UNISTRUT METAL FRAMINGNO. 12TMUNISTRUTC O R P O R A T I O NUnistrut Sales & Distribution1140 W. Thorndale Ave.Itasca, IL , 60143U.S.A.Tel: (800) 468-9510Fax: (630) 773-4210TMUNISTRUTMetal Framing GENERALENGINEERINGCATALOG Unistrut Canada585 Finley AvenueAjax, Ontario, L1S 2E4CanadaTel: (905) 683-8131Fax: (905) 683-8987North AmericanEditionNO. 12
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TABLE OF CONTENTSGENERAL ENGINEERING CATALOG NO. 12 Introduction . 1-19Unistrut Metal Framing Systems. 4-7Quality Assurance and R&D . 8-10Materials and Finishes . 11-13Design Fundamentals . 14-15Conversion Factors . 16Reference Tables and Guide Specification . 17–19 15 8" Framing System . 20-179Channels and Combinations . 20-67P1000 – P3300 Channel . 20-45P4000 – P9200 & Pierced Channel . 46-67Nuts, Bolts and Hardware. 68-79General Fittings . 80-127Flat Plate & 90 Angle Fittings . 80-92Angular,“Z” & “U” & Wing Fittings . 93-104Post Bases, Brackets & Beam Clamps . 105-121Trolley, Special Application . 122-127Pipe/Conduit clamps, supportsand Hangers . 128-147Electrical Accessories . 148-165Concrete Inserts . 166-179 11 4" Framing System . 180-197 13 16" Framing System . 198-217 Special Metals and Fiberglass . 218-236Stainless Steel & Extruded Aluminum . 220-225Fiberglass . 226-236 Index . 237-2503
UNISTRUT METAL FRAMINGTHE ORIGINAL STRUT SYSTEMFeaturing The Unique Weldless Connection Hex-head bolt connects fittingto channel as it is threaded intospring nut. Chamfer in nut eases startingof the bolt. Nut teeth create a strong, vise-like gripwhen tightened against the inturnedchannel edges. Channel edges and nut’s taperedgrooves act as guides to provide foolproof alignment of connection. Nut teeth grip the channel’s inturnededges, tying the channel sides togetherin a "box" configuration for addedstrength. Spring allows precision placementanywhere along channel length, then holdsnut in position while connection iscompleted.4
UNISTRUT METAL FRAMINGTHE ORIGINAL STRUT SYSTEMStrong, Fast, Economical and Adjustable1Insert the spring nut anywherealong the continuous slottedchannel. The rounded nut endspermit easy insertion.A 90 clockwise turn aligns thegrooves in the nut with theinturned edges of the channel.2Fittings can be placed anywherealong the channel opening,permitting complete freedom ofadjustment. The need for drillingholes is eliminated.13Insert bolt through fitting and intothe spring nut. (See illustration 5 forend view showing nut in place)Additional channel sections cannow be bolted to the fittingalready in place by followingprocedure described in steps 1–3.54Tightening with a wrench locks theserrated teeth of the nut into theinturned edges of the channel, tocomplete a strong, vise-like connection.5
UNISTRUT METAL FRAMINGTHE ORIGINAL STRUT SYSTEMServing DesignProfessionals forOver 60 YearsUnistrut products have beenhelping to build a better worldsince 1924. Used extensively innuclear, industrial and commercialconstruction markets for over 60years, Unistrut Metal Framing hasset the standard for productdesign, quality and performance.The initial Unistrut concept — asimple spring nut and bolt connecting a fitting to a continuousslotted channel — has evolvedinto a comprehensive engineeredbuilding and support system.Unistrut — The OriginalMetal Framing SystemThere is only one Unistrut MetalFraming System. It incorporatesthe innovative product improvements that our research anddevelopment group has created togive you the most complete andflexible support system available.Backed by our worldwide networkof engineering and distributioncenters, Unistrut providescustomers with total-resourcecapability.principal cities in North Americato serve you quickly and directly.Many Service Centers areequipped to design and supplydrawings for any type of metalframing application and also offerfabrication and installationservices.Over 50 Unistrut Service Centers— stocking standard Unistrutcomponents — are located inThis catalog is a comprehensivepresentation of Unistrut MetalFraming components plustechnical data required by design,specification and constructionprofessionals. 6
UNISTRUT METAL FRAMINGTHE ORIGINAL STRUT SYSTEMThe Most Complete Metal Framing System —Offering Three Channel-Width OptionsAdjustability, demountability and reusability are engineered into each of the three Unistrut channel series.Each series offers channels of varying depth and gage plus a complete line of fittings and accessories.15 8” (41mm) width1 5 8"VARIOUSHEIGHTSAVAILABLE15 8" width Series Channel begins on page 20.Designed to carry the heaviestloads and provide the widestvariety of applications, the 15 8"series has become the acceptedstandard for use in mechanical,electrical and general constructionapplications where supports andattachments must meet thehighest strength requirements.11 4” (32mm) width1 1 4"VARIOUSHEIGHTSAVAILABLEA framing system designed formedium loads, the 11 4" series isespecially suitable for use in theOEM, commercial and displaymarkets. It maintains a lightnessin scale and a clean line thatmakes it aesthetically pleasing aswell as functional.11 4" width Series Channel begins on page 180.13 16” (21mm) width13 16"VARIOUSHEIGHTSAVAILABLE " width Series Channel begins on page 198.13 16A unique half-size reduction of the15 8" channel-width series, thissmaller channel size can be usedto carry light loads economicallyin applications such as instrumentation, retail displays and light-dutylaboratory supports. It alsoprovides the flexibility found in allUnistrut framing systems.7
QUALITY ASSURANCEYTILAUQFATEMENT OA SThip in thesredalednaon’s growthtiaropevelopingrdofCotltuusertUnistrcustry is a diredingality withuinqmfaofrsldradmetane highest stathgfinishing.indinntaaingainrtucand mfastringentaterials, manutsmowmarethtotncoerespng are basedtistednaiarrcial gradeeemmocehDesign critTd standards.nasedopteddaocdnyatrsdepinduloeepted byprogram devcceacndanrausdse-aittydqualin has been auotiaindustry.rogpnrtioarCetnuetr-gisrneby Unuclear powethfo1,setilitiix B, 10CFR2dneppAmember u05ing to 10CFRcatalog.conformted products clear Power Engineeringlae-rtyfesatuuranceNFor Unistru, consult our.4 Quality Ass9-19A2QNSACdnnaos AssociatiANSI N45.2dian StandardanaCruyotoConformance vailable.aolsaUNISTRUTmPrograC O R P O R A T I O NTMUnistrut is committed to being the “best” in the metalframing industry. In order to meet this goal, Unistruthas adopted the philosophy of “Zero Defects andContinuous Improvement”. This means on-goingreviews of our manufacturing processes, operatingprocedures and quality systems to find ways ofimproving efficiency, productivity and quality. Itmeans establishing process controls and problemprevention techniques to ensure that superior qualityis built into every Unistrut product.Our drive to be the best includes not just qualityproducts, but on-time delivery and prompt resolutionof customer needs and concerns. At Unistrut, qualityis number one.8 QualityAssuranceManualCONTROL NO.
QUALITY ASSURANCEProduct Testing is anImportant Part of Unistrut‘sQuality-Assurance Program.We utilize our own testingfacilities, as well as those ofindependent testing laboratories,to determine design loads withproper and adequate safety factors.These design loads are indicated,where applicable, throughout thecatalog. Loads are based on AISISpecification For The Design OfCold-Formed Steel StructuralMembers, August 1986 Edition,December 1989 Addendum.Destructive and non-destructivetesting procedures are used to testfor variables such as corrosion,conductivity, electro-staticdissipation, ultra-violet resistance,wind resistance, dimensionalaccuracy, material integrity andslip resistance.Fixture testing of Unistrut brackets establishes design loads andtechnical specifications.In short, if there’s a specification to meet, Unistrut willdevelop a test to quantifyand verify it. Using designproperties of the Unistrutframing members, load datagiven in this catalog, and/ordesign procedures of theAmerican Iron & SteelInstitute Specification ForThe Design Of Cold-FormedSteel Structural Members, August1986 Edition, December 1989Addendum, it is possible to designany type of structure within thecapabilities of the system.Assemblies or connections thatcannot be calculated usingprovisions of the AISI specifications must be established byapplication-specific tests.Regular QC checks assure that ourproducts continue to meet rigidUnistrut quality-control standards.9
PRODUCT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENTA Leader Knows Howto Listen The original Unistrut MetalFraming System was the productof a single-minded search for abetter, faster, more economicalway to build structural supports.That spirit of innovation continuesto fuel Unistrut research anddevelopment programs, that haveresulted in literally hundreds ofnew fittings, channel designs andaccessories.Our research and developmentprocess starts with the customer.First, we listen. Then we get towork on ideas to meet thecustomer’s needs. That approachhas kept us a step ahead inproduct development ever sincewe introduced the Unistrut MetalFraming concept in 1940.Unistrut research and development engineers also haveWe stay in touch with changing customer needs by listening to theprofessionals who specify and use Unistrut products every day.A steady-stream of new-product and special-application prototypeshelps keep the Unistrut metal framing system as current as today’scustomer needs.10extensive experience in product“design-for-application” projects.New products, materials, coatingsand systems-developmentexpertise are available throughUnistrut’s manufacturing facilities.Customers who have utilizedUnistrut’s research anddevelopment capabilities includemembers of the nuclear-power,automotive, aerospace,environmental-protectionindustries and engineeringprofession.If you have a special need or aunique application, turn toUnistrut for engineering anddesign assistance. Helping youis the cornerstone of our R&Deffort.
MATERIALS AND FINISHESFraming MembersUnistrut channels and continuousinserts are accurately and carefully cold-formed to size from lowcarbon strip steel. One side of thechannel has a continuous slotwith inturned edges. Secureattachments may be made to theframing member with the use ofhardened, toothed, slotted nutswhich engage the inturned edges.Raw steel shall conform to thefollowing ASTM specifications.GAGE FINISH12GR & HGPG14ASTM NO.A570 GR 33A653 GR 33GR & HGPGA570 GR 33A653 GR 3316GR & HGPGA366A653 GR 3319GRA366FittingsUnistrut fittings, unless notedotherwise, are punch-press madefrom hot rolled, pickled and oiledsteel plates, strip or coil, andconform to ASTM specificationsA575, A576, A635 or A36. Thefitting steel also meets thephysical requirement of ASTMA570 GR 33. The pickling of thesteel produces a smooth surfacefree from scale.after insertion through the slottedopening in the channel. Twotoothed grooves in the top of thenut engage the inturned edges ofthe channel and, after boltingoperations are completed, willprevent any movement of the boltand nut within the framingmember. All bolts and nuts haveUnified coarse screw threads. Thestandard framing nut is 1 2" andconforms to ASTM SpecificationA576 GR 1015 (material only).Screws conform to SAE J429 GR 2(also meets and exceeds ASTMA307).PRE-GALVANIZED (PG)FinishesSPECIAL COATINGPERMA-GREEN II (GR)When specific applicationsrequire other than standardavailable finishes, special finishescan be supplied per customerrequirements.Channel and parts are carefullycleaned and phosphated.Immediately after phosphating, auniform coat of a highly effectiverust-inhibiting acrylic enamel paintis applied by electro-depositionand thoroughly baked. Color isPerma-Green per Federal Standard595a color number 14109 (darklimit V-). The resulting finish willwithstand 400 hours of salt spraywhen tested in accordance withASTM designation B-117.ELECTRO-GALVANIZED (EG)Parts, screws and nuts are coatedwith zinc electrolytically tocommercial standards (ASTM B633 Type III SC1).Nuts and BoltsPLAIN (PL)Unistrut nuts are made from steelbars. After all machiningoperations are complete, they arethoroughly case hardened. Nutsare rectangular with ends shapedto permit a quarter turn clockwise in the framing memberPlain finish designation means thatthe channel retains the oiledsurface applied to the raw steelduring the rolling process. Thefittings have the original oiledsurface of the bar-stock material.Material (steel strip) is coated withzinc by hot-dip process prior toroll-forming or press operations.The zinc coating weight is G90conforming to ASTM SpecificationA653 GR 33.HOT-DIPPED GALVANIZED (HG)Material is coated with zinc afterbeing roll-formed or after allmanufacturing operations arecompleted, conforming to ASTMspecification No. A123 or A153.WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONSWeights given for all materials areapproximate shipping weights.All dimensions subject tocommercial tolerance withinpublished specifications.WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO MAKESPECIFICATION CHANGES WITHOUTNOTICE .WHILE EVERY EFFORT HAS BEENMADE TO ASSURE THE ACCURACY OFINFORMATION CONTAINED IN THISCATALOG AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION, WE CANNOT ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR INACCURACIESRESULTING FROM UNDETECTEDERRORS OR OMISSIONS.THE BLUE COLOR USED ONUNISTRUT COMPONENTSILLUSTRATED IN THIS CATALOG ISFOR GRAPHIC ENHANCEMENT ONLY,AND DOES NOT REPRESENT ACTUALPRODUCT COLOR.11
MATERIALS AND FINISHESPerma-Green IIThe performance of Unistrut’sPerma-Green II far exceedsthat of conventional finishes.And compared to competitive“high-performance” coatings,TANK 1Perma-Green II providesFirst stagesuperior resistance tohot alkalinecleaning ofchalking, checking andchannel.fading and is far lessvulnerable to common acidicatmospheres,solvents andalkalis. Just asimportant, PermaGreen II is theresult of anenvironmentallyneutral processthat virtuallyeliminates theTANK 7TANK 8toxic metalsFirst stageSecond stagecommonly founddeionizerdeionizedin competitivewater rinse to water rinseremove excess to preparepaint-basedsealer.channel forfinishes.E-Coating.SealerIron PhosphatePreparedSteelE-CoatTANK 2TANK 3TANK 4TANK 5Second stagehot alkalinecleaning ofchannel.Channel isrinsed toremovecleaningsolution.Channel isphosphatedto producean ironphosphatecoating.Channel isSealer isrinsed toapplied.remove excessphosphatesolution.TANK 9TANK 10TANK 11TANK 12OVENElectrodepositiontank appliesthe acrylicPerma-Green II to allsurfaces.First stagepermeaterinse toremoveexcess E-Coat.Second stagepermeaterinse topreparechannel forsurfactant.Surfactantrinse topreparechannel forcure.The cureprocess driesthe channeland cross linksthe acrylicthermosetresins.Unistrut Perma-Green II is afactory applied, electrodeposition acrylic coating withsuperior rust protection and faderesistance. The acrylic coating is aproprietary formulation and isessentially “heavy-metal” free.The electrodeposition coatingprocess provides a smooth, hard,durable surface which iscompletely cured. This inhibitsintroduction of airbornecontaminates which canadversely affect sensitivemanufacturing environments.Before the electrodepositionacrylic coating is applied,Unistrut channel and fittings are12TANK 6thoroughly cleaned and coated withan iron phosphate conversion coating.Unistrut’s unique, custom-designed“prep” process consists of eightseparate steps, the most thorough inthe industry. The cleaning,phosphating and electrodepositioncoating processes are continuous and,unlike “batch” processing, result in auniform quality coating.Production samples are tested on acontinuous basis for corrosionresistance. Unistrut Perma-Green IIexceeds 400 hours salt spray (1 8"creep from scribe) when tested toASTM B117. Unscribed samplesexceed 600 hours salt spray.
MATERIALS AND FINISHESThe pregalvanized zinc coatingconforms to a G-90 thicknessdesignation per ASTM A653. The zincthickness is .75 MIL or .45 oz./sq. ft.of surface area.Zinc CoatingSTEEL SUBSTRATEPREPARATIONEight stage continuous cleaning,phosphate process.Substrate after “prep”: sealed ironphosphate conversion coating.COATINGThermoset acrylicColor: Green Federal STD. 595A,Color No. 14109, Dark Limit V-.Hardness: 2H.Coating Process: AnodicElectrodeposition.Unistrut products are available inthree types of zinc coatings:electroplated, pregalvanized and hotdip galvanized.Zinc coatings offer two types ofprotection:1. Barrier: The zinc coatingprotects the steel substrate fromdirectcontact with theenvironment,2. Sacrificial: The zinc coatingwill protect scratches, cutedges, etc. through an anodicsacrificial process.The service life of zinc coatingis directly related to the zinccoating thickness. As shown ingraph, when the zinc coating isdouble, the service life is doubleunder most conditions.PERFORMANCEScribed: exceeds 400 hours perASTM B117.Unscribed: exceeds 600 hours perASTM B117.Chalk: nominal at 1,000 hours perweatherometer G-23 test.Checking: None at 1,000 hours perweatherometer G-23 test.Fade: Less than 50% compared tostandard epoxy E.C. coatings.ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUESFormulated as a “heavy metal”-freecoating (trace elements only).Outgassing in service: essentiallynone at 350 F for 24 hours.* Service Life is defined as the time to 5% rusting of the steel ctroplated Zinc–ASTM B633Type III SC1LIFE OF PROTECTION VS. THICKNESS OF ZINCAND TYPE OF ATMOSPHERE8040Salt Spray:This coating is offered on Unistrutchannel and tubing and is a wellproven, time-tested performer forindoor and outdoor applications. Forsevere corrosion applications, hot dipgalvanizing, as described below, is agood alternative.INEARLMEICARINAMATEPERService Life, Years*PERMA-GREEN IITECHNICAL DATAPTROTEMANLURBTRIASUBDUSY INTELRAODEMHEAVALUSTRIY IND2010.25In the electroplating process, thepart to be zinc coated is immersedin a solution of zinc ions. Anelectric current causes the zinc tobe deposited on the part.Zinc plated parts typically have a zinccoating of .2 to .5 MIL and arerecommended for dry indoor use.Pregalvanized ZincASTM A525Pregalvanized steel is zinc coated by ahot dip process. Steel strip from acoil is fed through a continuous zinccoater which cleans, fluxes and coatsthe steel with molten zinc. Aftercooling, the steel is recoiled.0.4.500.8.75Oz. of Zinc/Sq. Ft. of Surface1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.252.502.753.001.3Thickness of Zinc in Mils188.8.131.52.03.44.24.75.13.8Hot Dip Galvanized–ASTM A123 OR A153In hot dip galvanizing, the finished partis immersed in a bath of molten zinc.This method results in complete zinccoverage and a thicker coating thanpregalvanized or plated zinc.The zinc coating is typically 2.6 MIL or1.5 oz./sq. ft. of surface area.This is the coating of choice forapplications where severe corrosion isa design factor.13
DESIGN FUNDAMENTALSA) BEAMSBeams are structural members loaded atright angles (perpendicular) to their length.Most beams are horizontal and subjected togravity or vertical loads, e.g. a shelf support.However a vertical member can act as abeam under certain conditions, such as acurtain wall mullion subjected to windloading. The bending moment developedin a beam is dependent on(a) the amount of load applied,(b) the type of loading applied, and(c) the support conditions.b) Continuous BeamAny simple beam that is supportedat one or more intermediate pointsis a continuous beam. Amezzanine joist that passes overthree or more columns is anexample of a continuous beam.c) Fixed-End Beam1) Types of Beam Loadinga) Point Loadmaterial is measured by its “Modulus ofElasticity” or "E". The larger amaterial’s "E", the stiffer it is and theless it deflects. For example, steel isabout three times stiffer than aluminumand as a result, deflects only one-thirdas much. Do not confuse stiffness withstrength. Two materials may haveidentical strengths yet still havedifferent "E’s". A high-strengthaluminum may be as strong as steel andstill deflect three times as much. Theload charts and tables give calculateddeflections for the loads shown. Inmany cases, a final design will bedetermined by the maximumdeflection, not the maximum load.4) Bending MomentA load concentrated onto a very smalllength of the beam is a point load.b) Uniform LoadSupports that prevent the beamfrom rotating into a natural deflected curve, produce a fixed-endbeam. A welded end connection tovery rigid support produces a fixedend beam.d) Cantilever BeamA load spread evenly over arelatively long length of the beam isa uniform load.Point and uniform loads can be placedon a beam in any combination. Aseries of point loads can approximate auniform loading. The load charts andtables are based on a uniform loadunless identified otherwise.A cantilever beam is a fixed-endbeam that is supported at one endonly, while the other end isunsupported. Unistrut brackets areexamples of cantilever beams.3) Deflection2) Support conditionsa) Simple BeamA simple beam has supports thatprevent movement left and right, orup and down, but do not restrainthe beam from rotating at thesupports into a natural deflectedcurve. Most Unistrut Metal Framingconnections produce simple beams.The load charts and tables are basedon simple beams unless identifiedotherwise.14Is it strong enough? This is the finalconsideration for any beam. A beammust not only hold up the anticipatedloads, but must also have sufficientadditional capacity to safely holdunforeseen variations in applied loadsand material strengths. This additionalcapacity is called a safety factor and isusually regulated by the various designcodes and standards. A beam’sstrength is usually measured by anallowable bending moment or anallowable stress. The traditionalapproach is the allowable stressmethod, where a beam is determinedto have a maximum allowable stress (inpounds per square inch) which is notto be exceeded. The approach of thecurrent AISI “Specification For TheDesign Of Cold-Formed Steel StructuralMembers” is to use a maximumallowable bending moment (in inchpounds) which is not to be exceeded.Bending moment divided by a beam’ssection modulus or "S" equals stress.B) COLUMNSAll beams deflect under load. Theamount of deflection is dependent on(a) the amount of load,(b) the support conditions,(c) the stiffness of the beam’s crosssectional shape, and(d) the stiffness of the beam material.The stiffness of the beam’s crosssectional shape is measured by its“Moment Of Inertia” or "I". The largera beam’s "I", the stiffer it is and the lessit will deflect. A beam’s "I" can changefor each major axis. The "I" of bothmajor axes (I 1-1 and I 2-2) areprovided. The stiffness of a beam’sColumns are structural members that areloaded parallel to their length. Mostcolumns are vertical and are used tocarry loads from a higher level to a lowerlevel. However any member subjectedto compression loads, such as a diagonalor prop brace, is a column.A column fails by “buckling”, which is asudden loss of straightness and subsequent collapse. Allowable column loadis dependent on(a) the length of column,(b) the type of loading,(c) the support conditions, and(d) the column’s cross-sectional shapeand material.
DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS1) Column Lengthb) Pinned Top – Fixed BottomThe column length is measured frombraced point to braced point. A bracedpoint is where the column is restrainedfrom lateral movement (translation) inall directions.C) BOLT TORQUE2) Types Of Column Loadinga) Concentric LoadingLoads applied to the center ofgravity of the column cross-sectionare considered concentric. A beamthat passes over and rests on thetop of a column is an example ofconcentric loading.b) Eccentric LoadingAny load which is not concentric iseccentric. The amount ofeccentricity (in inches) has a majoreffect on the load-carrying capacityof any particular column. A loadthat is transmitted to a UnistrutMetal Framing column using astandard fitting bolted to the slotface is considered eccentric.The top is restrained against lateralmovement (translation) but, isallowed to rotate. The bottom isrestrained against rotation andlateral movement. This is acommon support condition and isused to construct the allowablecolumn load applied at the Slot Facetables. "K" equals .80.c) Pinned Top – Pinned BottomBased on the support conditions, anappropriate "K" value is selected. This“K” value, which mathematicallydescribes the column end conditions,is used in the column design equations.The most common support conditioncombinations are as follows:Bolt torque values are given to ensurethe proper connection betweenUnistrut Metal Framing components. Itis important to understand that there isa direct, but not necessarily consistent,relationship between bolt torque andtension in the bolt. Too much tensionin the bolt can cause it to break orcrush the component parts. Too littletension in the bolt can prevent theconnection from developing its full loadcapacity. The torque values given havebeen developed over many years ofexperience and testing.BOLTSIZEFOOTLBS.N.mThe load tables give allowable loads forboth concentric (loaded at C.G.) andcertain eccentric (loaded at slot face)loading. Allowable loads for othereccentric loading must be determinedby a qualified design professional.3) Support Conditionsa member with a large "r" makes abetter column than a member with asmall "r". Each axis of a column has adifferent "r". Typically the axis withthe smallest "r"determines the final design.Both ends are restrained againstlateral movement (translation) but,are allowed to rotate. "K" equals 1.0.d) Fixed / Free Top – Fixed Bottom1 4"205 8 "5 16"183 8"161 2"13113 4"1061119501001258152570135170These are based on using a properlycalibrated torque wrench with a cleandry (non-lubricated) Unistrut fitting,bolt and nut. A lubricated bolt or nutcan cause extremely high tension in theconnection and may lead to bolt failure.It must be noted that the accuracy ofcommercial torque wrenches varieswidely and it is the responsibility of theinstaller to ensure that proper bolttorque has been achieved.a) Fixed Top – Fixed BottomThe top is restrained againstrotation but is allowed to movelaterally. The bottom is restrainedagainst rotation and lateral movement (translation). "K" equals 1.2.4) Cross-Sectional ShapeBoth ends are restrained against rotationand lateral movement (translation).K equals .65.The cross-sectional shape of a columnmember determines the value of it’s“Radius of Gyration” or "r". In general,15
CONVERSION FACTORSTo ConvertFromLengthInch [in]Foot [ft]Yard [yd]Mile (U.S. Statute) [mi]AreaSquare Inch [in2]Square Foot [ft2]Square Yard [yd2]Square Mile [mi2](U.S. Statute)AcreAcreVolumeCubic Inch [in3]Cubic Foot [ft3]Cubic Yard [yd3]Gallon (U.S. Liquid) [gal]Quart (U.S. Liquid) [qt]MassOunce (Avoirdupois) [oz]Pound (Avoirdupois) [lb]Short TonForceOunce-ForcePound-Force [lbf]Bending MomentPound-Force-Inch [lbf-in]Pound-Force-Foot [lbf-ft]Pressure, StressPound-Force perSquare Inch [lbf/in2]Foot of Water (39.2 F)Inch of Mercury (32 F)Energy, Work, HeatFoot-Pound-Force [ft-lbf]British Thermal Unit [Btu]Calorie [cal]Kilowatt Hour [kW-h]PowerFoot-Pound-Force/Second [ft-lbs/s]British Thermal Unit/Hour [Btu/h]Horsepower(550 Ft. Lbf/s) [hp]AngleDegreeTemperatureDegree Fahrenheit [F]16ToMultiplyByTo ConvertFromMultiplyToByMillimeter [mm]Meter [m]Meter [m]Kilometer [km]25.400 0000.304 8000.914 4001.609 347Millimeter [mm]Meter [m]Meter [m]Kilometer [km]Inch [in]Foot [ft]Yard [yd]Mile (U.S. Statute) [mi]0.039 3703.280 8401.093 6130.621 370Square Millimeter [mm2]Square Meter [m2]Sqare Meter [m2]Square Kilometer [km2]6
Unistrut products have been helping to build a better world since 1924. Used extensively in nuclear, industrial and commercial construction markets for over 60 years, Unistrut Metal Framing has set the standard for product design, quality and performance. The initial Unistrut concept — a simple spring nut and bolt con-necting a fitting to a .