1. Introduction1Introduction

INTRODUCTIONTABLE OF CONTENTS1.1 Overview. 1EXHIBITSAirport History 2Airport Development Plan Study Process 51.2  Airport History. 1Document Structure 51.3 Current Planning Context. 3Typical Airport Land Use Priorities 7Long-Term Airport Development Goals 61.4  ADP Methodology and Process. 41.4.1Methodology.41.4.2Study Process.51.4.3Document Structure.51.5  Goals, Objectives, and Planning Principles. 6AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN – DRAFT FINALIntroduction 1 - i1

1INTRODUCTION1.1 OVERVIEWThe San Francisco International Airport (SFO, or the Airport) Master Plan, adoptedby the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) Airport Commission in 1992,provided a long-term plan for Airport facility relocation, expansion, and development to accommodate 51.3 million annual passengers (MAP) forecast for 2006.In 1997, SFO accommodated 40 MAP and traffic continued to grow until the U.S.economy slowed in early 2000. SFO experienced a steady decline in passengeractivity in the following years as a result of the recession. Since then, passengeractivity at SFO has recovered and the Airport served a record 50 MAP in 2015.Implementation of projects under the Master Plan has continued. The sustainedincrease in passenger activity coupled with the execution of the Master Planprojects prompted the need to develop a new plan to accommodate futuregrowth at SFO. From late 2014 through early 2016, a draft Airport DevelopmentPlan (ADP) was prepared for SFO by Airport management, supported by theirconsultant team.The ADP sets forth a long-term plan to guide the development of the Airport asthe premier long-haul and international gateway of choice, providing the highestlevel of international and domestic guest service, and facilitating the economicgrowth of the San Francisco Bay Area. Building upon Ongoing Projects at SFO,the ADP defines recommended facility development that would accommodatelong-term demand at the Airport, forecast to reach 71.1 MAP.Based on growth trends and aviation demand forecasts for the Airport, aviationactivity demand at SFO is expected to grow to the maximum practical capacityof its airfield. While the ADP does not propose enhancements to airfield capacity,it does provide a plan for terminal, landside, and support facilities developmentto accommodate the passenger and vehicular traffic and other demands up toan ultimate growth level constrained by runway capacity.Industry evolution and the challenges associated with predicting the futuremust be considered in any planning effort. A successful plan establishes flexibledevelopment concepts based on historical events, considerations for change,and industry familiarity to guide Airport management toward a recommendedoutcome. The SFO ADP was prepared using this approach and accounts for thedynamic aviation industry by forecasting demand over time to establish a planfor incremental facility expansion.Since improvement needs at SFO are fluid, the ADP assessment incorporates(1) the Master Plan and other projects currently being implemented, (2) projectsunder consideration to meet current and near-term requirements, and (3) projectsto meet long-term needs. The basis of ADP planning analyses was developedwith the flexibility to adapt to aviation activity demand materializing sooneror later than forecast. The timing of some projects may change; however, therecommendations for future projects remain relevant.1 - 1 IntroductionPractical decisions concerning service levels, market competition, feasibility, andfinances must be made before a project evolves from analysis to a constructioncommitment. The ADP implementation and feasibility analyses identify criticaldecision points into the execution timeline to help determine when to advanceor defer facility implementation. This flexibility enables the ADP to serve as aroadmap to the future, assisting Airport stakeholders, management, and governingorganizations to respond pragmatically as air service grows and Airport facilitiesmust expand to accommodate that growth.In the mid-1960s, a large maintenance base and a new airmail facility as wellas parking garage space, were developed for Pan American World Airways. A1973 comprehensive master plan laid out a strategy for continued growth atthe Airport. The North Terminal (later called Terminal 3) was built in 1979, withBoarding Area (B/A) E added in 1981. Terminal 2 was significantly renovated in1983, and Terminal 1 and other Airport areas were further modernized in 1988.With significant increases in passenger traffic expected, the Airport Commissionadopted a new Master Plan in 1992.This chapter provides an overview of the history of SFO; the current planningcontext; ADP methodology, process, and structure; and the goals, objectives,and planning principles.1992 Master Plan to Present Day1.2 AIRPORT HISTORYMills Field to the Jet AgeIn 1927, the Airport began as Mills Field on land leased by CCSF from the estateof Ogden Mills. The land was soon purchased by CCSF, which sought to attractnew commercial airline service to the Airport. The period of rapid growth andtechnological development that followed led CCSF to undertake several majorAirport construction projects throughout the 1930s. Within 10 years, the mainrunway had been lengthened to 3,000 feet, the runway and taxiway areas wererepaved extensively, lighting and electrical infrastructure were installed, and anew Airport Administration Building was constructed, which included a passengerterminal with a restaurant, a newsstand, ticketing counters, and a waiting area.By the mid-1940s, San Francisco Airport was serving more than one millionpassengers a year with an increasing number of passengers traveling to andfrom destinations overseas. Voters approved a 20 million bond issue in 1945 forinvestment in airport infrastructure, followed by another 10 million bond issuein 1949, as passenger activity continued growing rapidly. Several trans-Pacificroutes were established between San Francisco and the Philippines, Hong Kong,Macau, and Australia, leading SFO to become known as “San Francisco InternationalAirport.” The additional bond funds allowed for completion of a new CentralTerminal Building (later called Terminal 2) in 1954.The Master Plan was designed to address some of the capacity constraints thatconsistent growth at the Airport had tested and to accommodate expectedfuture growth. International traffic in particular had grown so quickly that a newInternational Terminal Building (ITB) was included as the centerpiece of the MasterPlan projects. Before the new terminal could be constructed, international trafficat the Airport more than doubled between 1987 and 1997. By 2000, the Airport’shistoric peak year, more than 41 million passengers were being processed at SFOannually. Delays had grown precipitously, and Airport facilities were stressed tothe maximum. The new ITB was completed and opened at the end of that year.Soon after the ITB opened, however, a sudden downturn in the Bay Area’s vitaltechnology sector and worldwide declines in air travel in the aftermath of theSeptember 11, 2001, terrorist attacks resulted in a steep decline in traffic at SFO.Terminal 2, the old international terminal vacated with the opening of the ITB,remained closed as additional gate capacity was not needed.In 2007, Virgin America was launched, and the airline chose SFO as its primaryhub, with headquarters in nearby Burlingame. That same year, JetBlue Airwaysintroduced new service and Southwest Airlines returned to the Airport. Thesenew domestic services, as well as steady increases in international traffic, enabledSFO to maintain steady growth through the Great Recession of 2007–2009. Thisnew traffic also served as the impetus for the renovation of Terminal 2. The projectwas completed and Terminal 2 reopened in April 2011.In recent years, SFO has continued to attract service from new and incumbentairlines. This trend signals a strong future for the Airport as it continues to enhanceservice and adapt to the needs of commercial aviation.The dawn of the jet age, ushered in by the launch of the Boeing 707, demandedadditional improvements to accommodate the new aircraft. In 1959, the Airportinstalled the first jet bridges in the United States, allowing passengers to boardaircraft directly from the terminal. When the new South Terminal (later calledTerminal 1) opened in 1963, SFO was one of the five busiest airports in the UnitedStates, and had become a net revenue generator for CCSF.SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

1.2 Airport HistoryAirport History1992Mul level parkingstructure opened5019651963Interna onal TerminalBuilding openedUpdated Master Plan adopted198150 MAP201540 MAP40Million Annual Passengers2000South Terminal dedicated(now Terminal 1)North Terminalcompleted(now Terminal 3)196230Century Pacific Lines beginsservice19311958Structure of new AirportTraffic Control Towercompleted, an cipated tobe opera onal in 2016201130 MAP1971San Francisco Airport ranked as thefourth busiest in the United StatesNorth Terminalconstruc onbegins(now Terminal 3)New Terminal 2opened201520 MAP201994New Interna onal Terminal Buildingdedicated (now Terminal 2)Terminal 3 East renova onscompletedGroundbreaking forUpdated Master Planprogram1935201410 MAP10CIty and County of SanFrancisco leases 150acres from the MillsEstate for use as an “AirPort”19271920AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN – DRAFT FINALFirst airfield expansion completedextending Runway C to 3,000 feetNew Airport Master Planadopted1 MAP19301940195019601970198019731990Terminal 3 BoardingArea E renova ons completed200020102020Introduction 1 - 21

11.3 CURRENT PLANNING CONTEXT1.3 CURRENT PLANNING CONTEXTSFO is a large hub airport located in San Mateo County, California, 13 milessouth of downtown San Francisco. The Airport, owned by CCSF, is managed andoperated by the San Francisco Airport Commission (Airport Commission). SFOis bordered by the San Francisco Bay to the east and U.S. Highway 101 (U.S. 101)to the west. The Airport is surrounded by the cities of Millbrae and Burlingameto the south, San Bruno to the west, and South San Francisco to the north. SFO isthe seventh busiest airport in the United States1 and a prominent air service linkbetween North American cities as well as a major gateway to Europe and Asia.Since the adoption of the Master Plan in 1992, SFO has added more than 5 millionsquare feet of terminal and landside improvements, most notably the ITB, twointernational boarding areas, the AirTrain automated people mover (APM) system,and a consolidated rental car facility. In 2011, the renovation of Terminal 2 set anew standard in passenger terminal design and environmental sustainability. TheAirport completed construction of Boarding Area E in 2014 and the eastern frontage area of Terminal 3 in 2015. Additionally, operational adjustments have beenmade to accommodate new, larger aircraft types, such as the Airbus A380. As ofearly 2016, design is underway for the redevelopment of Terminal 1 and planningis under way for redevelopment of the western frontage area of Terminal 3. Nowthat the 1992 Master Plan recommendations have been almost fully implemented,it is time to plan for the next 20-year period of growth and expansion.SFO operates under a number of significant constraints that must be consideredunder the long-term planning effort. First and foremost among these constraintsis the lack of available vacant land for new development or expansion of Airportfacilities.1The existing runway system constrains the number of aircraft operations that theAirport can ultimately accommodate. SFO’s runway capacity is based on the runwaygeometry established after completion of the Runway Safety Area ImprovementProgram in 2014. The ADP is designed with the assumption that SFO’s runwaygeometry will remain unchanged through the planning horizon, and thereforedoes not propose runway expansion or reconfiguration. However, new airspaceprocedures and control methods related to the Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) next-generation (NextGen) program and other technologies will influenceairfield capacity and were considered in the forecasts of aviation demand.SFO regional Context§Albany 580Berkeley§ Orinda80þ} ·241 01 § 980§ 80The commitment by Airport management to maintain a stable cost per enplanedpassenger necessitates a measured approach to the issuance of new bond debt.Furthermore, many aging facilities are expected to reach the end of their lifecyclesduring the current planning period.Piedmontþ} § · 135801 01 AlamedaSanFranciscoThe ADP gives primary consideration to: (1) understanding the existing Airport andits ongoing expansion efforts, (2) long-term growth potential within a constrainedenvironment, (3) meeting the demands of sustained aviation activity growth, and(4) achieving the strategic goals established by Airport management.Oakland§ § 580880San Francisco BaySanLeandroDalyCityþ} ·1Pacifica1 01 § 238South SanFranciscoSan FranciscoInternational Airport§ San380BrunoMillbraeþ} ·92§ Burlingame 280FAA Passenger Boarding (Enplanement) and All-Cargo Data for U.S. Airports, 2014SanMateo§ 280FosterCity1 01 BelmontSanCarlosHalfMoon Bayþ} ·35RedwoodCityþ} ·82þ} ·Menlo 84Park EastPalo AltoSources: San Mateo County, U.S. Census Bureau, SFO Bureau of Planning and Environmental Affairs, 2016.1 - 3 IntroductionSAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

1.4 ADP METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS1.4 ADP METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS1.4.1 MethodologyDevelopment of the ADP consisted of a study process including a forecast offuture activity, inventory of existing conditions, analyses of facility requirements,development and evaluation of alternatives, and integration of selected plansinto a recommended implementation strategy.The ADP study team inventoried existing facilities and evaluated ongoing planningand design studies. Recognition and detailed investigation of ongoing construction activities at the Airport, including the SFO Capital Plan,2 established a viewof near-term development at the Airport, providing a baseline condition andallowing the ADP to maintain continuity with Ongoing Projects. The evaluationof ADP alternatives in concert with Airport goals and objectives strengthenedthat continuity by ensuring that ADP recommendations reflect the vision for SFO.In addition to the previously prepared and ongoing studies of various Airportfacilities, in 2014 the ADP study team initiated new studies focused on taxiwaysystem improvements, ITB redevelopment, baggage handling system (BHS)upgrades, ground access and parking projects, support facilities expansion, andutility system upgrades necessary to accommodate long-term Airport growth.Planning activities were coordinated to ensure continuity between elements ateach phase of the ADP study. The results of facility-specific planning efforts weresynthesized and refined to fit within the Airport-wide context.Coordination between Airport staff and stakeholders was essential to the development of the ADP. Working groups consisting of SFO management, airport planners,technical staff, and stakeholders were organized and consulted regularly duringeach phase of analysis. These working groups facilitated the exchange of ideas,established planning principles, identified priorities, and engaged stakeholdersin working toward a broad agreement on the need, scope, nature, and timing ofplanning solutions. Participation of the working groups strengthened the planningprocess by capitalizing on the expertise available to Airport management andshaping alternatives pragmatically to suit facility, operational, service, and business needs. Most important, planning solutions were evaluated against Airportgoals to ensure that the Airport vision is reflected in the ADP recommendations.Recognizing that actual demand often does not materialize as forecast, havingplan flexibility is critical. The componentized, phased nature of the ADP will enableSFO leadership to adjust project timelines accordingly. Decision points along theimplementation path for each project allow for reevaluation of the need for ortiming of a project based on demand and other factors. Some projects feature atiered approach in which later phases of the project may be deferred or acceleratedin response to developing demand. Other projects may be deferred, accelerated,or cancelled entirely. This flexibility allows Airport management to operate prudently without compromising operational performance, the guest experience,or financing capabilities. These decision points enable Airport management torespond with appropriate adjustments instead of continuing with previous plansthat may no longer be justified.The ADP is intended to be a living document that will guide future Airportdevelopment projects as needs evolve. To reflect the most current vision anddemand for Airport facilities, subsequent studies will examine elements of theADP in greater detail.A number of projects are currently in the environmental review, programming,design, or construction phase at the Airport. These projects were incorporatedinto the ADP to provide a complete picture of future development opportunities and constraints. The ADP document identifies these as Ongoing Projects.New projects that meet the Airport’s long-term needs have been identified asADP Projects and will require program-level environmental review prior to AirportCommission consideration and implementation.2  The Fiscal Year 15/16 SFO Capital Plan provides a summary of programmed project costs,project justification, alternatives to implementation, and fiscal impact to revenue for thenear-term (1-5 years) and mid-term (6-10 years), as applicable.AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN – DRAFT FINALIntroduction 1 - 41

11.4 ADP METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS1.4.2 Study ProcessAviation ActivityForecasts Forecast market-driven airservice growth Determine maximumpractical airfield capacity Develop constrainedInventory Assess capacity andcondition of existing facilitiesincluding:forecasts- Passenger- Cargo- Operations- Peak Period Define Planning ActivityLevels- Airspace- Airfield- Passenger Terminal- Ground Access- Parking- Air Cargo- General Aviation- Support Facilities- UtilitiesRequirements Incorporate current facilityimprovement projects Determine future facilityneedsAlternatives Define developmentalternatives to meet demand Evaluate alternatives againstcriteria Integrate recommendedalternatives Estimate project costRecommended ADP Prepare recommended ADP based on technicalrequirementsRefine ADP based onstakeholder feedbackImplementation Determine phasing ofOngoing and ADP Projects Define implementationdecision points Conduct financial planninganalysis Incorporate current facilityimprovements projects(Ongoing Projects)1.4.3 Document Structure1 - 5 IntroductionThe ADP is organized into seven chapters:Appendices include supplemental technical, procedural, and reference information:1.Introduction2.Aviation Activity Forecasts3.Inventory4.Requirements5.Alternatives Development and Evaluation6.Recommended Airport Development Plan7.ImplementationA.Acronyms and Glossary of TermsDocumentStructureUltimate Airport Capacity and Delay Simulation Modeling AnalysisB.Airport Development Plan Forecast FactorsC.Airfield Ongoing Projects AlternativesD.International Terminal Building Arrivals Level StudyE.International Terminal Building Main Terminal Departures Level and Boarding Areas A and G – Alternatives AnalysisF.Baggage Handling System StudyG.Support Facilities Preliminary and Intermediate Alternatives AnalysisH.AcknowledgmentsI.SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

1.5 GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND PLANNING PRINCIPLES1.5 GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND PLANNINGPRINCIPLESLong-Term Airport Development GoalsGoals and ObjectivesAirport management has identified overarching goals to improve and enhancesafety, the guest experience, the use of public transit, sustainability, technology,operational and organizational capacity, and economic stability at SFO. Thesegoals led to the tangible objectives that shape the specific ADP developmentalternatives. The potential development solutions were evaluated to determinehow they correlate to the overarching goals for SFO.The ADP will guide long-term facility development, policy decisions, and operational changes at the Airport by providing a framework for decision-making whileconsidering overarching goals. The ADP recommendations provide a strategy foraccommodating forecast aviation activity in a safe, cost-effective, operationallyefficient, environmentally conscious, and flexible manner.A new planning cycle has begun with the ADP. Development of the recommendedprojects will accommodate demand over approximately the next 20 years whilesupporting SFO strategic goals that are tailored to ensure long-term success.AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN – DRAFT FINALMaximize Airfield CapacityProvide the Highest Levelof International andDomestic Guest ServiceandBecome the #1 Long-Hauland InternationalGateway of ChoiceMaximize Gate Capacity, Geometry, and FlexibilityOptimize Lobby and Security Flows to MeetFuture Needs and Incorporate New TechnologyMaximize Shared-Use Facilities andBag Claim FlexibilityMaximize Transfer Connectivityfor Passengers and BaggageIntroduction 1 - 61

1Planning PrinciplesThe primary planning principle at any commercial service airport is to permitthe efficient flow of aircraft, passengers, and goods through the facility. Whenconsidering development projects, planners must prioritize competing demandsfor limited available space. At SFO, land available for development is constrainedby geography and surrounding development; therefore, it is crucial that vital landresources are reserved for aviation-related needs.Land at the Airport can be classified into categories based on its operationalpurpose and value:1. The Airport Operations Area (AOA), commonly referred to as the “airfield,” isthe highest-order land use category at any airport. For a land use or projectto be planned or designated within the AOA, it should have a function that isdirectly aviation-related. Examples of such aviation-related functions include,but are not limited to, runways, taxiways, cargo loading, passenger loading,aircraft fueling and maintenance, airfield security, and fire and rescue services.Typical Airport Land Use PrioritiesOff-AirportAirport Property LineLandside Airport FunctionsAccessRoads/RailTerminalAirport Operations Area(AOA)Aircraft Parking ApronAirfield2. A number of aviation support functions are required to be adjacent to theAOA and may include, but are not limited to, terminal areas, ground serviceequipment storage and maintenance, cargo warehousing, and parts storage.Runways, Taxiways, Cargo Operations, Passenger Boarding, Aircraft Fueling andMaintenance, Airfield Security, Emergency Response Facilities3. Functions that are relevant to airport activities but do not require directadjacency to the AOA include parking, ground transportation, catering,construction staging areas, and utilities. If space on Airport property is limited,some of these functions may be located off-Airport.Terminal Areas, Ground Service Equipment Storage and Maintenance, CargoWarehousing, Parts StorageThese land use designations are not always clearly defined, and exceptions arecommon. Strategic decisions may alter the priority of certain functions becauseof revenue generation or other benefits to Airport users. However, in planningfuture development at the Airport, it is important to keep these priorities in mindand ensure that the long-term vision for SFO is consistent with its mission toprovide for aircraft transporting passengers and cargo to and from local groundtransportation or other aircraft.Parking, Ground Transportation, Catering, Support, Construction Staging Areas, Utilities1 - 7 IntroductionRemote Parking, Rental Car Facilities, Catering, Warehousing, Support, UtilitiesSAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

SFO is a large hub airport located in San Mateo County, California, 13 miles south of downtown San Francisco. The Airport, owned by CCSF, is managed and operated by the San Francisco Airport Commission (Airport Commission). SFO is bordered by the San Francisco Bay to the east and U.S. Highway 101 (U.S. 101) to the west.