Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013Page 1
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013IntroductionAmateur radio has been around for a long time and has grown itself into a worldwide community oflicensed hams on the airwaves with all sorts of communications technology. Ham radio attractsthose who have never held a microphone as well as deep technical experts who grew up with asoldering iron and computer. Your United States Amateur Service license gives you the mostpowerful wireless communications capability available to any private citizen anywhere in the world.In the United States, amateur radio licensing is governed by the Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) under strict federal regulations. Licenses to operate amateur stations forpersonal use are granted to individuals of any age once they demonstrate an understanding of bothpertinent FCC regulations and knowledge of radio station operation and safety considerations.December 2012 marked one hundred years of amateur radio operator and station licensing by theUnited States government. Operator licenses are divided into different classes, each of whichcorrelates to an increasing degree of knowledge and corresponding privileges. Over the years, thedetails of the classes have changed significantly, leading to the current system of three openclasses and two grandfathered but closed to new applicants. The top US license class is AmateurExtra Class. The Extra Class license requires an applicant pass 35 of a 50 question multiple-choicetheory exam. Those with Amateur Extra licenses are granted all privileges on all US amateurbands.The ARRL Extra Class License description says it best; “General licensees may upgrade to ExtraClass by passing a 50-question multiple-choice examination. No Morse code test is required.In addition to some of the more obscure regulations, the test covers specialized operatingpractices, advanced electronics theory and radio equipment design. Non-licensed individualsmust pass Element 2, Element 3 and Element 4 written exams to earn an Extra License. TheFCC grants exam element 3 credit to individuals that previously held certain older types oflicenses. The HF bands can be awfully crowded, particularly at the top of the solar cycle.Once one earns HF privileges, one may quickly yearn for more room. The Extra Class license isthe answer. Extra Class licensees are authorized to operate on all frequencies allocated tothe Amateur Service.”The Extra Class workshop must cover a vast amount of material in six classes. This workshop willbe conducted as peers sitting around a table discussing a technical topic. This is the formatrequested as specific technical topics not a rote review of the questions. The material in this studyguide is formatted as abbreviated points or a quick reference format instead of slides. It is intendedthat the guide combined with the reference material supplied will have long-term value.The workshop is specially presented for those with amateur radio experience who want to learnmore. The workshop will primarily focus on technical aspects of the exam and regulatory questionsare expected to be self-study. This is intended to help members advance in the hobby we love andgive a little boost to those on the fence.Looking forward to congratulating you in your advancement to Amateur Extra Class,RickWD4JJIRichard SilverstonPresidentThe Villages Amateur Radio ClubPage 2
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013How to best use this guideThis study guide is written to help you understand the radio theory with a practical slant, notjust teach the answers, although the scope is limited to question pool topics due to the limitedworkshop time. This guide presents and explains the Extra Class License Exam questions bydiscussing each sub-group as an individual topic. There are fifty-four topics in this guidewhich represent approximately one for each of the fifty exam questions. This study guide isnot intended to circumvent reading the assigned ARRL textbook chapter(s) but to support abetter understanding of the radio theory.Start by reading the next few pages to be sure you have all your supplies and look at thesummary of the math required during the exam. This will give you time to order materialwithout the last minute rush.Everything is provided as a PDF format for your use. Determine how you want to read yourpersonal copy of this guide and supporting material. In today’s world an electronic readermay be the right choice or if you prefer paper you can print out the workshop material andplace it in a three-ring binder. Do not wait until the weekend prior to the workshop to prepare.Read the ARRL textbook completely before the workshops. You will not understandeverything but it will help put everything into perspective during the workshops.Take online practice tests prior to the workshops but don’t worry about the score yet.Online Practice ://kb0mga.net/exams/www.radioexam.orgA few days before each workshop read the ARRL textbook chapter(s) assigned and work theproblems. It is a good idea to work your problems in a notebook and bring it to class for yourreference and help finding where that decimal point got lost.Review the exam question group(s) assigned in this study guide to help focus on the keytakeaways and scribble down questions to ask during the workshop.Again, take the online practice tests and review the questions you failed in your ARRLtextbook and this guide.If you are still having trouble, review the technical references on the workshop CD ROM.These documents have much more detail and are explained in different ways from the book.You will find over a hundred technical references on the workshop CD ROM and you are notexpected to have time to read all of them. The references are arranged by Question PoolGroup Number; E0, E1, E2 E9 followed by a subject title and number (i.e.1,2,3). Start withtitle #1 and progress to the higher numbers as they increase in detail. If you have questionsabout decibels or just want more information read “E9-dB-1” before “E9-dB-2”.If you still are having difficulties with a question(s), the workshop discussion should clarify theproblem. Do NOT be self-conscious if you are having trouble understanding; it is very likelythe rest of the workshop is also not sure.This will be a discussion group format so every workshop is intended to address yourquestions even if they are not part of assignment, just be considerate of the workshop’slimited time.The last workshop will be devoted to topic(s) as requested.Page 3
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013Supplies you will needARRL Tenth Edition of the Extra Class License ManualARRL Extra Class License Manual 10th Edition ISBN: 978-0-87259-517-0for use July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2016Available from ARRL, book stores or ham radio retailersPencil/pen and note pad to take notes and work out problemsThe workshop CD-ROMYou will need access to a home computer to read the documents onthe workshop CD-ROM and to take practice exams.Scientific Calculator with the following functions; Add Subtract Divide Multiple Squares Square Roots Sine Cosine Arctan or tan-1 (Inverse Tangent) Base Ten Logarithms (10 x)The formal test will require you to clear your memory so purchase a calculator with little or no memory.You want to use the same calculator during home study, practice tests, workshop exercises and the realtest. Many points are lost to math errors so you want a calculator that you can operate with confidence.Page 4
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013Math you will need to useCalculationsAdd, Subtract, Divide & MultipleSquares & Square RootsSine & CosineArctan or tan-1 (Inverse Tangent)Base Ten Logarithms (10 x)The workshop and license exam requires you to use a small amount of algebra and trigonometry to solveproblems. Every equation you need to use is listed below. Working solving the example problems will help you beat ease with using the math. If you would like to learn a bit about trigonometry, or brush up on it, then you can butdo not lose focus on the radio theory. These equations are more of an introduction and guide and the actual examquestion calculations will be shown step by step during the workshop. For more help you should read the mathreference material on your CD-ROM.ConversionsdB to ratio ratio 10 (dB/10) Solve for 5.2 dB ? 10 (5.2dB / 10) 10 0.52 3.3110dB 1 3 dB 1.995 6 dB 3.981 9dB 7.943 12dB 15.849ratio to dB dB 10 x log ( ratio/10 ) Solve for 800 ? 10 x log (800) 10 X 2.9031 29.031dB2 3dB 75 18.75dB 500 26.99dB 1500 31.76dBInductor Impedance Ω 2 π FL 2 x π x MHz x uHSolve for 18 uH @ 3.505 MHz ? 3.505 x 18 396.41 ΩCapacitor Impedance Ω 1/ (2 π FC) 1/ (2 x π x MHz x uF)Solve for 38 pF @ 14 MHz ? 1 / (2 x 3.14 x 14 x 0.000038) 1 / 0.00334096 299.32 ΩSeries RLC Impedance Freq 1/[2π (LC)] Note the R drops out!Solve for 40 pF 50 uH 22 Ω ? 1/[6.28x (0.00005x0.00000000004)] 1/(2.808501379739736e-7) 3560618 Hz 3.56 MHzParallel RLC Impedance Freq 1/[2π (LC)] Note the R drops out and use same equation for resonance!Solve for 10 pF 25 uH 47 Ω ? 1/[6.28x (0.000025x0.00000000001)] 1/(9.929551852911e-8) 10.070948 MHzRC Time Constant TC (sec) R (MΩ) x C (uF) Solve for 440 pF 500K Ω ? 0.5 x 440 220 SecondsPolar to Rectangular Coordinates Magnitude at an angle or a vector X M x Cos ϑ and Y M x Sin ϑSolve for 200 at 30 X 200 x Cos 30 173.20Y 200 x Sin 30 100Rectangular to Polar Coordinates Magnitude [X Y ] and the angle tan -1 [Y / X]Solve for X 400 and Y 3002 2M [400 300 ] 250,000 500ϑ tan -1 [300/400] tan -1 (0.75) 36.87 22Page 5
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013TVARC 2013 Workshop Meeting ScheduleClass DateARRLChapQuestion Pool Group rev Dec 18, 2012E1Self StudySelf StudySelf StudySelf StudySelf StudySelf Study333333E1AE1BE1CE1DE1EE1FE5Mon 3/4Mon 3/4Mon 3/4Mon 3/44444E5AE5BE5CE5DE6Wed 3/6Wed 3/6Wed 3/6Wed 3/6Wed 3/6Wed 3/65554,55,65E6AE6BE6CE6DE6EE6FE7Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/11Mon 3/1156666566E7AE7BE7CE7DE7EE7FE7GE7HE8Wed 3/13Wed 3/13Wed 3/13Wed 3/137,8787E8AE8BE8CE8DCOMMISSION’S RULESOperating StandardsStation restrictions & special operationsStation controlAmateur Satellite serviceVolunteer examiner programMiscELECTRICAL PRINCIPLESResonance & Q: resonant circuitsTime constants & phase relationshipsImpedance plots & coordinate systemsAC & RF in real circuitsCIRCUIT COMPONENTSSemiconductorsSemiconductor diodesIntegrated circuitsOptical & ToroidsPiezoelectric crystals & MMICsOpticalPRACTICAL CIRCUITSDigital circuitsAmplifiers ClassesFilters & impedance matching networksPower supplies & voltage regulatorsModulation & demodulationFrequency markers & countersActive filters & op-ampsOscillators & signal sourcesSIGNALS & EMISSIONSAC waveformsModulation & demodulation methodsDigital signals: digital modesWaves, measurements, RF groundingPage 6
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013TVARC 2013 Workshop Meeting ScheduleClass DateARRLChapQuestion Pool Group rev Dec 18, 2012E2Wed 3/13Wed 3/13Wed 3/13Wed 3/13Wed 3/132822&88E2AE2BE2CE2DE2EE4Mon 3/18Mon 3/18Mon 3/18Mon 3/18Mon 3/187,8,97&987&87E4AE4BE4CE4DE4EE9Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Wed 3/20Self StudySelf StudySelf StudySelf PERATING PROCEDURESAmateur radio in spaceTelevision practicesDX; spread-spectrum; Operating FrequencyVHF and UHF digital modes; APRSHF digital modesAMATEUR PRACTICESTest equipmentMeasurement limitationsPhase noise, image rejection, S/NDynamic range, IMD, 3rd order interceptNoise suppressionANTENNAS & TRANSMISSION LINESIsotropic & gain antennasAntenna patternsWire & phased antennasDirectional antennasMatchingTransmission linesSmith ChartsEffective radiated powerRadio Direction Finding AntennasE3RADIO WAVE PROPAGATIONE3AE3BE3CEarth-Moon-Earth, meteor scatterLong path; gray-line; multi-path propagationAurora, fading; radio horizon; take-off angleE0SAFETYE0AAmateur radio safety practicesMon 3/25Topic(s) determined by class requestsWed 3/27VEC Testing all LevelsPage 7
Extra Class Exam Study GuideMarch 2013Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION . 2HOW TO BEST USE THIS GUIDE . 3SUPPLIES YOU WILL NEED . 4MATH YOU WILL NEED TO USE . 5TVARC 2013 WORKSHOP MEETING SCHEDULE . 6SUBELEMENT E0 – SAFETY - [1 exam question -– 1 group]E0A Safety: amateur radio safety practices; RF radiation hazards; hazardous materials . 10SUBELEMENT E1 - COMMISSION’S RULES [6 Exam Questions - 6 Groups]E1A Operating Standards . 15E1B Station restrictions and special operations . 17E1C Station control . 21E1D Amateur Satellite service . 22E1E Volunteer examiner program.
This study guide is written to help you understand the radio theory with a practical slant, not just teach the answers, although the scope is limited to question pool topics due to the limited workshop time. This guide presents and explains the Extra Class License Exam questions by discussing each sub-group as an individual topic. There are fifty-four topics in this guide which represent .