R ESEARCH JOURNAL OF EARLY VVESTERN MAILSVol. XLII No. 2No. 165Quarterly Publication of theWESTERN COVER SOCIETYUnit No. 14 American Philatelic Societ yApril 1992EROMABRA1l8 & Bltu.Wholesale Grocers,No. 56 Fnm &., San Francisco. .fi . . .TABLE OF CONTENTSFrom your EditorSecretary's ReportC.J. Couts and the Guajome Ranchoby Jim LesterConnections at Jacksonvilleby Dale E. ForsterPostal Establishments: Official Dates vs. Realityby Alan H. PateraAuction Actionby Bill TathamCalifornia Postmarks (through 1935)by John WilliamsGlenn CountySan Diego County12461215192028

See page 6 for a discussion of the Beekman's Express illustrated on the front cover.MEMBERSHIP INFORMATIONIf you collect Western Express covers, Territorials. Town cancellations, or anythingpertaining to the mails of the Old West, you are invited to join the Western Cover Societyand enjoy meeting other collectors.Local groups of members meet more or less regularly to talk. swap and generallyshare their enthusiasm for Western covers. There is a Dutch treat luncheon meeting in SanFrancisco almost every Friday in the 12th floor dining room of the Marine's Memorial Club.Sutter and Mason streets. from about 11 am to I pm or later. Visitors are always welcome.including non-members. Call Henry Spelman at 415 453-4663 to see if we will be meetingwhile you are in town.Patron Membership 30.00 a yearSustaining Membership 20.00 a yearActive membership 15.00 a yearMembership dues include subscription to Western ExpressSend application with appropriate check to:Western Cover SocietyEdward Weinberg, Secretary27 Bridgewater WayPleasant Hill CA 94523Please state your collecting interests. You application will be acted upon at the nextmeeting of the Board of Directors.Advertising rates, per issue: Full page 55.00; half page 27.50; quarter page 17.50Copyright 1992 by the Western Cover Society

Western Express. Aprill992dead ends, as fabrication shops are having difficulty duplicating E.A. Wiltsee's ingenuity. Weare pursuing new designs and will have theWiltsee Collection back on display this year.FROM YOUR EDITORAlan H. PateraP.O. Box 2093Lake Grove OR 97035503-635-1379Treasurer's Report for 1991Thanks to those of you that have sent inmaterial for short articles for Western Express.There is a continuing need for material, so don'tbe shy. John Williams' section on San DiegoCounty was so lengthy there wasn't much roomfor text articles in this issue.The California Postmark CatalogPeople ask me if the Postmark Catalogwill be issued in book form. With San Diego andGlenn counties in this issue, and including theseparate monograph on Los Angeles County,Western Express has by my count published1,060 pages of the Postmark Catalog. John hasdone over half the counties, including the largestones, but there are still 20 counties to go - andButte, Fresno, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sonoma andTulare are likely to be quite large.By the time this project is "complete" itwill be over 1600 pages, with very little condensing possible. It would be nice to publish thePostmark Catalog in book form, but doing it asone book seems infeasible. It will have to bebroken down into smaller units, either alphabetically or geographically, and the entire productionwill be expensive.ReceiptsDuesAdvertisingSalesInterest 6,555.00375.00742.501.394.39Total 9,066.89ExpendituresWestern ExpressSec.-Treasurer expensesOther expenses 5,901.86434.941.645.91Total 7,982.71WESTPEXDon't forget the Western Cover Societyannual breakfast at WESTPEX, Sunday. May 3 at9 a.m. Following the breakfast there will be aprogram by Robert Livingston on Expresses ofthe Southern Mines that promises to be informative and thoroughly enjoyable. See the announcement on page 2 for additional information.Wiltsee Collection rom Robert Chandler of the Wells FargoBank H1story Department we have the followingstatement regarding the Wiltsee Collection:Members of the Western Cover Societyhave asked about the Wiltsee Collection, whichhas not been on display for the past year. Wefound that after 50 years of hard use, Wiltsee'ssystem of frames and slides was deteriorating.Several proposals for replacements have led toPage IATTENTION ALLCOLLECTORSWEU.SFARGOThe western cover sociewiS undertakinl abookwe need coPies of anWEU.S FARGO CANCELStlncludlnl date and colorlPlease send informationto surue coordinatiOrBill Tatham5l23 PickerinsWhittier CA 90601

Western ExpressAprill992Secretary's ReportWestern Cover Society OfficersNew MembersPresidentVice PresidentSecretary-TreasurerDirectorsD. Anson ReinhartBill TathamEdward WeinbergJim BlaineJohn DrewHoward MaderMark MetkinFrank NewtonBasil PearcePast PresidentHenry Spelman III#1047 Lorin CransonP.O. Box 5272Kalispell MT 59903Collects: Montana#1048 Grover D. Hughes5901 Montrose Rd. Apt. N1205Rockville MD 20852Collects: Sonoma & Fresno counties (CA)Address ChangesAusdenmoore-McFarlaneP.O. Box 2348Midland MI 48641-2348Michael M. BirdP.O. Box 802Ayer MA 01432Derek M. Boltonc/o 5 Buckingham St.Strand, London WC2W 6BSEnglandRonald A. CzaplickiP.O. Box 1812Bellflower CA 90707-1812Bmce G. Daniels6 Beacon St. #305Boston MA 02108-3807Eugene D. Meyer530 Van Sicklen WayRedding CA 96003Howard B. Webster229 Floyd Golden CirclePortales NM 88130Deceased#397 Fred W. Coops Jr.#81 0 David A. RamsteadResignations# 415 Ernest S. Peyton# 835# 952# 964#1035Susan M. McDonaldKenneth W. StachFred JonesRobert E. JerniganDropped for non-payment of dues# 619 Ross M. Christiansen# 801 John 0. Griffiths# 848# 901# 977#1007# 1028Richard FrajolaPeter RobertsonMario C. BarbiereJohn G. HoffTim BoardmanSteven Runyonc/o KUSF2130 Fulton St.San Francisco CA 94117-1080WESTERN COVER SOCIETYRichard Smail7842 Maynard Ave.Canoga Park CA 91304-4624Breakfast 19.00send check to R.H. Salz, 60 27th Ave.,San Francisco CA 94121Dr. Heinz von Hungen MD1134 Granger Ave.Modesto CA 95350-4035ANNUAL MEETINGCathedral Hill Hotel9:00 a.m. in the PavilionAn informative program presented byRobert Livingston will follow at 10:00 inTelegraph Hill rooms A & B.Page2

Western ExpressAprill992PATRON AND SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIPSThe Western Cover Society appreciates the encouragement shown by those who support theSociety by subscribing with Patron and Sustaining memberships. The additional funds secured in thisway support historical research and the publication of Western Express.PATRON MEMBERSLome L. AllmonRex J. BatesDr. W.W. BilyeuBrad CasolyRobert ChisholmHenry CliffordRichard CurtinRobert M. EbinerBruce GanekLewis GarrettMichael GleasonTed GruberH & H MarketingLeonard KapiloffPhil KayJ.F. LeutzingerRobert LivingstonDr. Dennis J. LutzHoward MaderMark MetkinWilliam J. Mills Jr., MDE.F. MuellerLawrence MillerFrancis S. MurphyFrank Q. Newton Jr.John C. OlsonJohn W. PalmBasil C. PearceStanley M. PillerD. Anson ReinhartS. RumseyHenry Spelman IIIWilliam C. TathamIrwin R. VogelRobert WaleEdward WeinbergJohn H. WilliamsJay F. HouseJack R. HughesJames InverarityJames Jacobitz MDRev. Constant R. JohnsonKarl KoonsGeorge KramerJames E. KromeFrank J. LiskaMrs. Norma L. McCumberWilliam T. McGreerSteve MeierCharles MerrillEugene D. MeyerThomas M. MillsGeorge MorrisClifford MossLeland S . MurphyRobert MyersonCharles F. Nettleship Jr.Ray L. Newburn Jr.James G. NourseTerry K. PeltonFrances J. PendletonPostal History FoundationVern PotterW. Ray RadfordSamuel RayLouis A. RepettoRobert A. SanregretNiles SearlesCol. Fred SeifertDaniel SiegleTimothy SheehanRichardS . SimpsonClifton F. SmithDonald T. SmithGary L. StarkeyJack E. Stucky MDRobe11 D. SwansonDr. William J. TreatGordon TwedtJ.A.M. VaughnJohn VickDr. Heinz Von HungenAbner WeedRaymond H. WeillC.A. WhittleseyCharles W. WinterDavid L. Winter MDKirk WolfordSUSTAINING MEMBERSGeorge ArthurAubrey BartlettRandall E. BurtAlbert F. ChangJackson ChisholmNels ChristiansonDonald T. ClarkBruce CohenEdward I. CominsRod CrossleyWesly A. CrozierGrace E. Devnich MDJ. Leonard DiamondJohn R. DrewGeorge H. EastmanErving R. FeltmanDale E. ForsterBennie FryDavid GoheenA.L. GreeneFred GregoryStephen W . HackettKenneth HarrisonJ.C. HawleyMatt HedleyGeorge HesterPage3

April1992Western ExpressC.J. Couts and the Guajome Ranchoby Jim LesterThis Pacific Union Express cover was sent to Cave J. Couts from San Francisco, quite likely from thepen of his brother-in-law Abel Stearns. It bears the imprint of general shipping and commission merchant R.E. Raimond, who had offices on Front Street in San Francisco. It was sent by sea to San Diego,where it recieved the November 29 marking. It is dated as 1869, near the end of the Pacific UnionExpress' short life.A few miles inland from Oceanside,California, and near the Spanish mission of SanLuis Rey, lies the Mexican land grant known asGuajome Rancho. In 1845 Governor Pio Picogranted 2,219 acres to two Indian brothers,Andres and Jose Manuel. They did not keep itlong before selling the land to Los Angeles businessman Abel Stearns for 550. Stearns, whohad married Don Juan Bandini's daughterArcadia, gave the ranch as a wedding gift to hissister-in-law Ysidora when she married U.S.Army Lieutenant Cave Johnson Couts in 1851.Cave Johnson Couts was born nearSpringfield, Tennessee on November 11, 1821.His uncle, Cave Johnson, had served as Secretaryof the Treasury under President Polk. Throughhis uncle's influence he was appointed to theMilitary Academy at West Point, where he graduated in 1843. He served on the frontier throughthe Mexican War, and after the war took up residence in Los Angeles, San Luis Rey and SanDiego. After his marriage to Y sidora Bandini hedetermined to make his home on his new landholdings.Couts designed a 20-room adobe with ahuge patio, servant's quarters, barns, tables, shedsand corrals. He recruited some 300 Indians fromthe San Luis Rey Mission area to undertake theconstruction. He also turned his attention todeveloping a large herd of cattle. In May 1852 hewrote his brother-in-law (Abel Stearns) that hewas leaving Soledad Valley (north San Diego)driving 800 head of cattle to San Joaquin City.While the Texas market was as low as 5 perhead, the voracious appetites of the gold minersbrought him the princely price of 20 per head.Not satisfied with owning nearly 4 squaremiles, Couts purchased neighboring Buena Vistarancho, as well as the Los Vallecitos de SanMarcos and La Jolla ranchos. He also securedgovernment land, bringing his total landholdingsto about 20,000 acres. He was appointed sub-Page4

Western ExpressApril1992Map of western San Diego County shows majortowns and the locations of Cave J. Couts' landholdings.agent for the San Luis Rey Indians and did nothesitate to use this labor pool to improve hisproperty.By 1860, Circuit Judge Benjamin Hayesdescribed the ranch as a paradise. His home waswidely celebrated for its hospitality.Smallpox plagued all of SouthernCalifornia in the early 1860s. In November 1862Couts wrote to Steams: "Small pox quite evident 6 to 8 a day being buried at San JuanCapistrano . I vaccinated the whole rancheria atSan Luis some six weeks since, and hope theymay escape." They did.Cave Johnson Couts died at age 53 at theHorton House in San Diego on June 10, 1874.Mr. and Mrs. Couts had ten children, of whomnine lived to maturity. In the 1880s the Guajomerancho adobe was frequently visited by HelenHunt Jackson and it is generally assumed that thesite inspired the locale in her book Ramona. TheCouts home on Guajome Rancho is now aRegional Park and will ultimately become amuseum for the enjoyment of visitors.SAN LUIS RE.Y MISSION, NEAR OC'E.AIVStDE, CAL.PageS

Western ExpressApril1992CONNECTIONS AT JACKSONVILLEby Dale E. ForsterThe first commercially important discovery of gold in Oregon was made in 1852 at thefuture site of Jacksonville in southern Oregon.Jacksonville was supplied from Yreka, Californiaacross the Siskiyou Mountains. It became aconnecting point for express companies and mailroutes. This article is an analysis of eight coversfrom the 1853-63 period.The cover illustrated in Figure 1 originated at Weaverville, California in 1853. It has aCram Rogers Weaverville handstamp and anindistinct Cram Rogers Jacksonville O.T. handstamp. When it arrived at Jacksonville the CramRogers agent faced the problem of how to sendthe cover north to its destination, as there was asyet no post office in Jacksonville, and no expressoperators coming in from the north. Someonecarried it privately to Scottsburg, near the mouthof the Umpqua River, where it was put into theU.S. mail. Here it received the manuscript 5 andScottsburg O.T. Dec 16, 1853 markings. Therewas a mail route from Scottsburg to theWillamette Valley via Yoncalla.The Adams Express failure of 1855caused the demise of Cram Rogers, but C.C.Beekman, former Jacksonville agent for CramRogers. stayed on the Yreka to Jacksonville routeand created Beekman's Express. Figure 2 ill us-trates a November 1859 Wells Fargo cover fromSan Francisco to Roseburg, which was turnedover to Beekman's Express at Yreka. Beekmancarried it north to Jacksonville where he appliedhis handstamp and then put the cover in the mail.The Jacksonville circular datestamp was appliedover the San Francisco Wells Fargo marking.Wells Fargo did not operate overland expressroutes in Oregon at this date, and all northboundoverland mail was turned over to Beekman atYreka.Figure 3 is a similar Wells Fargo coverfrom San Francisco to the same addressee inRoseburg, but mailed about three months later. Ithas no Beekman marking and went into the mailat Leland, a community a short distance northwest of Jacksonville. Possibly Beekman carriedit north from Yreka, but another possibility is thatWells Fargo carried it from San Francisco toCrescent City by ship. In that case an expressoperator from Crescent City would have carriedthe letter inland through the Sailor's Diggingsarea and mailed it at Leland. It is impossible todetermine for certain exactly what route it tookand who carried it.In 1860 Ned Tracy, the Portland WellsFargo agent, was extending his own Tracy &Company's Express south through the WillametteFigure 1Page6

Western ExpressAprill992Figure 2Figure 3Page7

Western ExpressApril1992Figure4Valley and beyond. The following letter in theOregon Historical Society's archives pertains tohis Jacksonville connection:Jacksonville Oct. 19, 1860C.C. Beekman, Esq.Dear Sir: I was sorry to find you awaywhen I an·ived, but getting married is better thanthe Express business any day I have made an office at Roseburgh,Canyonville, and Oakland - and I have beentalking to Mr. Hayden about business here - andas a starter make this proposition to you - Yousell your Envelopes over my route -- and runmine over yours. I will furnish you Way Bills,blanks, etc. and give you 20% on the nett profitsof the way bills you receive and for'd to me - Iwill send you statements and abstracts to be madeout every month, etc. I do not know whatarrangements you made below but think if youwill come through and see me when you get backwe can make such arrangements as to coral [sic]all this Canyonville, Roseburgh, & Oakland business.I spoke to Mr. Hayden about my sendingyou election Returns and you do the same for me.Yours TrulyE.W. TracyBefore the end of 1860 Tracy was adverttsmg that he had an office at Jacksonville atBeekman's Express office, so they had come toan agreement on the sharing of express revenues.The cover illustrated in Figure 4 is anotherWells Fargo cover to Marks in Roseburg, butdated after Tracy had extended his lines toJacksonville. Wells Fargo carried it to Yreka andturned it over to Beekman, who carried it toJacksonville and turned it over to Tracy. NoBeekman or Tracy handstamps were applied -- infact, Tracy never had a Jacksonville handstamp,and no covers are known showing the markingsof both Beekman and Tracy. Beekman beganusing a printed frank similar to Tracy' s ribbonfrank about this time.Figure 5 is a spectacular 1861 usage originating with Ballou's Express in British Columbia,where it was carried down the Fraser River byBallou and handed over to Wells Fargo atVictoria on Vancouver Island. Wells Fargopasted their own printed frank cover to the backof the Ballou's envelope (the paste-up has beenseparated for display purposes) and sent it southby ship to Portland. The Wells Fargo and Tracy ' sExpress offices were under the same roof, and adecision had to be made as to how to send theletter south. Wells Fargo had agents on the shipsbetween Portland and San Francisco, but possiblythere was no ship leaving soon. So it was turnedover to Tracy to take it overland, and Tracyapplied his Portland circular handstamp to bothsides. At Jacksonville Beekman took the coversouth to Yreka, where Wells Fargo took it on toSan Francisco and turned it over to Bamber &Co. for delivery to Alvarado, Alameda County.PageS

Western ExpressAprill992Note that this paste-up never entered the government mail service, but three governments werepaid-- British Columbia by the New Westminsteroval post office frank, Vancouver Island (whichwas a separate colony at the time) by theVictoria/Paid/ V.I. frank, and the U.S. by the 3 star die emobssed stamp.Figure 6 is another southbound cover orig-inating at Fort Vancouver, just north of P01tlandon the north side of the Columbia River. If theyear of the cover is 1860, Tracy did not yet gosouth as far as Jacksonville, so he could notfollow the sender's "Overland" instruction. If theyear is 1861, the sea mail and overland optionswere both possible. Whichever the date, theWells Fargo Portland marking shows that theFigure 5Page9

Aprill992Western ExpressFigure 7Page 10

Western ExpressApril1992cover went south by ship and did not go throughJacksonville.The cover illustrated in Figure 7 originated with Tracy & Co. in Albany and was turnedover to Beekman at Jacksonville for carriage toYreka, then by Wells Fargo to San Francisco.Figure 8 shows an envelope with a WellsFargo printed frank originating at Roseburg, fromwhere it was carried to Jacksonville by Tracy, byBeekman to Yreka, and by Wells Fargo to SanFrancisco. At San Francisco Mr. Marks wasfound to have returned to Roseburg, so the coverwas sent north by the same three express companies. The year of this cover is probably 1862.The following year Wells Fargo bought outBeekman's Express and installed C. C. Beekmanas their express agent in Jacksonville. Theybought out Tracy's eastern Oregon lines as well,and Tracy's western Oregon lines were indecline. Soon Wells Fargo became the dominantoverland express in the state of Oregon.These eight covers show how in theperiod before 1863 Tracy and Beekman werelinks in the overland chain between Portland andSan Francisco. They show that even undistinguished looking Wells Fargo covers to towns inOregon were carried by other express companies,even when no markings of the Oregon companiesare present.FigureSPage 11 , !] ,,, Scottsburg .'. . ···;'Yoncalla. Oakland',;,Roseburg· Canyonville:·, Jacksonville .\/0 REG 0 NCAL I FORN IA

Western ExpressApril1992POST OFFICE ESTABLISHMENTS:OFFICIAL DATES vs. REALITYby Alan H. PateraSerious postal researchers have long beenaware that the dates of post office establishmentsentered into the official postal records did notreflect the date the post office commenced operations. The dates entered into the Records ofPostmaster Appointments are the date an officialappointment was made in Washington D.C.; untilnews of the appointment reached the postmasterat the location of the new office there was noauthorization to commence postal service. As weshall see, postal service may not have been provided even after the postmaster knew he hadauthorization for a post office.In the early years of the western UnitedStates it took a great deal of time for paperworkto travel from Washington D.C. to the locationsof new post offices. Delays of several weeksfrom the date of the order were the norm, andsometimes the time differential lapsed intomonths. Being aware of the urgent need forservice, the Post Office Department empoweredSpecial Postal Agents with authority to establishpost offices and report the results back toWashington D.C. This has resulted in some confusion as to dates for early California offices,where covers are known predating the officialWASHINGTONMONTANAPierce CityMullan's BridgE eoWalla Walla.loro Finoppei Elk City Florence City La GrandeOREGON AuburnIDAHOLocation of post offices for which we know an actual as well as the official establishment date.Page 12

Western ExpressApril1992establishment dates in Post Office Departmentrecords.Because such infomation is not includedin official primary sources, it has been exceedingly difficult to determine the time differentialbetween the official establishment of a post officeand the actual operation of the office. This articlewiH attempt to do just that, utilizing informationpublished in the Walla Walla Statesman on thecommencement of postal operations in pioneermining districts in eastern Oregon, easternWashington, and IdahoGold discoveries in northern Idaho inearly 1861 brought an influx of people to an areathat had previously been uninhabited by whitemen. The Post Office Department was trying tocope with the total disruption of services onaccount of the Civil War, and had little time orinterest to devote to happenings in the remotenorthwestern corner of the country. The gap incommunications was filled by a number of enterprising expressmen.Isaac Mossman was one of the pioneerexpressmen between Walla Walla and the Idahomining camps. Ned Tracy & Co. started anexpress to Oro Fino and Pierce City shortly afterPost OfficeOfficiallyEstablishedAuburn OR1 Nov 1862Mossman. Mossman was joined by C.H."Joaquin, Miller from October 1861 to the Springof 1862 as Mossman & Miller's Express. InFebruary 1862 they had competition with theinception of McBride & Rhodes Express to theSalmon River mines, which had come into prominence the previous fall.Oregon's Powder River mines developedthe major camp of Auburn. The first expressmanto establish a route to Auburn from Walla Wallawas G.H. Barnett, who first advertised on June14, 1862. Later that summer Barnett had competition from Shepherd, Cooper & Co., which laterwas run solely by J.M. Shepherd. Through theend of 1862 the express companies provided theonly letter communication for the numerousminers of these camps.Although the Idaho mining camps werediscovered first and attained a sizable populationduring the summer of 1862, the first location toget a post office was Auburn, Oregon, a goldcamp not far from the Oregon Trail. The officialestablishment date says the office started onNovember 1, 1862, but from the files of theStatesman we learn that there was no confirmation there would be a post office until January 24,Newspaper ItemElapsed timeP.O. noted 24 Jan 1863First mail 10 Feb 1863102 daysElk City 1025 Nov 1862First mail 12 Jan 186348 daysFlorence City ID25 Nov 1862First mail 12 Jan 186348 daysHellgate MT25 Nov 1862First mail 12 Jan 186348 daysOro Fino 1025 Nov 1862First mail 12 Jan 186348 daysPierce City 1025 Nov 1862First mail 12 Jan 186348 daysCoppei WA28 Nov 1862P.O. noted 24 Jan 186357 daysLa Grande OR28 May 1863Petition noted 7 Feb 1863Mullan's Bridge WA14 Aug 1863In operation week of 18-25 July52 daysPetition sent 24 Jan 1863P.O. noted 3 Oct 186350 daysPage 13

Aprill992Western Express1863. Even then there were no mail deliveriesuntil postal supplies arrived from Portlan via th.eColumbia River and Walla Walla. The fust malldelivery to Auburn is noted in the paper asFebruary 10, a full 102 days since the office was"established" in Washington D.C.The Idaho mining camps of Pierce City,Oro Fino, Florence City and Elk City actually gottheir first mail earlier than Auburn, even thoughon the official record they are shown as beingestablished at a later date. All four were established on the same date, November 25, 1862,along with Hellgate in Montana. The first .mailfor these offices, which were served by a smgleroute, was commenced on January 12, 1863 - ascant 48 days from the official establishmentdate.The other offices mentioned in theWashington Statesman show a similar 7-weekdelay from the authorization of the office in thePost Office Department and the commencementof mail service. There must have been someadditional delay for the office at Coppei, in WallaWalla County. It took 66 days before the commencement· of a mail to Coppei even though theoffice was not far from Walla Walla and on thedirect route from Walla Walla to Lewiston and·the Idaho gold camps.Mullan's Bridge was located not farbeyond Coppei, and while it only took 50 daysfrom the date of the official establishment untilthe commencement of mail services, it is worthnoting that the petition requesting the post officewas forwarded to Washington D.C. over sevenmonths earlier.The Grand Ronde Valley in northeasternOregon was largely settled during the latesummer and fall of 1862, with the town of LaGrande emerging as the most important of severalsmall settlements established at that time. LaGrande was directly on the Oregon Trail, and ithad the further advantage of being on the maintraveled route between Walla Walla and the goldexcitement at Auburn. As word of the establishment of a post office at Auburn became knownthe residents of La Grande circulated a petition tohave a post office established for their community. The petition was sent to Washington D.C., .passing through Walla Walla the week beforeFebruary 7, 1863. Note that this petition was sentin later than that for Mullan's Bridge, but that forLa Grande received prompt attention, and a postoffice was authorized for La Grande on May 28.The exact date of the first mail is not reported inthe Statesman, but it is noted the office was inoperation the week of July 18 to 25, approximately 50 days after the authorization for the office inWashington D.C.Does the system work?Even with the exact dates of the actualcommencement of mail service known from thepages of the Washington Statesmen, we should beaware that things did not always go smoothly.The weather provided a large element of chance.The roads, which were none too good in thesummer time, turned into quagmires with the falland spring rains. In the mountains enormoussnowfalls sometimes suspended all movement.Even the Columbia River would freeze over,stopping river traffic and resulting in only partially successful attempts to move the mail overlandby horseback from The Dalles.The following excerpt from the Washin ton Statesman shows that there were also problems with the contracted personnel:"The Tri-Weekly Mail.- Our tri-weekly Dallesmail seems destined to be no improvement uponthe old semi-monthly affair. It has now beenmore than a week since a mail was received herefrom the Dalles, during which time we shouldhave had four. Upon inquiring into the cause ofthis irregularity the other day we were given asone reason for the non-arrival of the mail that oneof the carriers was lying at Umatilla drunk, andhad been there for a week. As we fail to learnanything of the others, we reasonably concludethey are drunk also. The mails which have beensent out from here for the Dalles have been lyingat Wallula for more than a week on account ofthere being no carriers there to receive them."BibliographyForster, Dale E. Oregon Express Companies,Lake Oswego OR, 1985.U.S. Post Office Department. Records ofAppoimmens of Postmasters. Various date .Washington Statesman, Walla Walla, Washmgton, 1861-63.Page 14

Western ExpressApril 1992Auction Actionby Bill TathamFor this issue it's the marvelous "Edwards" Collection, a pseudonym for a beautifulcollection of covers sold by Christies of New York at auction on October'29, 1991. Christies putout another beautiful catalog. Unfortunately a few fakes crept into the sale, but these werewithdrawn or noted and offered "as-is" at sale time. Many lots did not sell, and it's believed that allthese lots have been sold to one person. Many lots sold for reasonable prices -- I don't think thereis any question that the market for express covers has been saturated. Only lots that sold are listed.Most lots sold for low estimate or less. The following lots sold for high estimate or above: 1060,1077, 1081, 1082, 1089, 1143, 1144, 1181, 1199, 1203, 1241, 1243, 1265, 1267, 1270, 1283,1284, 1304, 1307, 1309, 1317, 1319, 1322, 1323, 1324, 1326, 1342, 1352, 1365, 1383, 1384,and 1425.Illustrated Stagecoach EnvelopesThese are difficult to describe, so they are lumped together here. Such covers brought from 950 for acommon design from San Francisco to 2300 for a scarcer type from Angels Camp.Illustrated Railroad "Choo Choo" Propaganda Envelopes1m10161017DescriptionLarger train not in a lined boxSmaller train in a lined boxRealized3.2001.200Pony Express 103410351036Fine blue SF 'Running Pony' with St. Joseph CDS tying a 10 1857 with RED St. Joseph'Running Pony' on the back, addressed to ABRAHAM LINCOLNRED St. Joseph 'Running Pony' on front and choice strike with oval carmineCalifornia/Paid/Pony Express. A GEM!Choice blue SF 'Running Pony' clear of address and stamp with VF oval COC&PP Express Co.same as above on 12 black 1857, markings not as clearPony Express. The COC&PP Express Company/St. Joseph oval in circle in green. Choice.Red SF 'Running Pony'Blue oval Pony Express/Sacramento on 2 red 143Ll. A gem.Mss 'per Pony Express' to Confederate Virginia 2 red 143LI tied by blue SF 'Running Pony' on 10 star die envelope with Patriot design 1 red 143L3 tied by blue 'Running Pony' on 10 star die red WF Frank 2 green 134L4 with 10 1861 on red Wells Fargo franked 10 1861 envelopeNevada Pony cover with five 3 186ls on a 3 1861 envelope with 6 25 blue 143L8stamps, the largest multiple by far.An XF 143L9 25 redSimilar to lot 1034 but seven times rate with 00090.00016.50045.00020.0006.50020.000Western Expresses10371048105310591060106110

Dr. Heinz von Hungen MD 1134 Granger Ave. Modesto CA 95350-4035 Aprill992 . send check to R.H. Salz, 60 27th Ave., San Francisco CA 94121 . James Inverarity James Jacobitz MD Rev. Constant R. Johnson Karl Koons George Kramer James E. Krome Frank J. Liska