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Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRAOperator’s ManualCopyright 2012–2019 Gamry Instruments, Inc.Revision 6.3January 24, 2019988-00014i

If You Have ProblemsPlease visit our service and support page at www.gamry.com/service-support/. This page contains informationon installation, software updates, and training. It also contains links to the latest available documentation. If youare unable to locate the information you need from our website, you can contact us via email using the linkprovided on our website. Alternatively, you can contact us one of the following ne(215) 682-9330 9:00 AM 5:00 PM US Eastern Standard Time(877) 367-4267 Toll-free US & Canada OnlyPlease have your instrument model and serial numbers available, as well as any applicable software andfirmware revisions.If you have problems in installation or use of a system containing a Reference 3000, please call from a phonenext to your computer, where you can type and read the screen while talking to us.We will be happy to provide a reasonable level of free support for registered users of the Reference 3000Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA. Reasonable support includes telephone assistance covering the normalinstallation, use and simple customization of a computerized system containing a Reference 3000 connected toa Windows 7 or higher computer.A service contract that extends both the hardware warranty and software update period is available at anadditional charge. Software updates do not include software enhancements offered to our customers atadditional cost.Enhancements to the Reference 3000 and Gamry’s standard applications software that require significantengineering time on our part can be performed on a contract basis. Contact us with your requirements.ii

Limited WarrantyGamry Instruments, Inc. warrants to the original user of this product that it shall be free of defects resulting fromfaulty manufacture of the product or its components for a period of two years from the original shipment dateof your purchase.Gamry Instruments, Inc. makes no warranties regarding either the satisfactory performance of the Reference3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA including the software provided with this product or the fitness of theproduct for any particular purpose. The remedy for breach of this Limited Warranty shall be limited solely torepair or replacement, as determined by Gamry Instruments, Inc., and shall not include other damages.Gamry Instruments, Inc. reserves the right to make revisions to the system at any time without incurring anyobligation to install same on systems previously purchased. All system specifications are subject to changewithout notice.There are no warranties which extend beyond the description herein. This warranty is in lieu of, andexcludes any and all other warranties or representations, expressed, implied or statutory, includingmerchantability and fitness, as well as any and all other obligations or liabilities of Gamry Instruments,Inc; including but not limited to, special or consequential damages.This Limited Warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may have others, which vary from state to state.Some states do not allow for the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages.No person, firm or corporation is authorized to assume for Gamry Instruments, Inc., any additional obligation orliability not expressly provided herein except in writing duly executed by an officer of Gamry Instruments, Inc.iii

DisclaimersGamry Instruments, Inc. cannot guarantee that the Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA will work withall computer systems, operating systems, or third-party software applications hardware/software.The information in this manual has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate as of the time ofprinting. However, Gamry Instruments, Inc. assumes no responsibility for errors that might appear.CopyrightsReference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA Operator’s Manual copyright 2008 2019, GamryInstruments, Inc., all rights reserved.Gamry Framework copyright 1989 2019, Gamry Instruments, Inc., all rights reserved.Reference 3000 , Reference 600 , Interface 1000 , ECM8 , Series G , Gamry Framework , and Gamry are trademarks of Gamry Instruments, Inc.No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form without the prior written consent of GamryInstruments, Inc.iv

Chapter 1: Safety ConsiderationsTable of ContentsChapter 1: Safety Considerations . 1Inspection . 1Product Safety . 1AC Mains Connection to the Power Brick . 2Grounding in the Reference 3000 . 2Operation with Earth-Grounded Cells and Auxiliary Apparatus . 3Temperature and Ventilation . 4Defects and Abnormal Stresses . 4Environmental Limits . 5Cleaning . 5Service . 5RFI Warning . 5Electrical Transient Sensitivity . 6CE Compliance . 6RoHS Compliance . 6Chapter 2: Introduction . 7About this Manual . 7About the Reference 3000 . 7About the Auxiliary Electrometer Option . 8Notational Conventions . 8Chapter 3: Instrument Circuitry . 9Reference 3000 Schematic/Block Diagrams . 9Chapter 4: Installation . 19Initial Visual Inspection . 20Physical Location . 20Computer Requirements . 20Quick-start Guide for System Installation . 21Software Installation. 21Reboot your Computer after Software Installation . 21Power Cord and Power Connection . 22Power-up Test . 23USB Cables . 23Front Panel USB LED . 23First-time Device Installation in Windows . 24Running the Framework. 24Framework Device Status Bar . 24Gamry Instrument Manager . 25Firmware Update . 27Chapter 5: Calibration . 29Introduction . 29DC and AC Calibration . 29Low I Range DC Calibration. 30Cable Calibration . 31Chapter 6: Cell Connections . 35Cell Cable Overview . 35Fuses in the Cell Cable. 35Normal Cell Connections . 35ZRA Mode Cell Connections . 37Stack Mode Cell Connections . 38Membrane Cell Connections . 38

Chapter 1: Safety ConsiderationsFuses in the Cell Cable. 39Chapter 7: Panel Indicators and Connectors . 45Front Panel . 45Rear Panel . 50Chapter 8: Auxiliary Electrometer Option . 57Overview . 57AC Performance and CMRR . 57Experiments . 58Connections Using Standard Cables . 58Connections Using Custom Cables . 59AE Specifications . 59Chapter 9: Stability in Potentiostat Mode . 61Capacitive Cells and Stability . 61Improving Potentiostat Stability . 61Chapter 10: Measurement of Small-current Signals . 64Overview . 64Description of the Problem . 65Measurement System Model and Physical Limitations . 65Hints for System and Cell Design . 69Chapter 11: EIS Measurement of Small Impedances . 73Overview . 73Why Galvanostatic Mode? . 73DC Errors and Four-terminal Measurements . 73What is Mutual Inductance? . 74How Should You Hook Up Your Cell? . 76Appendix A: Reference 3000 Specifications . 77Appendix B: Reference 3000 Cell Connectors . 83Appendix C: Misc. I/O Connector . 85Appendix D: Auxiliary A/D Input Characteristics . 87Overview . 87Jumper Identification . 87Input Impedance Selection . 88Bandwidth Selection . 88Aux A/D Specifications . 88Function Call to Set the Aux A/D BNC Characteristics . 88Appendix E: Auxiliary Electrometer Specifications. 89DC Voltage Measurement . 89Input Impedance . 89Common Mode Rejection. 89Crosstalk. 89Other AC Specifications . 89Appendix F: Power LED Blink Codes. 91Appendix G: CE Certificate . 93Declaration of Conformity . 93Certificate of Conformance . 94Comprehensive Index . 95

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--InspectionChapter 1: Safety ConsiderationsYour Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA has been supplied in a safe condition. This chapter of theReference 3000 Operator’s Manual contains some information and warnings that you must follow to insurecontinued safe operation of the Reference 3000.The safety information in this chapter applies to both the Reference 3000 and the Reference 3000 equippedwith its AE Auxiliary Electrometer.InspectionWhen you receive your Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA, inspect it for evidence of shippingdamage. If you note any damage, please notify Gamry Instruments Inc. and the shipping carrier immediately.Save the shipping container for possible inspection by the carrier.Warning: A Reference 3000 damaged in shipment can be a safety hazard. Do not operatedamaged apparatus until a qualified service technician has verified its safety. Tag a damaged Reference3000 to indicate that it could be a safety hazard.Product SafetyThe Reference 3000 has been designed, tested and certified to meet the requirements of an internationalstandard, EN 61010, Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratoryuse. As defined in this standard, it is a Category II apparatus, with any "hazardous live voltages" protected by“reinforced insulation”.The Reference 3000 contains a limited amount of internal circuitry that operate at “hazardous live” voltages asdefined in EN 61010 (the standard mentioned above). “Reinforced insulation” (again defined in EN 61010) isused to reduce the risk of electrical shock because of this “hazardous live” voltage.The majority of the Reference 3000’s circuitry does not contain voltages higher than 42 V DC. As ageneralization, input and output voltages in the Reference 3000 are limited to 36 V. This voltage level isconsidered safe.The “AC Adapter” supplied with the Reference 3000 is certified under EN 60950. The AC Adapter converts theAC mains voltage to 24 V DC, which is used to power the Reference 3000.Always use the AC adapter (power brick) supplied with your Reference 3000 to supply DC power to theinstrument.Caution: Do not use a DC power source other than the AC adapter model provided withyour Reference 3000. Other replacements may void the performance and/or safety characteristics of theReference 3000.1

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--AC Mains Connection to the Power BrickAC Mains Connection to the Power BrickThe Reference 3000 does not connect directly to an AC Mains supply. Instead, the mains are connected to thedesktop AC adapter (power brick), which outputs 24 V DC, which in turn powers the Reference 3000.The Reference 3000’s AC Adapter is rated for operation from 100 to 240 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz.It should therefore be useful throughout the world.The Reference 3000 is normally provided with an AC line cord suitable for your location. This AC line cordconnects the AC mains to the AC power adapter. If your Reference 3000 has been provided without an AC linecord, or a cord that is not compatible with your local AC mains socket, obtain a line cord certified for use inyour country. Contact your local Gamry Representative or e-mail to [email protected] if you areuncertain what AC line cord to use.Grounding in the Reference 3000The circuitry and the metal case of the Reference 3000 are not connected to an earth ground. If they wereconnected to earth ground, it would compromise the Reference 3000’s ability to make measurements inelectrochemical cells that contain earth grounded conductors. A few examples of such cells include autoclaves,metallographic stress apparatus, chemical storage tanks, and most large fuel-cell stacks.Most electrochemical cells are isolated from earth ground, so isolation of the Reference 3000 from earth is notrequired. In these cases, connection of the Reference 3000 chassis to an earth ground may lower noise seen inelectrochemical tests. A Chassis Ground binding post on the rear panel of the Reference 3000 makes for easyimplementation of this connection. Simply run a wire from this binding post to a suitable source of earthground. A black 1.2-meter wire is provided with the Reference 3000 to ease this connection.Sources of earth ground include Most metal water pipes, The chassis of most electronic apparatus (which are generally earth-grounded), and The protective ground terminal of an AC mains power plug.We recommend that you discuss grounding with an electrical or electronics professional prior to makingthis earth-ground connection.Note this connection of the Reference 3000 to an earth ground is not a “Protective Earth Ground” as defined inEN 61010. The Reference 3000 is safe in the absence of this connection.This binding post is not intended for any use other than connecting the Reference 3000 to an earth ground toimprove shielding against noise. Connecting this binding post to a hazardous voltage can create a significantsafety hazard.2

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--Operation with Earth-Grounded Cells and Auxiliary ApparatusWarning: Do not connect the chassis ground binding post to any voltage other thanearth ground. An improper connection can create a safety hazard, which could result in personal injury ordeath.An earth ground connection can cause problems when testing batteries, fuel cells, or capacitors. Many of thesedevices can source huge currents, often tens or hundreds of amperes. If the Reference 3000 chassis is earthgrounded, and another location in the stack is accidentally (or intentionally) connected to earth ground, aportion of the stack is shorted through the Reference 3000’s cell cable. Very large current flows when thisoccurs. Fuses in the cell cable will open up to prevent damage to the instrument. When this happens, the failedfuses must be replaced before the instrument can be used again. The fuses in the cell cable are not essential foroperator safety. A section in Chapter Error! Reference source not found. describes the fuses and theirreplacement in detail.The fuses in the Reference 3000 cell cable do not protect against a safety hazard. They areneeded to prevent damage to the instrument if it is improperly connected.Operation with Earth-Grounded Cells and Auxiliary ApparatusAs described above, the Reference 3000 circuitry is isolated from earth ground, allowing it to makemeasurements on cells that include an earth ground. This ground isolation is often called floating operation.Cells with earth ground include many autoclaves, pipelines and storage tanks, and many fuel-cell systems.Connection of the Reference 3000 to auxiliary apparatus will often earth-ground the Reference 3000,destroying its ability to float and make measurements on earth-grounded cells. Connection of the Monitor BNCsto an oscilloscope is an example where the instrument is earthed.The User I/O connector can be connected to earth-grounded apparatus without earth-grounding the Reference3000, if the cable connections are done carefully. The metal shell on the Reference 3000 User I/O Connectoris connected to the instrument’s chassis, which is a floating ground. In a system that needs isolation from earthground, the shield of a User I/O cable must not connect the D-connector’s metal shell to earth ground.Refetrence all User I/O signals to pin 6 of the D-connector, which is isolated ground on the Reference 3000.Caution: Floating operation of the Reference 3000 can be compromised by impropercables to your I/O Connector. We do not recommend use of standard 15-pin shielded cables with thisconnector. Custom cables with the shield connected to pin 6 of the D-connector are preferred.3

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--Temperature and VentilationWarning: Do not connect the chassis ground binding post to any voltage other thanearth ground. An improper connection can create a safety hazard, which could result in personal injury ordeath.The Reference 3000 contains surge suppressors that limit the voltage difference between the Reference 3000’schassis ground and earth ground to about 40 V. These surge suppressors are not part of the safety mechanismsin the Reference 3000. Instead they are present to limit the possibility of improper instrument operation orinstrument damage caused by electrostatic discharge (static electricity) and other surge events such as lightning.Temperature and VentilationYour Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA was designed for indoor use at ambient temperaturesbetween 0 C and 45 C.The Reference 3000 uses forced air-cooling to keep its electronic components within their recommendedoperating temperature range. Three fans on the rear panel of the Reference 3000 draw air into the chassis. Theair exits from slots located on the sides of the chassis near the front panel.Caution: Do not block the airflow into or out of the Reference 3000 chassis. While thecircuitry should shut down before it is damaged by excessive heat, the Reference 3000 enclosure maybecome uncomfortably hot to the touch if insufficient air flows through the chassis. Running the Reference3000 without adequate cooling could shorten the time to failure of some of the circuitry.Be careful when operating the Reference 3000 in an enclosed space (such as an enclosed relay rack or NEMAenclosure). The temperature within the enclosure must not exceed 45 C. You may need to provide ventilationholes or even forced air-cooling for the enclosed space if you determine that there is an excessive temperaturerise within the space.Defects and Abnormal StressesTreat your Reference 3000 as potentially hazardous if any of the following is true of the unit: It shows visible damage,It does not operate properly,It has been stored for a long period of time under unfavorable conditions,It has been dropped or subjected to severe transport stress,It has been subjected to environmental stress (corrosive atmosphere, fire, etc.).Do not use your Reference 3000 or any other apparatus if you think it could be hazardous. Have it checked byqualified service personnel.4

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--Environmental LimitsEnvironmental LimitsThere are environmental limit conditions on the storage, shipping and operation of this equipment. TheReference 3000 is not designed for outdoor use.StorageAmbient Temperature 40 C to 75 CRelative HumidityMaximum 90% non-condensingShippingSame as storage plusAccelerationMaximum 30 GAmbient TemperatureRelative Humidity0 C to 45 CMaximum 90% non-condensingOperationWarning: The Reference 3000 is not designed for operation in conditions where liquidwater may enter the chassis, or water vapor may condense within the chassis. Operation of a Reference3000 that has water within the chassis can create a safety hazard, which could result in personal injury ordeath.CleaningDisconnect the Reference 3000 from all power sources prior to cleaning.Use a cloth lightly dampened with either clean water or water containing a mild detergent to clean the outsideof the Reference 3000 enclosure. Alternatively, you can use isopropyl alcohol. Do not use a wet rag or allowfluid to enter the Reference 3000 enclosure. Do not immerse the Reference 3000 in any type of cleaning fluid(including water). Do not use any abrasive cleaners.ServiceYour Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA has no user-serviceable parts inside. Refer all service to aqualified service technician.Warning: Never operate the Reference 3000 with any cover or panel on the chassisopen. Dangerous voltages may be present at several points within the Reference 3000 chassis, including PCboard traces. Always remove the power connection before opening the Reference 3000 case.RFI WarningYour Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy.The radiated levels are low enough that the Reference 3000 should not create an interference problem in mostindustrial laboratory environments.The Reference 3000 has been tested for both radiated and conducted RF interference, and has been found tobe in compliance with FCC Part 18 and EN 61326:1998—Electrical equipment for measurement, control, andlaboratory use— EMC Requirements.5

Chapter 1: Safety Considerations--Electrical Transient SensitivityElectrical Transient SensitivityYour Reference 3000 Potentiostat/Galvanostat/ZRA was designed to offer reasonable immunity from electricaltransients, including transients on the incoming AC Mains supply and Electrostatic Discharge. It has been testedfor compliance with EN 61326:1998—Electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use—EMC Requirements describing acceptable limits for Electrical Transient susceptibility in Laboratory Testequipment. The Reference 3000 is not rated for continuous use when subject to ESD events. It should suffer nopermanent damage when subject to the standard ESD events defined in EN61326, but may cease normaloperation until it is powered down and restarted.In severe cases, the Reference 3000 could malfunction as a result of electrical transients such as a staticdischarge. If you are having problems in this regard, the following steps may help:If the problem is static electricity (sparks are apparent when you touch the Reference 3000 or its cables): Placing your Reference 3000 on a static control work surface may help. Sta

The majority of the Reference 3000's circuitry does not contain voltages higher than 42 V DC. As a generalization, input and output voltages in the Reference 3000 are limited to 36 V. This voltage level is considered safe. The "AC Adapter" supplied with the Reference 3000 is certified under EN 60950.