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DER-CAMA N A LY T I C S DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FORDECENTRALIZED ENERGY SYSTEMSPLANNING O P E R AT I O N SModeling WorkflowCompleting a DER-CAM analysis in 7 stepsMar. 7th, 2018DER-CAM Ownership Model Use-Cases0

Before we begin Simulation vs OptimizationSimulation: Pre-defined set of rulesif PV output Load:if Battery SOC Min: Decrease Battery SOC One possible output per input (not optimal) Very fastOptimization (DER-CAM): Define boundaries for each variableMin Battery SOC Max Entire feasible region of possible output Define an objective functionTotal Cost DER Inv. Cost DER Op. Cost Util. Cost Find the solution in the feasible region that optimizes theobjective Problems may become very large and take time to solveDER-CAM Workflow1

DER-CAMDER-CAM is a decision support tool for decentralized energy systemsFinds optimal portfolio, sizing, placement, and dispatch of DER in buildings andmicrogridsEnergy loadsMany variables!Optimal DER PortfolioElectricity & fuel pricesOptimal DER SizingDER technologiesOptimal DER PlacementLocal weatherDER-CAMOptimal DER dispatchTopologyDER-CAM Workflow2

DER-CAM Workflow3

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1 – Define TopologyStart by deciding between single or multi-node Single node models can be a good first approachFaster to solve, less data requiredIdeal if loads can be aggregated:––Strong network, no loss or voltage concernsOptimal DER placement not required Multi-node models provide additional depth (Optimal) power flow and heat flow is integrated in the analysis Optimal DER placement is provided Choosing between single or multi-node happens when creating a new projectThis decision cannot be changed later onDER-CAM Workflow5

1 2 3 – Using the databasesSingle node example Large Office Building in San FranciscoDER-CAM Workflow6

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2 – End-use loads and site dataEnd-use loads Up to 3( 3) “design days” per monthDER-CAM Workflow8

2 – End-use loads and site dataEnd-use loads Up to 3( 3) “design days” per monthDER-CAM Workflow9

2 – End-use loads and site dataOther site data DER-CAM Workflow10

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3 – Utility tariffs and export optionsElectricity and fuel prices DER-CAM Workflow12

3 – Utility tariffs and export optionsElectricity and fuel prices Hint: to create a microgridmodel from the perspectiveof the utility or DSO tariffscan be replaced by costs theywould incur to serve clientsDER-CAM Workflow13

3 – Utility tariffs and export optionsExport Options DER-CAM Workflow14

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4 – DER Options and ParametersContinuous vs Discrete!?“continuous”Total CostCost/kWVar. costFixed cost“discrete”Cost/kWxxxxDER-CAM Workflow16

4 – DER Options and ParametersTechnologies included Discrete:-Conventional generators and CHP units--Continuous duty, load followingWind generatorsContinuous:-PV, Solar ThermalStorage--Conventional, Flow Batteries, EVs, Heat storageHeat pumpsAbsorption chillersCentral cooling / heatingDER-CAM Workflow17

4 – DER Options and ParametersExisting DER Do you want to fix the exact DER size?If so, what size you are forcing?Is this an existing DER?If so, how old is it?DER-CAM Workflow18

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5 – Running the Base CaseBase Case Understanding DER-CAMObjective function:Minimize total energy costs (or CO2) such that: energy balance is preserved– energy supply (t) energy demand (t) technologies operate within physical boundaries– power output ( t) max output financial constrains are verified– max payback: savings obtained by the use of new DER must generate savings thatrepay investments within the max payback periodTo use DER-CAM, at least two runs are needed: 1) Base Case; 2) InvestmentDER-CAM Workflow20

5 – Running the Base CaseBase Case By default, investment is disabled on “New” modelsDER-CAM Workflow21

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6 – Defining Investment OptionsInvestment Case This is where the optimization starts! Enable / disable technology groupsEnable / disable specific technologiesDefine reference values (from Base Case)Define financial values (Payback time, discount rate)Run the model!E.g. PV Storage mode, 5% discount rate, 12 year paybackDER-CAM Workflow23

6 – Defining Investment OptionsInvestment Case Max Payback–––DER-CAM uses technologies with different lifetimes“Max Payback” is a global paybackActs as a constrainMin (total energy costs) such that annual savings / investment Max PaybackAnnualized Capital Costs–––Different technology lifetimes require a method to compare them fairlyAnnualized Capital Cost is the cost per year of owning the equipmentTotal Energy Costs will include Annualized Capital CostsOptimization algorithm–“Greedy” approach –Solver precision & problem size –More of what is most efficientFlat solution spaceIndifferent preference Cost vs BenefitDER-CAM Workflow24

6 – Defining Investment OptionsInvestment Case E.g. PV Storage mode, 5% discount rate, 12 year paybackEnable technology groupEnable technologiesDefine reference valuesDER-CAM Workflow25

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7 – Run investment caseInvestment Case E.g. PV Storage mode, 5% discount rate, 12 year paybackDER-CAM Workflow27

7 – Run investment caseInvestment Case E.g. PV Storage mode, 5% discount rate, 12 year paybackDER-CAM Workflow28

THE ENDContact Information:Gonçalo [email protected] [email protected] .gov/DER-CAM Workflow29

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1 – Define TopologyStart by deciding between single or multi-node Single node models can be a good first approachFaster to solve, less data requiredIdeal if loads can be aggregated:––Strong network, no loss or voltage concernsOptimal DER placement not required Multi-node models provide additional depth (Optimal) power flow and heat flow is integrated in the analysis Optimal DER placement is provided Choosing between single or multi-node happens when creating a new projectThis decision cannot be changed later onDER-CAM Workflow31

1 – Define TopologyIf you selected multi-node Single node models do not require further topology definitionFor multi-node models, the next steps consist of:–––Creating nodes (up to 20)Establishing connectivityDefining the characteristics of the topology elementsTo create a new node.- Pick “Topology” from the menu- Right-click grey area to “Add Node”- You can have up to 20 nodesDER-CAM Workflow32

1 – Define TopologyTo establish connectivity - Right-click any node and select “Properties”- Define key properties of that node:--Does it have a load?Is this where the microgrid connects to the utility (Point of common coupling)?Should this be the “slack” / reference node for load flow calculations?Where is this node located? (lat. / long.)Establish connectivity to other nodes:-Add line, transformer, high temperature, or low temperature pipe between this and any other nodeDER-CAM Workflow33

1 – Define TopologyTo define the characteristics of topology elements - Define the properties of relevant elements under “Power FlowParameters” or “Heat Transfer Parameters” or use predefined- In “Topology” view, right-click an element and select “Properties”- Choose one of the options from the “Type” dropdown boxDER-CAM Workflow34

1 – Define TopologyOne extra step -“Map” view is also availableRequires at least one node to have lat./long. valuesMoving nodes in the Map view updates estimated lengthsLength used for calculation is always user-definedDER-CAM Workflow35

1 – Define TopologyNot quite over yet - Two power flow models are available (radial / meshed)- Some overall options are available, including:-Is this a DC network?Are loads purely resistive, or include active / reactive power consumption?- Each model can be further specified, including:-Min / Max acceptable voltage levelsEnabling / disabling the current or voltage magnitude constraintsEach option andparameter is documentedin the right side, includingreferences and additionalrecommendationsDER-CAM Workflow36

DER-CAM Workflow 2 DER-CAM DER-CAM is a decision support tool for decentralized energy systems Finds optimal portfolio, sizing, placement, and dispatch of DER in buildings and microgrids Energy loads Electricity & fuel prices DER technologies Local weather Topology Optimal DER Portfolio