Transcription

U.S. POLAR PROGRAMS

OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS 349,730,000The FY 2005 Budget Request for the Office of Polar Programs Activity (OPP) is 349.73 million, anincrease of 7.58 million, or 2.2 percent, over the FY 2004 Estimate of 342.15 million.Office of Polar Programs Funding(Dollars in Millions)FY 2003Actual255.4168.55 323.96U.S. Polar Reseach ProgramsU.S. Antarctic Logistical SupportTotal, OPPFY 2004Estimate274.0868.07 342.15FY 2005Request281.6668.07 349.73Change overFY 2004Amount Percent7.582.8%0.000.0% 7.582.2%Totals may not add due to rounding.Polar regions are key elements and possible drivers of the global climate system. They are also premiernatural laboratories for a variety of fundamental phenomena that cannot be studied elsewhere.Recognizing the importance of polar regions and the benefits that can accrue from increased multinational effort in these areas, 2007 has been declared the International Polar Year (IPY) by a number ofinternational research organizations. The FY 2005 Request positions the U.S. to play a leading role inthis broad international effort, and OPP funds most of the polar research NSF supports.RELEVANCEPolar research addresses the solid earth, glacial and sea ice, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, the oceans,atmosphere and the universe. Key OPP support will broaden and deepen the fundamental observations ofArctic and Antarctic systems, including land, ice, atmosphere, ocean, and social/human systems, as wellas natural records of those systems, in order to understand the components, interrelationships, and overallfunctioning of these systems. Increased observations, analysis and research on polar systems is criticalfor understanding global climate phenomena and will have ready applicability to Arctic residents, manyof whom are currently experiencing a changing natural environment. OPP-sponsored research in polarregions also accesses disciplinary phenomena that cannot be studied as effectively elsewhere. The studyof such phenomena in polar regions is changing the forefront of research in many fields of study.OPP Subactivity Funding(Dollars in Millions) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0FY95FY96FY97FY98FY99U.S. Pola r Research ProgramsFY00FY01FY02FY03FY04FY05U.S. Antarctic Logistical Support325

Office of Polar ProgramsSTRATEGIC GOALSFour strategic goals guide OPP activities: FY 2005 OPP Strategic GoalsPEOPLE: OPP will place increased emphasis onimproving the quality of education for youngscientists, with particular focus on multidisciplinaryresearch and on research in emerging areas. OPPfunded activity will provide information important forpublic policy decisions on a variety of issues. Inaddition, NSF will build on the interest of youngstudents in Antarctica and the Arctic to provideeducational opportunities and increase interest in mathand science.OE 3.8M1%People 5.6M2%Ideas 86.3M24%Tools 254.2M73% IDEAS: Advancement of knowledge in all areas ofscience where the necessary research can best be donein polar regions, including support for work in thephysical, life, and social sciences, both on adisciplinary and multi-disciplinary basis. TOOLS: Operations, maintenance, and enhancement of the infrastructure required for the conduct ofpolar research and development or state-of-the art tools that will enable such research in remote orotherwise inaccessible regions of the Arctic and Antarctic. ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE: Organizational Excellence provides for administrativeactivities necessary to enable NSF to achieve its mission and goals. These investments includesupport for Intergovernmental Personnel Act appointments and for contractors performingadministrative functions. A substantial fraction of OPP’s science support infrastructure is operatedand maintained by private contractors and OPP will continue to evaluate and adopt best practices inits oversight and implementation.Funding by Strategic Goal: Summary(Dollars in Millions)PeopleIdeasToolsOETotal, OPP326FY 2003Actual5.9474.42240.273.33 323.96FY 2004Estimate5.2684.19248.953.75 342.15FY 2005Request5.5686.27254.153.75 349.73Change overFY 2004AmountPercent0.305.7%2.082.5%5.202.1%0.000.0% 7.582.2%

FY 2005 Budget Request to CongressPEOPLE ( 300,000, for a total of 5.56 million)OPP People Investments(Dollars in Millions)FY al, OPPFY 2004EstimateFY 2005RequestChange overFY .140.300.000.007.6%0.0%0.0% 4.78 3.94 4.24 0.307.6%Totals may not add due to rounding.INDIVIDUALS Increase support for Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) and dissertationfellowships. Redirect support within core programs to emphasize development of scientific expertise in thescience workforce. This is part of a modest incremental step toward increasing grant size andduration.IDEAS ( 2.08 million, for a total of 86.27 million)OPP Ideas Investments(Dollars in Millions)Fundamental Science & EngineeringCenters ProgramsTotal, OPPFY 2003Actual72.911.51FY 2004Estimate82.771.42FY 2005Request84.851.42 74.42 84.19 86.27Change overFY 2004AmountPercent2.082.5%0.000.0% 2.082.5%Totals may not add due to rounding.FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Polar Genomics – Support of Frontier in Polar Biology themes enabling aspects such as functionalgenomics for overall ecosystem understanding; probably a decade long theme; aligns with NSFBiocomplexity in the Environment interests, and may be done as an OPP-wide partnership with theBIO directorate. Support for Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Cyberinfrastructure and Sensors(CIS) to help prepare for U.S. leadership of the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007. This effortalso supports the goals identified at the Administration’s Earth Observation Summit of 2003. Polaractivities include starting Polar Links to Undersea Telecommunications and Observatories andbuilding a “network of networks,” -- the Circumarctic Environmental Observatory Network -- whichincludes advancing the implementation of the Long Range Plan for the Toolik Alaska Field Station.327

Office of Polar Programs Initial support for the Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST). There is a view among the stakeholder andscientific communities that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the linkagesbetween climate variability and the responses of the ecosystems of the Bering Sea. BEST addressesthe need to understand how climate change will affect the marine ecosystems of the eastern BeringSea and their sustainability. Planned as a component of SEARCH, BEST is also viewed by theInteragency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) as a research priority in its own right. Acoordinated research effort will couple academic and fisheries oceanography in an attempt to achievea level of ecosystem understanding that would enable comprehension of the changes that haveoccurred. Such basic research will be the foundation of improved models of ecosystem response andcan play a key role in helping to ameliorate the impact on society of variability in this importantocean ecosystem. ANDRILL - acquisition and exploitation of records of global change in “deep time,” - geologicaldrilling to investigate key intervals in Antarctic history as Earth changed from a “greenhouse” worldto an “ice-house” world. Begin planning and preparation for coordinated studies in the fields of Antarctic meteorologicalprocesses and ice sheet dynamics for understanding climate and environmental change. Southern Ocean Global Ecosystem Synthesis and Modeling -- a 3-year effort to wrap up recentinvestments in observing the southern ocean ecosystem.CENTERS PROGRAMS Continue funding Long-Term Ecological Research centers at Palmer Station in the Antarcticpeninsula and at McMurdo Station and the Dry Valleys, Antarctica.TOOLS ( 5.20 million, for a total of 254.15 million)OPP Tools Investments(Dollars in Millions)Change overFY 2004AmountPercentFY 2003ActualFY 2004EstimateFY 2005RequestPolar Tools, Facilities & LogisticsAntarctic Facilities & OperationsAntarctic LogisticsArctic .0%2.3%Total, OPP 240.27 248.95 254.15 5.202.1%Totals may not add due to rounding.POLAR TOOLS, FACILITIES, AND LOGISTICS Continued support for a cooperative agreement with the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium toimprove support and logistics in the area and make any new facilities useful for basic researchprograms.328

FY 2005 Budget Request to Congress Support for research projects throughout the Arctic including Alaska, Canada, the Arctic Ocean,Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia. Support for Toolik Field Station, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks’ field station for ecologicalresearch on Alaska's North Slope. Complete the supporting structure for an 8 meter telescope at the South Pole. Support for SHALDRIL (shallow ship-based drilling for paleooceanographic studies related toclimate change). Support for Deep Ice Drill. Complete the McMurdo Power Plant. Continue analysis and procurement planning to provide multi-year fuel storage capacity at McMurdoStation. Improve maintenance of facilities and infrastructure. Continue with communication bandwidth increases. Start warehouse and dormitory design. Support overland traverse to remain on track for full operational traverse in FY 2007. Continue support for two icebreakers to open channel to McMurdo Station. Improve the security of USAP IT systems.ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE (unchanged at 3.75 million)Organizational Excellence provides for administrative activities necessary to enable NSF to achieve itsstrategic goals. Requested funding for FY 2005 is 3.75 million, level with FY 2004. This includes thecost of Intergovernmental Personnel Act appointments and contractors performing administrativefunctions.A substantial fraction of OPP’s science support infrastructure is operated and maintained by privatecontractors. OPP will continue to evaluate and adopt best practices in its oversight and implementation.PRIORITY AREASIn FY 2005, OPP will support research and education efforts related to broad, Foundation-wide priorityareas in Biocomplexity in the Environment and Mathematical Sciences.329

Office of Polar ProgramsOffice of Polar Programs Investments in NSF Priority Areas(Dollars in Millions)Biocomplexity in the EnvironmentMathematical SciencesChange overFY 2004AmountPercentFY 2003ActualFY 2004EstimateFY 2005Request 1.41 1.55 1.55 0.000.0%0.180.180.200.0211.1%QUALITYOPP assures the quality of the research and development it supports partly through the use of acompetitive, merit-based review process, and partly through the oversight of the OPP Office AdvisoryCommittee, and, above all, by its program managers and section heads. Ninety-three percent of basicand applied research funds were allocated to projects that underwent merit review in FY 2003.To ensure the highest quality in processing and recommending proposals for awards, OPP convenesCommittees of Visitors, composed of qualified external evaluators, to review each program every threeyears. These experts assess the integrity and efficiency of the processes. These Committees report to theOffice Advisory Committee, which then engages OPP management in discussions about the conclusionsand actions that should be taken to further assure the quality of future OPP investments.The Office of Polar Programs also receives advice from its advisory committee concerning scienceopportunities and support for research, education and human resource activities in polar regions. Theadvisory committee meets twice a year. Its membership is composed of outstanding scientists andeducators representative of the community involved in OPP activities.PERFORMANCERecent Research HighlightsBehavior of Arctic Ocean Ridge Confounds Predictions; MayLead to New Insights into Crust Formation. The discoverythat an ocean ridge under the Arctic ice cap is unexpectedlyvolcanically active and contains multiple hydrothermal vents maycause scientists to modify a decades-long understanding of howocean ridges work to produce the Earth's crust. The new results,which come from a study of the Gakkel Ridge, one of the slowestspreading ridges on Earth, have broad implications for theunderstanding of the globe-encircling mid-ocean ridge systemwhere melting of the underlying mantle creates the ocean floor.In the cover story in the June 26, 2003 edition of the journalNature, scientists present striking new results obtainedduring a nine-week research cruise that lasted from August toOctober of 2001. In general, fast-spreading ocean ridges,where the Earth's crust is produced, are volcanically veryactive. So scientists expected the Gakkel, where thespreading rate is one centimeter (.39 inches) per year, to330Investigations of the Gakkel Ridge, the slowestspreading of the mid-ocean ridges located underthe central Arctic Ocean, appeared in the 26 June2003 issue of the journal Nature. The cover photoshows the multibeam sonar bathymetry of theridge mapped using the USCGC Healy and theGerman icebreaker Polarstern.

FY 2005 Budget Request to Congressexhibit little, if any, volcanic activity. Because the spreading rate decreases progressively towardsSiberia, scientists expected that the amount of melting and magma production would decrease fromGreenland eastward. Instead, the very first sampling station brought up fresh volcanic rock, and the newmap published in Nature shows large young volcanoes dominating the part of the ridge nearestGreenland.Scientists aboard the Healy, a U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker specially equipped for research, and acompanion vessel, the German research icebreaker, the PFS Polarstern, achieved several scientific"firsts." They obtained high-resolution, well-navigated maps of the entire portion of the ridge, collectedthousands of samples by dredging the sea floor, explored for regional anomalies in the water column thatwould indicate the amount and location of deep hydrothermal vents surrounded by ecosystems that thrivein the absence of sunlight. Based on the picture the Gakkel data painted, factors other than spreading ratemust be taken into account when characterizing the likelihood of a given area's volcanic activity. Theresearch team, which included more than 30 scientists from U.S. and German research institutions, basedtheir conclusions on the remarkably detailed map of the sea floor and on 200 samples taken on averageevery five kilometers (3.1 miles) along the ridge.New Model of Glacial Erosion Dynamics. Earth scientists havelong recognized that glaciers and ice sheets have been responsiblefor rearranging rock and soil and shaping Earth's surface. Indeed,most visitors to places like Glacier National Park or Yosemiteclearly see the magnitude of mass redistribution from ice. Glacialerosion and redistribution of mass has both contributed to theextreme uplift of mountain ranges like the Himalaya and has leveledlarge areas of continents, like western Canada. Conventionalthinking on glacial erosion and transport focused on brute force ofice carrying rock debris along at its base, either as particles in thelowermost ice or as a heterogeneous sediment being carried alongby shearing and smearing at the bottom of the ice, or on glacialmeltwater moving material along under the ice and away as thewater emerged from beneath the ice sheet. A new conceptual modelof sediment erosion and transport by Alley and colleagues, featuredon the cover article of Nature (v.424, 14 August 2003), brings waterand ice together in a coupled dynamic system that explains manyimportant observations of glacially formed landscape. This modelis important because it ties observations to physical processes that can be rigorously modeled. This inturn will allow development of realistic models of ice sheets and glaciers so that we can better understandtheir role and predict their fate in a changing global environment.New Views of Subglacial Lake Vostok. This project undertook a comprehensive aerogeophysicalsurvey to characterize the lake and to understand its geological setting. The survey utilized a uniqueaerogeophysical system that was specifically designed for work over ice sheets. It consisted of anintegrated system that combined a laser surface profiler, an ice-penetrating radar, a magnetometer, and agravimeter all supported by high precision GPS navigation. Results published provide extraordinary newknowledge about the lake system. Interpretations of ice from the bottom of a deep drill hole completed inthe 1990s as a French-Russian-U.S. collaboration showed that the lake water was freezing onto the baseof the ice sheet. This process has substantial implications for the nature of the water in the lake. The newaerogeophysical survey provides important new information to help quantify processes and develop a331

Office of Polar Programscomprehensive model for the lake. This work provides new and unprecedented information aboutsubglacial Lake Vostok, a unique long-lived environment that may represent a new class of ecosystem.Tidal Modulation of Ice Stream Flow. Research was supported to investigate the new-found, startlingsensitivity of two major West Antarctic ice streams (WAIS) to tidal oscillations to learn the extent andcharacter of the effect and its ramifications for future ice-stream behavior. The improved knowledge ofice-stream behavior from this study will contribute to assessment of the potential for rapid ice-sheetchange affecting global sea level with societal consequences. Results will be disseminated throughscientific publication and talks at professional meetings, as well as contacts with the press, universityclasses taught by the PIs, visits to schools and community groups, and other activities. Two graduatestudents will be educated through the project. This work has a good chance of providing a significantimprovement to our understanding of ice stream dynamics and by extension, the stability of WAIS ingeneral, which has obvious societal importance.South Pole Traverse Proof of Concept. Progress was made toward implementation of the proof ofconcept for an overland traverse capability to the South Pole by the end of 2004 by safely crossing theMcMurdo Shear Zone and reaching the “Farthest South” point at S 79 24.213 E 171 09.776. WithOverland traverses from the coast near McMurdo Station to Amundsen-Scott South Pole will be able to deliver up to 2.2million pounds of materials — the equivalent 85 LC-130 flights.completion of the proof of concept traverse, the U.S. Antarctic Program will be able to move forwardwith development of a full-scale traverse capability. The proof of concept fleet will be able to deliverapproximately 162,000 pounds of revenue payload to the South Pole per trip, or the equivalent of 6.25LC-130 flights. Based on current planning, the fully developed traverse capability of three traverseswings, each swing made up of six tractors and 23 trailers or sleds, making three trips per season (twentydays to the South Pole and ten days to return), will deliver approximately 2.2 million pounds of revenuepayload – or the equivalent of 85 LC-130 missions – to the South Pole per season at lower cost and withreduced fuel consumption.Antarctic Health and Safety. The value of the return on investments in telemedical capabilities becameapparent during April 2002 when emergency surgical repair of a person’s knee was made possiblethrough use of this technology. The South Pole physician, observed in real-time and guided via videolink by state-side orthopedic surgeons, was able to perform this first-ever invasive surgery at the South332

FY 2005 Budget Request to CongressPole. In addition, OPP and Raytheon continue to invest in methods to reduce injuries through, forexample, safety training and awareness programs. In 2003, a 61 percent reduction in recordable injuriesfrom the prior year was achieved. Delivery of medical services in remote areas is crucial to protecting thehealth and safety of all USAP participants.Other Performance IndicatorsThe tables below show the growth in the number of people benefiting from OPP funding, and trends ingrowth of award size, duration and number.Number of People Involved in OPP ActivitiesSenior ResearchersOther ProfessionalsPostdoctoratesGraduate StudentsUndergraduate StudentsTotal Number of PeopleFY 2003EstimateFY 2004EstimateFY 258807001205002602,460FY 2003EstimateFY 2004EstimateFY 2005Estimate24143%26743%27544%14843% 126,143 144,3922.616043% 129,900 148,7002.718144% 133,700 153,1002.8OPP Funding ProfileStatistics for Competitive Awards:NumberFunding RateStatistics for Research Grants:Number of Research GrantsFunding RateMedian Annualized Award SizeAverage Annualized Award SizeAverage Award Duration, in years333

Office of Polar Programs334

FY 2005 Budget Request to CongressU.S. POLAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS 281,660,000The FY 2005 Budget Request for U.S. Polar Research Programs Activity is 281.66 million, an increaseof 7.58 million, or 2.8 percent, over the FY 2004 Estimate of 274.08 million.Polar Research Programs Funding(Dollars in Millions)Arctic Research ProgramArctic Research Support and LogisticsArctic Research CommissionAntarctic Research Grants ProgramAntarctic Operations and Science SupportTotal, U.S. Polar Research ProgramsFY 2003Actual37.5630.291.0842.55143.93 255.41FY 2004Estimate44.0031.401.1945.20152.29 274.08Change overFY 2005FY 2004Request Amount 1.503.3%156.774.482.9% 281.66 7.582.8%Totals may not add due to rounding.The U.S. Polar Research Programs Activity supports both Arctic and Antarctic research. Arctic supportrepresents part of a larger NSF and federal research effort. Antarctic support includes funding for NSFsupported researchers as well as for meeting NSF responsibilities as manager of the entire federalAntarctic program, including special requirements for operations and science support.Polar Programs is also responsible for managing several activities funded out of the Major ResearchEquipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) Account, including IceCube and South Pole StationModernization. The new station will provide the infrastructure required for imaginative new science onthe drawing board. Taking full advantage of the new station will require new efficiencies in deliveringscientists and science supplies to remote locations and the South Pole and fuel to the South Pole. See theMREFC section for further information on these projects.Polar ActivitiesThe following activities planned for FY 2005 cut across all Polar Research Programs: Continuation of a Postdoctoral Fellowship Program targeted at emerging scientific frontiers andunderrepresented groups. The evolution of research frontiers in polar areas brings with it theopportunity to engage a new generation of scientists, particularly those from underrepresented groups. Activities that address emerging frontiers in polar biology.The National Academy ofSciences/National Research Council study will help set priorities in this area through the report,Frontiers in Polar Biology in the Genomic Era. Facilitate opportunities for development and deployment of autonomous remote sensors and thecyberinfrastructure to link them together with larger networks and home laboratories.335

Office of Polar ProgramsArctic Research ProgramThe FY 2005 Budget Request for the U.S. Arctic Research Program within Polar Programs is 44.88million, an increase of 880,000, or 2.0 percent, over the FY 2004 Estimate of 44.0 million. Thisfunding, with the Arctic Research Support and Logistics funding, represents over 70 percent of the NSFsupport for university-based Arctic research.The U.S. Arctic Research Program supports research on the Arctic Ocean, atmosphere, and land areas –including their people, and marine and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to research in individualdisciplines, an Arctic System Science component focuses on interdisciplinary approaches tounderstanding the Arctic region, including its role in global climate.It has become widely recognized that the Arctic is in the midst of a change over the last decade. Changeshave been measured in the ice cover, atmosphere, some terrestrial parameters, and northern ecosystems.Residents of the North are seeing these environmental changes affecting their lives. It is important todetermine whether these changes are correlated with a short-term shift in regional atmospheric circulationor whether they signal long-term global change. Priorities in FY 2005 include: Support for Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Cyberinfrastructure and Sensors(CIS) to help prepare for U.S. leadership of the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007. This effortalso supports the goals identified at the Administration’s Earth Observation Summit of 2003. Polaractivities include starting Polar Links to Undersea Telecommunications and Observatories andbuilding a “network of networks,” -- the Circumarctic Environmental Observatory Network -- whichincludes advancing the implementation of the Long Range Plan for the Toolik Alaska Field Station. Initial support for the Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST). There is a view among the stakeholder andscientific communities that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the linkagesbetween climate variability and the responses of the ecosystems of the Bering Sea. BEST addressesthe need to understand how climate change will affect the marine ecosystems of the eastern BeringSea and their sustainability. Planned as a component of SEARCH, BEST is also viewed by theInteragency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) as a research priority in its own right. Acoordinated research effort will couple academic and fisheries oceanography in an attempt to achievea level of ecosystem understanding that would enable comprehension of the changes that haveoccurred. Such basic research will be the foundation of improved models of ecosystem response andcan play a key role in helping to ameliorate the impact on society of variability in this importantocean ecosystem.BEST will be a major effort requiring, as part of integrated field programs, collaborative researchamong multiple institutions and disciplines, including international collaboration, the deployment ofin situ long-term instrument arrays, satellite-based remote sensing studies, and the deployment ofmultiple ships. Mathematical modeling studies will be an integral part of the program from theoutset, and will provide frameworks for testing program hypotheses and sampling scenarios. Such anambitious effort will of necessity require capacity building through targeted internship and trainingprograms, the involvement of social scientists, and strong public awareness and outreach efforts. With continued funding, implementation of BEST and most parts of SEARCH will be possible by thetime of the International Polar Year (IPY) in FY 2007.336

FY 2005 Budget Request to CongressArctic Research Support and LogisticsThe FY 2005 Request for Arctic Research Support and Logistics is 32.12 million, an increase of 720,000, or 2.3% percent, above the FY 2004 Estimate of 31.40 million. Arctic research support andlogistics is driven by and responsive to the science supported in U.S. Arctic Research programs. Fundingfor logistics is provided directly to grantees or to key organizations that provide or manage Arcticresearch support and logistics. Funding includes: Continued support to approximately 150 projects throughout the Arctic including Alaska, Canada, theArctic Ocean, Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia. Almost half the projects are located in Alaska.There is increasing support available for work in the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea with full use of theUSCGC Healy augmented by either Polar Sea or Polar Star, and the R/V Alpha Helix. Continued access to fixed and rotary-wing airlift support to researchers conducting regional studies inthe difficult and often fragile Arctic terrain in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Arctic Scandinavia, andRussia. Continued access to U.S. Coast Guard and other icebreakers, support for research conducted on theU.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy, and University-National Oceanographic Laboratory vessels andcoastal boats. Modest upgrades at Toolik Field Station, University of Alaska, Fairbanks’ field station for ecologicalresearch on Alaska's North Slope. Continued safety training for field researchers and funding for field safety experts, global satellitetelephones for emergency response, and improved logistics coordination. Begin integration under SEARCH of a network of U.S. Long-Term Observatories, linking to similarefforts in Europe and Canada. Installation of a modern local area network at the Barrow Environmental Observatory with improvedaccess to the Internet.Arctic Research CommissionFunding for the Arctic Research Commission (ARC), an independent federal agency, is transferredthrough the National Science Foundation to ARC. In FY 2005, ARC is requesting 1.19 million, levelwith the FY 2004 Estimate.Antarctic Research Grants ProgramThe FY 2005 Budget Request for the Antarctic Research Grants Program is 46.70 million, an increase of 1.50 million, or 3.3 percent over the FY 2004 Estimate of 45.20 million. The program provides grantsto fund scientific research related to Antarctica and to the Southern Ocean. The FY 2005 Request willsupport research projects in Antarctica and at academic institutions in the U.S. This fundamental researchwill provide new information on the ozone hole, how extreme environments affect gene expression, theeffects of ultraviolet radiation on living organisms, changes in the ice sheet and impacts on global sealevel, global weather, climate, and ocean circulation, and on the early evolution of our universe as well asits current composition. Priorities in FY 2005 include:337

Office of Polar Programs Polar Genomics

OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS 349,730,000 The FY 2005 Budget Request for the Office of Polar Programs Activity (OPP) is 349.73 million, an increase of 7.58 million, or 2.2 percent, over the FY 2004 Estimate of 342.15 million. Office of Polar Programs Funding (Dollars in Millions) FY 2003 FY 2004 FY 2005 Actual Estimate Request Amount Percent