Environment, Development and Sustainability (2021) -01425-wInnovative management accounting practicesfor sustainability of manufacturing small and mediumenterprisesS. N. Nartey1 · H. M. van der Poll2Received: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published online: 23 April 2021 The Author(s) 2021AbstractThe environment in which manufacturing small and medium enterprises operate hasbecome very complex, and therefore manufacturing SME’s owners need to be aware of theimpact their decisions have on the environment and society. The aim of the research was toidentify which innovative management accounting practices can be integrated into manufacturing SMEs’ strategies to overcome the challenge of being blamed by stakeholders ascontributors to social and environmental problems. Published articles were sourced fromthe University of South Africa’s online library using keywords. A systematic literaturereview was employed to discover themes and concepts during secondary data gathering todetect traditional and innovative MAPs in management accounting literature all over theglobe. The qualitative data analysis and research software, Atlas.ti was used to synthesisethe data. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate the occurrence of words, phrases, themes,metaphors, and the construction of concepts in MAPs literature. During the analysis, seveninnovative MAPs (activity base costing/budgeting; product life cycle costing; total quality management; environmental costing; target costing; kaizen costing and value analysis)were identified. It is recommended that manufacturing SMEs integrate these innovativeMAPs into their strategies to impact their environmental, social, supply chain managementand recycling policies to promote operational efficiency to achieve sustainability. Furtherresearch to identify influencing factors; strategic procedures; and the environmental andsocial benefits of integrating these identified innovative MAPs into manufacturing SMEs toachieve sustainability, should be undertaken.Keywords Environment · Innovative management accounting practices · Manufacturing ·Small and medium enterprises · Social · Sustainability* H. M. van der [email protected]. N. [email protected] of Management Accounting, Unisa, Pretoria, South Africa2Graduate School of Business Leadership, Unisa, Midrand, South Africa1 Vol:.(1234567890)3

Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability 180091 IntroductionManufacturing controls the well-being and wealth of every economy; however, it alsodirectly or indirectly leads to the depletion of the ecosystem and burdens society (Bonvoisin et al., 2017). As a result, society today blames manufacturing enterprises as partlycausing global social and environmental problems (Capros et al., 2016). Therefore, highprofile multi-national enterprises are also experiencing pressure from stakeholders andbroader society to contribute towards environmental sustainability (Syakir et al., 2017;Wangombe, 2013). Jalaludin et al. (2011); Lucas et al. (2013) and Ntalamia (2017) arguethat for enterprises to mitigate this pressure from stakeholders, they may need to integrateManagement Accounting (MA) into their strategy to help reduce the pressure tarnishingtheir image in society. Nair and Nian (2017); and the Chartered Institute of ManagementAccountants (CIMA, 2014), describe MA as the process to assist with decision-making tocreate value and guarantee sustainable achievements. This is attained when the informationprovided and analysed allows enterprises to plan, implement and control their strategies.Furthermore, MA provides managers with information to make sound decisions (Dubihlela& Rundora, 2014; Matambele & van der Poll, 2017; Ratnatunga et al., 2015; Tilt, 2018).As a result, the number of enterprises that integrates MA as a practice to disclose theirimpacts through social and environmental activities in annual reports has increased substantially during the past few years (CIMA, 2014).However, research shows that manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)are mostly unwilling to integrate environmental strategies or accept voluntary strategiessuch as ISO14001 and ISO14004 (Mat et al., 2018; Tuczek et al., 2018). Despite theincreased number of studies on MAPs over the decades, little is known about innovativeMAPs’ integration effectiveness into SMEs’ strategies (Ahmad, 2017; López & Hiebl,2015; Shields & Shelleman, 2015). Furthermore, Volker (2015); and Nair and Nian (2017)argue that large enterprises are favoured for MA empirical research since they have theexpertise and capacity that promotes innovative MAPs’ integration. This may create challenges for the study of innovative MAPs in manufacturing SMEs. However, Lynch-Woodand Williamson (2014); and Volker (2015) argue that studies into SMEs may provide different data and settings on fundamental explanations and understanding of the practiceswithin the SMEs sector. They argue that SMEs might even provide less complex settings,which is not provided by large enterprises.According to the researchers, the literature review shows that little research was undertaken in an attempt to identify suitable innovative MAPs for manufacturing SMEs’ sustainability. Alkhajeh and Khalid (2018) argue that MAPs have an impact on SMEs performancethat may lead to increased productivity. According to Maziriri and Mapuranga (2017); andKefasi (2019), manufacturing SMEs in the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces, whichare industrial hubs in South Africa, uses traditional MAPs in costing, budgeting, performance evaluation, decision-making and strategic analysis. Furthermore, Ngibe and Bingwa(2020) identified that even though manufacturing SMEs’ managers are clearly aware of thestrategic impacts and benefits of integrating contemporary MAPs as an innovative strategyfor sustainability, due to economic challenges associated with its integration, they opt fortraditional MAPs. Bearing this in mind, the researchers sought to address the problem byidentifying innovative MAPs that can assist manufacturing SMEs to achieve environmentaland social sustainability. As a result, the following research question will be addressed:Which innovative MAPs can be integrated into manufacturing SMEs’ strategy toachieve environmental and social sustainability?13

18010S. N. Nartey, H. M. van der PollTo answer the research question above, the under listed sub-questions were dealt with:RSQ1: What are the traditional and innovative MAPs that manufacturing SMEs canintegrate into their strategy?RSQ2: Which innovative MAPs have environmental, social and sustainable development impacts on manufacturing SMEs’ decision-making?The main finding concludes that innovative MAPs can enable manufacturing SMEs toprotect the environment and society through integrating sound environmental; health andsafety; supply chain management and recycling polices that may enhance their operationalefficiency and subsequently promote their achievement of economic sustainability in thelong run. The research breaches the existing gap between theory and practice by identifying seven (7) innovative MAPs that manufacturing SMEs can integrate into their strategiesto achieve sustainability.The structure of this article is as follows: the background to the study is portrayed bydefining SMEs and their role in the economy, discussing management accounting practices(MAPs), management accounting change and environmental and social changes in MAPs.This is followed by the research methodology, data analysis and a discussion on the findings. Finally, the article concludes highlighting the findings, contributions, limitations andfurther research suggestions.2  Background2.1  Definition and the role of SME’s in the economySMEs have no singular definition universally and are therefore, defined differently byvarious countries’ legislative frameworks. In South Africa, they are known as small andmedium enterprises (SMEs) or small businesses. The National Small Enterprise Act (Act2019) in South Africa defines an SME as a “separate and distinct business entity, togetherwith its branches or subsidiaries, if any, including cooperative enterprises, managed by oneowner or more, predominantly carried on in any sector or subsector of the economy” (Act2019:1). They employ less than 250 employees and have a turnover of less than R170 million. Although Australia has a number of SMEs and acknowledges their contribution to theeconomy, they do not have a uniform legislative definition (Commonwealth of Australia,2018). However, they do indicate that if it is a manufacturing enterprise, the enterpriseemploys less than 100 employees. The European Commission (2015) defines an SME as anenterprise employing less than 250 employees, annual turnover less than Eur 50 million ora balance sheet total less than Eur 43 million. They also value SMEs as engines of growth.The US small Business Administration (SBA, 2013) introduces Small and Medium SizedManufacturers in the United States of America (USA) as those enterprises employing lessthan 500 employees and having less than 100 million sales.The development of SMEs is the first step towards economic development and industrialisation (Mat et al., 2018) and they are therefore an engine of growth through whicheconomic objectives are achieved (Ayub, 2018; Dubihlela & Rundora, 2014: 28; Matet al., 2018). SMEs contribute to a healthy economic sector through creating employmentopportunities; high production units; export growth; and the introduction of innovation andentrepreneurial skills (Mahembe et al., 2011: 14; Le et al., 2018). Therefore, governments13

Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability 18011all over the globe are initiating strategies to safeguard the development of a vibrant SMEsector to promote their sustainability (Olalekan & Jumoke, 2017). Hence, SMEs have comeunder the spotlight among management accountants and scholars all over the globe (Ayub,2018; Johnson & Schaltegger, 2016).2.2  Management accounting practices (MAPs)Technological advancement is causing complex change across the globe hence; enterprisesare susceptible to change (CIMA, 2014: 1; Neziraj & Shaqiri, 2018: 22). Currently, largeenterprises and SMEs are competing to be the most innovative in the twenty-first century.The idea of long-standing economic improvement is being challenged as both the capacityand speed of data delivery escalate (CIMA, 2014: 2; Neziraj & Shaqiri, 2018: 22). Mostimportantly, enterprises are doing more to react correctly to emerging risks and defendtheir created economic values when information is not abundant, difficult or demand complex technology to interpret (CIMA, 2014: 6; Matsoso & Benedict, 2014: 248; Neziraj& Shaqiri, 2018). Against this backdrop, MA is more relevant than ever and in general,is defined as a system that identifies, measures, evaluates, accumulates, analyses, prepares, and interprets data to assist management in decision-making to achieve the enterprise’s objectives (Ahmad & Leftesi, 2014; Radović-Marković & Vučeković, 2015: 186;Drury, 2018). Drury (2018) argues that MAPs deal with the provision of information toimprove the enterprise’s internal decision-making, performance and efficacy in the enterprise’s strategy. MAPs enable forward-looking internally and creates structured answers tounstructured problems, enables enterprises to gather information that ensure strategic decisions are reached and reported meritoriously (CIMA, 2014: 3; Neziraj & Shaqiri, 2018).Therefore, MAPs may be suitable to be integrated into manufacturing SMEs strategies tofacilitate effective decision-making towards sustainability.The need for MAPs to be integrated is that, MAPs create sustainable values throughsound decision-making by ensuring complete analysis of data to support SMEs to evaluate, plan, coordinate, and control the implementation of their strategies (CIMA, 2014: 5).Furthermore, MAPs facilitate the accessibility of appropriate and correct information toback enterprise’s activities for effective decision-making. Hence, SMEs’ sustainability andlong-term value will be created for stakeholders (CIMA, 2014: 6; Neziraj & Shaqiri, 2018).Rufino (2014) argues that the adoption of innovative MAPs by enterprises to counterenvironmental and social changes was stimulated by the global crises facing enterprises.MAPs are business practices, which may assist enterprises to create value with sustainabledevelopment through the technical skills of management accountants (Nuhu et al., 2016).Through training, management accountants develop special knowledge to uniquely placethem to contribute to enterprises’ sustainability (Prowle & Lucas, 2016). Innovative MAPsproduce evidence-based reports to solve management problems such as costing, risk andvalue analyses in enterprises’ strategy and provide data justification (CIMA, 2014; Sharma,2015). Amara and Benelifa (2017) argue that innovative MAPs harmonised the internaland external factors of enterprises. Furthermore, it also assists management accountantsto collect, evaluate and analyse available data and develop scenarios to project alternativeoutcomes that may benefit the enterprise’s objectives in the context of social and environmental factors (Namazi, 2013). This data flow is shown in Fig. 1.Figure 1 supports Rufino’s (2014); and Matambele and van der Poll’s, (2017) argument that MAPs are accounting practices that support management decision-making13

18012S. N. Nartey, H. M. van der PollFig. 1  Management accounting information flows. Source: CIMA (2014:6)internally based on economic, monetary and non-monetary data generation. Hence,MAPs assist decision-making which might promote manufacturing SMEs sustainability.2.3  Management accounting changeThe most important challenge confronting enterprises in this technology age is the process of acquiring the right mix of data to plan cost of production, quality and timerelated activities in enterprises (Matsoso & Benedict, 2014). According to Shah et al.(2011), traditional MAPs identified in RSQ1 (Fig. 3) is inadequate to provide the necessary information in this twenty-first century. They argue that traditional MAPs focuseson the past, are too narrow and mislead managers to plan, evaluate and control decisionmaking of enterprises in the emerging era when planning, evaluating and controlling.The reason being that these MAPs focus on expired information (reports on transactions that have already taken place and not what is expected). Moreover, Ramljak andRogošić (2012) argue that the emphasis of traditional MAPs also neglects the environmental issues where management decisions are taken and integrated into an enterprise’sstrategy as a major weakness in the 21st-century business contextualisation. Accordingto Amara and Benelifa (2017), many factors influence the change in MA within enterprises. They argue that environmental uncertainty, structures, size, activities, marketcompetition, technology, design, information complexity and strategies are drivers ofchange in enterprises. According to Ntalamia (2017), such changes may originate owingto diverse factors in the economic and cultural environment. As a result, some studies focus on changes in MAPs (Alleyne & Weekes-Marshall, 2011; Tuanmat & Smith,2011; Sunarni, 2013:616). Furthermore, IoDSA (2016:14) argues in the King IV reportthat the economic business environment has changed with the advent of fast-movingtechnology’s influence on the strategic activities of enterprises. Hence, manufacturingSMEs may need to change from traditional MAPs to innovative MAPs that may providethem with the necessary tools to compete effectively in the twenty-first century.The next section discusses the environmental and social MAPs changes.13

18013Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability 2.4  Environmental and social changes in management accounting practicesGlobal competition may be leading all enterprises towards reformed obligations, high levels of operational excellence and competitiveness (Dubihlela & Rundora, 2014:27; Smith,2015:76; Hamann et al., 2017). With economic instability, Annandale (2013:54) andHamann et al. (2017) enquired how SMEs can benefit from sustainability. To answer this,it is argued in this article that by integrating innovative MAPs into SMEs’ strategy, management would be able to identify environmental, social, and economic strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) during decision-making. Innovative MAPs as seenin enterprises in the twenty-first century involve environmental and social changes, emanating from enterprises’ change prompted by a new interest in practices relating to sustainability. This rise of innovative MAPs attracted the attention of various scholars (Ahmad,2017; Ahmad & Zabri, 2016; Azudin & Mansor, 2017; Bonvoisin et al., 2017; Maziriri &Mapuranga, 2017; Nair & Nian, 2017; Nuhu et al., 2016; Prowle & Lucas, 2016). Thesescholars have mainly been evaluating which MAPs such as costing, budgeting, planning,pricing and performance strategies in enterprises have changed to embrace environmentaland social issues (Cuzdriorean, 2017; Nair & Nian, 2017; Rufino, 2014; Uyar, 2010). Theirstudies identify the changes to comprise environmental strategies, health and safety strategies, legal regulations, inclusive total quality management (TQM), and sustainable development. Furthermore, the scholars argue that environmental strategic prospects are identified in the process of integrating, that is, environmental technology, energy conservationstrategy, products design, market packaging, and recycling. These activities demand innovative MAPs to evaluate strategic cost/benefits analysis, alternative cost savings scenario’s, full life-cycle costing (LCC), activity-based costing (ABC), reports on waste control,investment appraisals, management control and performance evaluation (Biernacki, 2015;Ntalamia, 2017; Nucci et al., 2016; Testa et al., 2011). For instance, innovative MAPsmight identify, measures and link environmental and social accounts to capital budgeting(Ndwiga & van der Poll, 2013; Nuhu et al., 2016). Therefore, innovative MAPs may beviewed as those practices that support internal management to perform their function ofplanning, controlling, decision-making, evaluation, and long-term strategic development.According to Biernacki (2015), innovative MAPs are not necessarily seeking theabolishment of traditional MAPs, however, it is more of the integration of environmental and social practices into MA. Hence, Namakonzi and Inanga (2014); and Maziriri andMapuranga (2017:20) argue that innovative MAPs are holistic concepts, which combineenvironmental and social activities and integrates them into enterprises’ strategy to assistenvironmental and social costs’ identification and the measurement of production efficiency. These main functions relate to human, social, economic, and environmental aspectswhich manufacturing SMEs should report (Arena & Azzane, 2012; Lemus, 2016).From an environmental viewpoint, SMEs are known to be irresponsible, owing totheir limited knowledge of MAPs (Ramli & Ismail, 2013; Mat et al., 2018, Ngibe &Bingwa, 2020). As a result, there may be a need for regulatory agencies to be careful when designing frameworks and regulations to ensure that such policies promotebenefits for SMEs’ involvement in environmental and social sustainability (Jamilet al., 2015; Nair & Nian, 2017:182). According to Vandayar (2015:54) and Smith(2015), corporate governance philosophies are not only responsible for the survivalof large enterprises; SMEs can also benefit from integrating such strategies that reinforce professional behaviour. Stubblefield et al. (2010) argue that the major reasonfor SMEs to adopt innovative MAPs is not the leading edge, however, it is since the13

18014S. N. Nartey, H. M. van der Pollplanet matters to them. As MAPs change to accommodate social and environmentalimpacts of enterprises in management accounting, manufacturing SMEs may standa chance to effectively protect the environment, which supports their existence toachieve sustainability through the integration of innovative MAPs.3  Research methodologyThe method employed in this research involved a systematic literature review. This is considered appropriate in order to address the research problem. Marshall and Rossman (2014)advocate that the researcher should firstly consider data analysis issues pertaining to theresearch and secondly, processes of analysing conceptual qualitative data begins at themoment data is collected and proceeds thereafter (Creswell, 2014). Hence, the researchersconsidered the research questions and decided to conduct a systematic literature review.The researchers opted to use desktop research as a tool to collect the necessary literatureto answer the questions. The Unisa Library was used to search for all the necessary frameworks, publications, and articles on MAPs, SMEs and theoretical frameworks globally.3.1  Data collection processDuring this data collection process 350 articles were identified using the followingkeywords: Innovative management accounting practices;Management accounting;Management accounting change;Environmental and social accounting change;Sustainability accounting;Sustainability management accounting;Innovative management technology;Environmental management accounting;Environmental management system; andSocial accounting.The researchers deemed it appropriate to adopt the philosophy of Creswell (2014), andWouters et al. (2016) to track subject concepts and data from a wide range of literaturethrough which the following articles were rejected: Articles that only mentioned MAPs briefly, however, the content was misaligned withthe scope of this research. Articles that mentioned MAPs, however, it was articles referred to in the reference list. Articles where MAPs were not mentioned at all (that is, the article pops up due to asearch term as a result of words in phraseology or at the end, or due to another language –connected context or the abbreviation of the MAPs however a different connotation). Articles which are antecedent of alternative articles with less data important to theresearch.13

Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability 18015 Articles that were an introduction to another article or merely constituted a brief systematic literature review or an abstract of successive articles.The screening identified 60 articles suitable for analyses. The conceptual data collection process requires an interactive stable movement of concepts and data, and related continuous procedures across all indications to regulate the level and scope evolved in data(Creswell, 2014). The following data collection processes were adopted: Mapping of data routes;Analysing and classifying the identified data;Recognising and coding of concepts;Deconstructing and sorting of concepts;Integrating and re-integrating concepts;Synthesising, and re-synthesising to make sense out of them all;Establishing credibility, transferability and conformability of concepts; andRe-thinking of the concepts and frameworks.3.2  Data analysisA thematic analysis was used in this qualitative study. This choice was justified by thearguments of the under-mentioned scholars. Bryman and Bell (2015) define thematic analysis as a method that analyses documents and scripts to enumerate content relating to prearranged groupings, methodical and in a replicable manner. The major practice of thematicanalyses comprises coding the collected data in order to identify a qualitative data set foranalyses (Cooper & Schindler, 2014). Furthermore, Saunders et al. (2016) propose three(3) main sources to derive names for coding: Using terms that appear in data; Actual terms used by study participants; and Terms used in existing literature.The thematic data were derived from existing literature. The researchers considered it asuitable approach to use a thematic analysis to understand the meaning and the content ofthe MAPs literature. The qualitative data coding and analyses software of Atlas.ti was usedto synthesise data from the identified MAPs literature.3.3  Trustworthiness of the studyBashir et al. (2008:38) argue that a paradigm is a worldview that bridge ontology, epistemology, axiology and the quality of a social study completed within a paradigm mustbe judged by its own paradigm’s terms. Centred on the perception of various constructedrealities, it is more vital for qualitative research to demonstrate that its findings are credible, transferable and conformable as follows: Credibility To certify the credibility, the researchers ensured that the literature used inthe research were predominantly from peer-reviewed published articles. Transferability To ensure transferability, the researcher compared MAPs literature fromdifferent settings and continents.13

18016S. N. Nartey, H. M. van der Poll Confirmability An audit trail was left when the researchers discussed the details of theprocess of data collection, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. Dependability Other researchers have enough information to replicate the research andobtain similar findings.4  Data analysisInnovative MAPs provide management with information for internal solutions. The problem is how to identify specific innovative MAPs that manufacturing SMEs can integrateinto their strategies to achieve sustainability. In this research, the researchers employedfigures and tables to make conclusions meaningful to communicate and answer the mainresearch question:Which innovative MAPs can be integrated into manufacturing SMEs’ strategy toachieve environmental and social sustainability?To answer the main research question, the research sub-questions (RSQ) were answerednext.RSQ1: What are the traditional and innovative MAPs that manufacturing SMEs canintegrate into their strategy?To answer RSQ1, the data analysis identified traditional and innovative MAPs generallyemployed by manufacturing SMEs as depicted in Fig. 2.The researchers have been able to identify MAPs from synthesised and reviewed articles and have categorised them into traditional and innovative MAPs as shown in Fig. 2 tosimplify understanding.RSQ2: 0Which innovative MAPs have environmental, social and sustainable development impacts on manufacturing SMEs’ decision-making?To answer RSQ2, the data analyses revealed that for manufacturing SMEs to cope withchanges in time and modern technology, strategies have to be integrated with MAPs thatprovide management with all-round information to deal with enterprises’ environmentaland social impacts (Ghorbel, 2016), since innovative MAPs relate to providing solutionsto management internally (Nuhu et al., 2016). Managing environmental impacts of enterprises involves the control of environmental and social effects of enterprises’ actions andtheir effects on the ecosystem (ISO14004, 2016; Bebbington & Unerman, 2018). Ntalamia(2017:6) argues that to avoid manufacturing SMEs incurring high environmental and socialcosts, they may need to integrate innovative MAPs to reduce such costs. Though manyinnovative MAPs were identified in Fig. 3, the study considers innovative MAPs that maypromote manufacturing SMEs’ sustainability as MAPs which may impact the decisionmaking of SMEs regarding the environment, society and sustainable development. Hence,the innovative MAPs for sustainability are MAPs that can impact decision-making on thethree (3) footprints of manufacturing SMEs’ strategies as presented in Fig. 3.13

18017Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTINGTRADITIONAL MAPsCos ng Variance AnalysisCapital Budge ngAc vity Budge ngMaster Budge ngZero-Based Budge ngCash FlowPerformance Cos ng Standard Cos ngRelevant Cos ngAc vity Based Cos ngAbsorp on Cos ngVariable Cos ngProcess Cos ngJoint Cos ngBy-Product Cos ngJob Cos ngBudge ng INNOVATIVE MAPsInternal Rate of ReturnEconomic Value AddedCapital InvestmentAppraisal MethodsCost of QualityProduct Life Cycle Cos ngTarget Cos ngKaizen Cos ngMaterial Flow Cos ngEnvironmental CostManagementBudge ng Ac vity Based Budge ngEs ma on and Incremental CostBudge ngTarget Cost Budge ngMaterial Flow Budge ngPerformance BenchmarkingValue Chain AnalysisProduct Profitability AnalysisCustomer Product AnalysisEconomic Value AnalysisDecision-MakingDecision-Making Cost-Value-Profit AnalysisMargin of SafetyMul -Product AnalysisPrice Decision MakingTotal Quality ManagementBack Flush AnalysisAc vity Based ManagementRelevant Cos ngStrategic AnalysisStrategic Analysis Probability AnalysisRisk and UncertaintyCapital Investment AnalysisStakeholder Value AnalysisBalanced Score CardValue AnalysisFunc onal AnalysisMaterial Flow AnalysisFig. 2  Traditional and innovative MAPs (Authors’ own)13

S. N. Nartey, H. M. van der Poll18018INNOVATIVE MAPsEnvironmental impactsSocial impactsSustainable developmentimpacts ABC/B ABC/B ABC/B PLCC PLCC PLCC TQM TQM TQM EC EC EC TC TC TC KC KC KC VA/VE VA/VE VA/VEFig. 3  Sustainability MAPs (Authors’ own)In Fig. 3 the data analysis has identified seven (7) innovative MAPs which cutacross all three (3) footprints, namely: Activity base costing/budgeting (ABC/B)Product lifecycle costing (PLCC)Total quality management (TQM)Environmental costing (EC)Target costing (TC)Kaizen costing (KC)Value analysis (VA)These seven (7) innovative MAPs will be discussed in the findings section.5  FindingsTo conclude this research, the innovative MAPs identified from the data analyseswhich may assist manufacturing SMEs to protect the environment and society whenintegrated into their strategies to achieve sustainability are therefore discussed next.13

Innovative management accounting practices for sustainability 180195.1  Activity‑ba

The environment in which manufacturing small and medium enterprises operate has become very complex, and therefore manufacturing SME's owners need to be aware of the impact their decisions have on the environment and society. The aim of the research was to identify which innovative management accounting practices can be integrated into manu-