt Calculations . 68Tensile Forces . 68Conveyor with Inclination. 69Reinforcement of Belt Systems. 71Expansion and Contraction of the Belt. 72Determining Number of Sprockets for Belt Systems. 72General Calculations . 74Catenary Sag . 74Dimensioning of the Motor. 75Dimensioning of the Shaft (Steel). 76Control of Shaft Deflection of the Shaft under Stress. 78Section 6Installation, Maintenance and TroubleshootingInstallation Guidelines. 80Maintenance Guidelines. 80Replacement of Conveyor Parts. 80Cleaning Guidelines . 81Troubleshooting Guidelines. 82Section 7AppendixConveyors with Turn Discs. 94Conversion of Units (metric/imperial). 96Calculation Factors . 97Load-Speed Relations. 100Temperature Factors . 103Belt Elasticity . 104Glossary. 106Chemical Resistance Chart . 112Technical Data Sheet for Belt/Chains Applications (metric) . 137Technical Data Sheet for Belt/Chains Applications (imperial) . 139
IntroductionThe uni-chains product range offers the world'slargest product range of innovative and flexibleconveyor chains and belts.The uni-chains product range builds on thedevelopment and manufacturing of Slat Top chains in steel and plastic Crate chains for heavy loads Plastic chains with molded inserts Belts in many variations, which can be assembled intowide flat belts with various accessories to meet theapplication need Chains and belts in special materials Chain and belt sprockets in various materialsSection 17This manual offers to instruct the user how to properlyselect a uni-chains product for an application and how toproperly apply the uni-chains product in the design andfabrication of the conveyor. The uni-chains product line isdivided into two separate groups: uni Slat Top Chains anduni Plastic Modular Belts. In general, chains are moldedin certain widths and have one hinge with a SS pin thatpulls the load.Belts, on the other hand, can be built out of small piecesin a “brick-lay” type pattern to achieve basically anywidth. Belts have many hinges that pull the load and,therefore, a belt gets stronger as it gets wider. Since thereare some inherent differences between the two, certainsections of this manual will be specific to one type or theother. These sections will be specifically noted.
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 28Belt and Chain System Selection ProcessMany factors must be considered when selecting a belt orchain for an application. It may be helpful to rememberthe acronym PPLESC as a guide to which information isimportant. PPLESC stands for Product, Process, Layout,Environment, Standards and Commercial Factors. Withthis information you can make an informed belt or chainselection for your application. Some details on these areshown below:Product Weight Size Shape Structure Product TemperatureProcess Required speed Accumulation of the products Heating Cooling Washing Drying Temperature How are the products loaded on to the belt(Pushed sideways? Dropped from above?) Sideways product movements on the beltLayout Inclining/declining Straight running Sideflexing Twisting Required width Transfer zones Physical space for installation Length of sections If sideflexing: Radius in the curves andthe angle of the curveEnvironment Surrounding temperature Chemicals (e.g. acid, cleaning agents) Abrasive elements dust/sand/glass Water/HumidityStandards FDA or similar approval needed on the material(Food contact) USDA Meat and Poultry Approval needed USDA Dairy approval needed NSF Approval neededCommercial factors Most cost effective product for the job Desired lifetime Acceptable pricing level to the customerOnce you have the above information you can use it toselect the proper belt. First, chose the right type of chainor belt – straight running or sideflexing. All uni-chainsbelts and chains can be used in straight running applications. However if the conveyor must sideflex the designermust be sure to select a sideflexing belt or chain.Next, select the pitch of the belt. Pitch is the most defining characteristic of a belt or chain. Smaller pitch reduceschordal action and vibration, has less noise, can achievetighter transfers and use smaller sprockets. Larger pitchbelts are usually stronger and thicker for more wear andimpact resistance.Surface should also be considered. uni-chains offers manysurface openings, textures and accessories to suit everyapplication. This includes the design of the underside ofthe belt or chain which can be important when considering cleaning, wear or support. The choice of a chain orbelt for your application will depend on which has theavailable surface, top and bottom that are needed in yourapplication. On the next page you will find some examples of top and bottom surface designs that are available.The track system should also be considered (especiallywith uni Slat Top Chain) as the uni-chains product rangeis composed of both tabbed and non-tabbed belts andchains. This is especially important on the return sideof the conveyor as this requires different methods ofsupport.The drive method should also be considered. There aredifferent types of drive configurations depending onspace limits or on conveyor function. The uni-chainsproduct range offers both conventional sprocket drivensystems as well as horizontal sprocket drive systems forrace track/endless designs or multi-tier drive applications.Next, chose the right material for your application.Choice of material is dependent on many factors including among others strength, wear resistance, chemicalresistance, temperature limits, impact, speed and agencyapprovals. In general, uni-chains belts are offered in threestandard materials: PP, PE, Acetal (POM), and our chainsare offered in several grades of Acetal (POM). Refer to thematerial section for more information on selecting theproper material (pages 56-62).Finally, select a belt or chain of sufficient strength foryour application. After going through the process above,ensure that the chain or belt is strong enough to pull thedesired load. See the calculation section to determine thisor contact uni-chains engineering for assistance. It maybe a case where the designer must choose a strongermaterial or a larger pitch belt after getting to this step.You may need to go through these steps multiple timesto arrive at the best solution.
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 29Belt System Surface ctRibTopRollerTopRoughTopV-styleuni M-QNBRubber Topuni M-QNB Cuni Light Cuni S-MPB CRubberTopuni Lightuni Light RoughRubber Topuni QNB Roughuni QNBRubber Topuni CPB Roughuni CPBRubber Topuni S-MPB NEuni QNB Cuni CNB C0%uni SSB Cuni RTB M1uni RTB M2uni RTB M2Rubberuni RTBuni CPB Cuni MPB Cuni MPB G GE uni MPB N NEuni MPBuni X-MPB C10%uni Light14%uni M-SNB M3uni XLB15% Rough15%16%uni XLBM2 V8uni XLB CRoughuni XLB Cuni Flex ONEuni MPB ROuni CNB18%uni BLBuni MPB20%uni SNB M2uni CPB20% Roughuni MPBuni Lightuni CNBuni Light EPfine-meshed22%uni Light EPfine-meshedwith reinforcement linksuni MPB PRRuni MPBuni OPB 4V23%uni OPB 4Vfine-meshed29%uni SSB32%uni SSBuni OPB 4V23% RIBuni SNB M2Rubber Top
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 210Belt System Surface ctRibTop34%uni SNB M2uni SNB M234%uni SNB M234% Rib36%uni OPB 4Vuni L-SNBuni L-SNB Rib37%uni M-TTBuni M-TTB CS40%43%RollerTopRubberTopuni M-PNB M1uni Flex ASBuni Flex ASB CSuni Flex ASB Tuni Flex ASBCS Tuni Flex SNB Cuni Flex SNB CRRubber Topuni Flex SNB CR47%RoughTopuni Flex SNB CRubber Topuni Flex L-ASBuni Flex L-ASB Runi Flex L-ASB Tuni Flex SNB Luni Flex SNB W55%uni Flex SNB WTuni Flex SNBWO66%Vacuumuni OWLuni M-QNBVacuumBelt System Surface OptionsFlat Surfaceuni M-QNBuni Lightuni Lightuni M-SNB M3Pitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 19.05 mm (0.75 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 19.05 mm (0.75 in.)Surface opening 10%Pitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 14%V-style
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 2Belt System Surface Optionsuni Flex ONEuni BLBuni MPBuni SNB M2Pitch 38.1 mm (1.50 in.)Surface opening 16%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00in.)Surface opening 18%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 18%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 20%uni CNBuni SSBuni M-TTBuni Flex ASBPitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 22%Pitch 38.1 mm (1.50 in.)Surface opening 32%Pitch 38.1 mm (1.50 in.)Surface opening 37%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 47%uni Flex SNB CRPitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 47%Grip Surfaceuni MPB GPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%uni MPB GEPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%No Cling Surfaceuni S-MPB Nuni S-MPB NEuni MPB Nuni MPB NEPitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%11
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 2Belt System Surface OptionsReduced Contact Surfaceuni L-SNBuni M-TTB CSuni M-PNB M1uni Flex ASB CSPitch 50.0 mm (1.97 in.)Surface opening 36%Pitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 37%Pitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 40%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 43%uni Flex SNB Luni OWLPitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 55%Pitch 27.9 mm (1.10 in.)Surface opening 66%Rib Top Surfaceuni OPB 4V RibPitch 50.0 mm (1.97 in.)Surface opening 23%uni SNB M2 Ribuni L-SNB RibPitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 34%Pitch 50.0 mm (1.97 in.)Surface opening 37%uni RTB M1uni RTB M2uni RTB M2 Rubberuni MPB ROPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 16%Roller Top Surfaceuni MPB PRRPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 22%12
Belt and Chain SelectionSection 213Belt System Surface OptionsRough Topuni CPB Roughuni XLB Roughuni XLB 15% Roughuni CPB RoughPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 63.5 mm (2.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 63.5 mm (2.50 in.)Surface opening 15%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 20%uni M-QNB Rubber Topuni Light Rough Rubber Topuni QNB Rubber Topuni CPB Rubber Top - RB1Pitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 19.05 mm (0.75 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%uni CPB Rubber Top - RB2uni MPB Rubber Topuni SNB M2 Rubber Topuni Flex SNB CR Rubber TopPitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 50.8 mm (2.00 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 20%Rubber TopV-Styleuni XLB M2 V8uni XLB M2 V8Pitch 63.5 mm (2.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 63.5 mm (2.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Vacuumuni M-QNB VacuumPitch 12.7 mm (0.50 in.)Surface opening 0%Pitch 25.4 mm (1.00 in.)Surface opening 47%
DesignGuidelinesSection 314Basic Factors affecting Belt/Chain LifetimeShorter Lifetime Less lubrication Smaller sprocket diameter Smaller pin diameter Less wearstrip support Higher speed Higher load More dirt Greater number of curves Greater number of start/stops Greater number of times frontor backflexingLonger LifetimeBelt/Chain LifetimeShorterLifetimeIn the design stage it is helpful to consider some of thebasic factors that have an effect on belt/chain lifetimeand know how they can be used to increase the overallLongerLifetime More lubrication Larger sprocket diameter Larger pin diameter More wearstrip support Lower speed Less load Less dirt Fewer number of curves Fewer number of start/stops Fewer number of times frontor backflexinglifetime of the belt or chain. The chart above gives ageneral indication of some of the more importantparameters and their general effect on overall belt life.Environmental ConsiderationsSuccessful operation of uni-chains products requires theirability to stand up to the environment that they are usedin. The information below comes from previous (similar)experiences and customer input.2. Radiation DegradationRadiation from ultraviolet rays, microwaves, or any otherform of radiation that can cause premature failure shouldbe considered at the time of selection.Specifying the right belt for the application requires agood knowledge of the environmental conditions. Beloware some important environmental considerations to keepin mind when choosing a belt. Forms are available at theback of this manual that include a more complete list ofmost of the possible application parameters that couldapply.Ultraviolet LightUV radiation is split into three different types: UVA,UVB and UVC. UVA and UVB are major contributors todamage caused by the sun. UVC is almost completelyabsorbed by the ozone layer but is found in artifi
This manual offers to instruct the user how to properly select a uni-chains product for an application and how to properly apply the uni-chains product in the design and fabrication of the conveyor. The uni-chains product line is divided into two separate groups: uni Slat Top Chains and uni Plastic Modular Belts. In general, chains are molded