Original papersDEVELOPMENT OF THE INSULATION MATERIALS FROM COALFLY ASH, PERLITE, CLAY AND LINSEED OILFIGEN BALO, AYNUR UCAR*, HALIT LÜTFI YÜCEL*The Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Elazığ, Turkey*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazığ, TurkeyE-mail: [email protected] January 25, 2010; accepted June 11, 2010Keywords: Epoxidized linseed oil, Thermal conductivity, Mechanical properties, Fly ash, PerliteThe effect of coal fly ash (FA), clay (C), perlite (P) and epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) on the thermal and mechanical properties ofinsulation materials was investigated. The properties examined include density, thermal conductivity coefficient, compressivestrength and tensile strength. A number of insulation material compositions were prepared with the FA, C, perlite andELO. The results showed that compressive-tensile strength of the insulation material decreased when the high fly ash ratioand high epoxidized linseed oil ratio used in the preparation of the insulation material composition. The compressive andtensile strengths varied from 10.01 to 1.107 MPa and 8.38 to 1.013 MPa, respectively. The minimum thermal conductivityof 0.313 W/mK observed for the sample (L36) made with a 60% FA/30% C/10% P ratio and 50% ELO processed at 200 C.It is increased with the decrease of ELO and FA. Results indicate an interesting potential for the coal fly ash recycling andepoxidized linseed oil renewable to produce useful materials.INTRODUCTIONThe importance of renewable resource based products for industrial applications becomes extremelyclear in recent years with increasing emphasis on theenvironmental issues, waste disposal, and depleting nonrenewable resources. Renewable resource-based polymers can yield a platform to substitute petroleum-basedpolymers. Through innovative ideas in designing thenew biobased polymers which can compete or evensurpass with the existing petroleum-based materials ona cost-performance basis with the added advantage ofeco-friendliness. There is a growing urgency to developand commercialize new biobased products and otherinnovative technologies that can reduce widespreaddependence on fossil fuel and at the same time wouldenhance national security, the environment, and theeconomy [1].Seed oils have traditionally been used as dryingoils and raw materials for uralkyds and alkyd resin [2].Naturally occurring seed oils are triglycerides consistingof a mixture of saturated, oleic, linoleic, and linolenicfatty acid. Figure 1 shows an example of a triglyceridecontaining an oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acid.Seed oils are classified according to the linoleic182and linolenic acid content. A convenient method ofclassification is drying index [2, 3]. Linseed oil has oneof the highest drying indexes of the most common dryingoils conventionally used in paint and varnish industry.The carbon–carbon double bond on oleic, linoleicand linolenic fatty acid can be epoxidized by reactionwith peroxyacids, dioxirane, or hydrogen peroxide [4].Figure 1. (a) Oleic fatty acid; (b) linoleic fatty acid; and(c) linolenic fatty acid.Ceramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)

Development of the insulation materials from coal fly ash, perlite, clay and linseed oilThese epoxides can be polymerized by the reaction withamine containing monomers through the epoxy-aminecross-linking reaction. Epoxidized seed oils are usedextensively as an HCl scavenger for polyvinyl ether[5]. Epoxidized oils are also used as inks; however,epoxidized seed oils have found only modest applicationin specialty coating systems [6]. Epoxidized seed oils,such as epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and octyl epoxidelinseedate, are now commercially produced by variouscompanies, e.g. Athena Chemical Company, and theseepoxidized vegetable oils have found applications incoatings and in some cases as plasticizer additives [7].An example of a commercially available vegetable oilwith high iodine value is linseed oil. Linseed oil is awell known rich source of linolenic acid [8, 9]. Becauseunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to autoxidation andpolymerization, linolenic acid containing oils are widelyused in oil-modified alkyd resins and alkyd-emulsionpaints and varnishes [10,11]. Other applications areprinting inks, cloth oil, soaps, automobile brake linings,linoleum and binding agents [8, 9, 12]. Figure 2 showsan example of a typical epoxidation product of linseedoil [13].Figure 2. Chemical structure of ELO.The recycling of by-products and wastes representsan increasingly urgent problem for the immediate futureof human kind. One major by-product is coal fly ash,which is produced in significant amounts in Turkey.Currently, only a small percentage of fly ash is utilized,the remaining is being directly discharged into landfill,which is unsatisfactory solution both from ecological andeconomic point of view. Therefore, there is continuinginterest in establishing suitable processes in whichthey can be efficiently reused. The major constituentsof fly ash are SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 with some minorconstituents such as CaO, MgO and other oxides.Therefore, these oxides have been mainly consideredas a low cost material resource for the cement industry[14, 15]. The fly ash is also used in the manufacturingof brick [16], fly ash mineral-based polymer composites[17] ceramic tableware and artware [18]. Recent studieshave showed and alternative ways of the managementof coal fly ash in using in glass [19] and glass-ceramicsindustry [20, 21].Perlite is a material that can be used for insulationin buildings. In Turkey 8 billion tons of perlite exists,it is 70 % of world reserves. It is seen that perlite is avery important material for Turkish economy, and it canbe used as insulator owing to its low heat conductivity.Perlite is basically mineral obsidian. It is a vitreoussubstance that contains 2-6 % water. Binding materials such as cement, gypsum, lime, bitumen and clayare needed for manufacturing perlite brick. Perlite/clay bricks are some of the lightest ceramic materials.There have been various studies on perlite low heattransferring construction materials. Clay was used asa binder in many studies. In Czech Republic, 1982,wall dividing panels were manufactured with weightbatching 27% perlite, 3% fiberglass and 70% clay. Theunit weight, compressive strength, heat conductivity andporosity ratio were 950 kg/m3, 3.2 MPa, 0.21 kcal/mh1C and 69%, respectively. In Japan, a wall material wasmanufactured with 20% perlite and some epoxy resin.The unit weight, compressive strength, heat conductivityand porosity ratio were 980 kg/m3, 3.46 MPa, 0.22 kcal/mh 1C and 71.2%, respectively [22]. According to a studyon refractory perlite/clay bricks, the combination of 85%perlite aggregate and 15% clay by volume were usedto give the best combination of lightness and durability[23]. According to other study on isolative ceramics forimproved cooking stoves, perlite was made into a gradedmix before was combined with clay to form a brick. [24].In a recent study on humidity buffering by absorbentmaterials in walls, specially designed lightweight claymade from bentonite mixed with perlite gave an excellentperformance [25].In this study; fly ash, clay, perlite and epoxidizedlinseed oil are used to produce of insulation materials.The thermal and mechanical properties of obtained novelinsulation materials are investigated.EXPERIMENTALMaterialsELO, FA, C and P were used as raw materials formaking the insulation materials. All the materials wereused as received.Table 1. Range of chemical composition (%) of obtained FA from Afşin-Elbistan, P and C.FACPSiO2Al2O3Fe2O3CaOMgONa2OK 2OFeOTiO2Ignition ramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)183

Balo F., Ucar A., Yücel H. L.The commercial epoxidized linseed oil [The epoxidation catalyst was prepared with quaternary ammoniumtetrakis (diperoxotungsto) and phosphate (3-)] was purchased from Konsan Inc. (Adana, Turkey). Table 3 showsthe fatty acid composition of linseed oil. The physicaland chemical properties of the ELO that was used in thisstudy are given in Table 4.The fly ash was obtained from the coal burning powerstation located in Afşin-Elbistan (Maraş, Turkey). Theparticle size lies between 1 and 200 µm and the materialhas a density of 1.5 g/cm3 and a thermal conductivitycoefficient of 0.93 W/mK. According to ASTM C618,Afşin-Elbistan FA can be classified as Class C fly ash dueto its chemical composition.The clay was purchased from Aslan Corporation.It was obtained from Elazığ city (around of Sarıyakupvillage) of Turkey. Its density is 1.5 g/cm3 and thethermal conductivity coeffficient is 0.93 W/mK.The perlite was supplied from Izper Company (IzmirTurkey). Table 2 shows the physical characteristics of P.The chemical composition of FA, C and P are shownin Table 1. The content of SiO2 in perlite (76.5 wt.%) ismuch higher than that in clay (43.645 wt.%) and fy ash(21.33 wt.%), but the content of Al2O3 in clay (20.259wt.%) is lower than that in perlite (13.4 wt.%) and fly ashTable 2. Physical characteristics of P.ColourRefractive indexFree moisturepH of water slurrySpecific gravityBulk density (loose)Mesh sizeSoftening pointFusion temperatureThermal conductivity at 24 CSolubilitySpecific heatWhite1.50% max 0.500.50-8.02.2-2.450-400 kg/m34-8 mesh & finer870-1093 C1260-1343 C0.04-0.06 W/mK* Soluble in hot conc.Alkaili and in HF Moderately soluble in ( 10 %)in IN NaOH Slightly soluble in ( 3 %)in mineral acid (IN) Very slightly soluble ( 1 %)in water or weak acids837 j/kgkTable 3. Fatty acid composition of LO.Fatty acid compositionLinseed oil (% of total)Palmitic acid (C 16:0)Stearic acid (C 18:0)Oleic acid (C 18:1)Linoleic acid (C 18:2)Linolenic acid (C 18:3)Other5. wt.%). The content of CaO in fly ash (36.48 wt.%)is higher than that in clay (10.50 wt.%), but the contentof CaO in perlite isn’t present. The microstructurewas analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscope)whereas the main crystalline phases were identifiedby XRD (X-ray difraction). According to the XRDanalysis, the major mineral phases are quartz, calciteand mullite in fly ash, and that in clay are quartz andcalcite. The major mineral phases are quartz and mullitein perlite. The difference of chemical compositions andmineral phases among the raw materials would causethe firing parameters and mechanism and performanceof fly ash–perlite–clay samples are different from thatof clay samples. According to SEM investigations, Cgrain thickness is between 25 and 30 mm. and FA grainthickness is between 1 and 3 mm. (Figure 3). The SEMresult shows that bond with sintering are developedamong the C grains in the sample and can rarely becavitied. The cavites among the C grains are found about5 mm. A combination is obtained between FA and Cgrains. This combination is different from the C grains.Preparation of the samplesThe samples were made with ELO, FA, C and P.The percentage ratio of the weights of FA and C are30, 40, 50 and 60. ELO was added to the mixture inpercentages of 40, 45 and 50. The P ratio of 10 % wasused for all mixtures. The mix ratios for the samples areTable 4. Physical and chemical properties of ELO.PropertiesELOAppearance at normal temperatureBrillianceAcid valueIodine valueOxirane valueHeat conductivity coefficientDensity (25 C)Sabonification numberFlow pointBoiling pointIgnition pointViscosityRefractive index (25 C’de)Melting point in water (25 C)Loss on heatingWeight per t, antioxidant, flow agentand anti-foaming agents)Thick to yellow liquid (Pt–Co) : 402(KOH/g) :1.32 mg % 0.62% 9.40,163 W/mK0. 991-1.002 g/cm3194-887 C163 C321 C43 dPas (at 40 C)2.153 % 0.032 % 0.71170.4 g131.5 g11.0 g75 g11.4 gCeramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)

Development of the insulation materials from coal fly ash, perlite, clay and linseed oilgiven in Table 5. All the samples were blended for 5minin a laboratory counter-current mixer. Standard 100 mmcube were used for the determination of compressivestrength. The prism (150 60 20 mm) samples werecast for the determination of the thermal conductivitycoefficient of the sample. The compaction of the sampleswas obtained by means of vibration. After casting, all thetest samples were finished with a steel towel. The unfiredsamples were fired in an electric furnace using one ofthe three process temperatures. Predrying was obtainedat temperature 100 C. Firstly, the samples were fired attemperature 100 C for 12 h and then they are fired attemperatures 160, 180 and 200 C for 10 h in electricFigure 3. SEM photo of fired sample with 40 % ELO/30 %FA/60 % C/10 % P.furnace, respectively. The thirtysix different resultswere obtained for the twelve samples at three differentprocess temperatures. The standard temperatures andmix compositions were determined from the pretrial.The experimental studies were designed to determinethe heating conditions most favourable for the ELO/FA/C/P samples in relation to the properties of the finishedproducts, and to explore the possibilities of reducing thetemperatures below those normally used in the brickindustry.When process temperature was lower than 180 C,the sample wasn’t completely dry. When process temperature was above 200 C, deformation of sample begins;its structure starts to crack, at the same time partialfracture in sample happens. The different compositions of100 wt.% FA–C–P volume were maintained throughoutthe series of sample mixes. 100 wt.%: compositionsof FA, C and P were prepared using ELO and mixedin predetermined proportions to adjust the appropriatemoulding consistency to desired levels. The levelsof ELO were selected to give appropriate mouldingconsistency values ranging from 40 to 50 to samplemixes when treated with a fixed volume of sample. Thisvolume which imparts proper moulding consistency to asample mix was predetermined from blank trials. It wasfound from control tests. Figure 4 shows the productsdeveloped from ELO–FA–C–P after firing.Experimental procedureA quick thermal conductivity meter (Showa Denko)based on DIN 51046 hot wire methods were used tomeasure the thermal conductivity. In this method, the hotwire (Cr–Ni) and the thermoelement (Ni Cr–Ni), whichis soldered in the middle of it, is placed between twosamples. One sample has a known thermal conductivitycoefficient whilst the other is the sample to be investigated. Here, the thermal conductivity coefficient wasdetermined by using Eq. [1] [26](1)Figure 4. Solidified products developed from ELO, FA, P andC (after firing).where K and H are the constants of the ShothermQTM apparatus that are taken as 252.10-4 and 33.10-3,respectively.Table 5. The mix design and codes for samples at all temperatures.160 C40%45%50%40%60% Clay, 30% Fly ash, 10% Perlite50% Clay, 40% Fly ash, 10% Perlite40% Clay, 50% Fly ash, 10% Perlite30% Clay, 60% Fly ash, 10% PerliteCeramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 ELO180 C45%50%40%L5L14L23L32L6L15L24L33L7L16L25L34200 C45%50%L8L17L26L35L9L18L27L36185

Balo F., Ucar A., Yücel H. L.A quick thermal conductivity meter device is a production of Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing Co., Ltd.,Japan. Its sensitivy is given as 5% 1 digit andthe measurement range is stated as 0.02-10 W/mK.Measuring time is standart 100-120 s.Each measurement was repeated three times and atthree different locations for each sample. The thermalconductivity coefficient, k, was computed by using theaverage of these nine k values.This method has wide applications [27-29] in determining thermal conductivity of refractory materialswhere, instead of measuring heat flow, the temperaturevariation with time at certain locations is measured.Being transient in nature, this method takes only a fewminutes in contrast to the earlier methods involvingsteady-state conditions.The mechanical tests were performed in the FıratUniversity Engineering, Construction Department Laboratories. The density and compressive strength (ovendried) were evaluated for each sample using test procedures described in the TS 699 (1987) standard.The results were appraised using equations from TS699. The compressive strength of samples was testedusing a Turkish Beskom Material Testing Machine(Compressive Testing Machine) Model BC 100. Themaximum rate of pressure applied for this compressivetesting machine was 200 t. Results were obtained using acomputer connected to the compressive testing machine.The compressive strength values after firing at differentprocess temperatures (160, 180 and 200 C) are presentedin Figure 7.The tensile strength of samples is determined byEq.(2) [30] and presented in Figure 8.thermal conductivity. Lu-Shu et al. [31] also reported thatthermal conductivity increased with increasing density.There are numerous studies [32, 33, 34] reporting thatincrease in density results in higher thermal conductivitycoefficient. Additionally, Demirboğa [35], Uysal et al.a) 160 C(2)RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONb) 180 CDensityRelationship between density and ELO content isshown in Figure 5. As can be seen from Figure 5, therewas a reasonably good relationship between ELO anddensity. Taking into account the heterogeneous nature ofthe sample, the general relationship between ELO anddensity is pooled together for all results in Figure 5. Thedensities are varied between 1.629 and 1.039 g/cm3. Thehighest value of density, 1.629 g/cm3, is determinatedfor the sample with a 10% P/30% FA/60% C ratio and40% ELO processed at 160 C. The highest thermalconductivity coefficient is obtained for this value ofdensity. The lowest value of density, 1.039 g/cm3, ismeasured for the sample with a 10% P/60% FA/30%C ratio and 50% ELO processed at 200 C. The lowestthermal conductivity coefficient is obtained for this valueof density. Reduction in density is caused a reduction in186c) 200 CFigure 5. The density- ELO percent relation in the samples.Ceramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)

Development of the insulation materials from coal fly ash, perlite, clay and linseed oila) 160 Ca) 160 Cb) 180 Cb) 180 Cc) 200 Cc) 200 CFigure 6. The thermal conductivity coefficient - ELO percentrelation in the samples.Figure 7. The compressive strength - ELO percent relation inthe samples.Ceramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)187

Balo F., Ucar A., Yücel H. L.[36], Akman et al. [37] and Blanco et al. [38] also reportedthat thermal conductivity decreased due to the decreaseof concrete density. Lu-Shu et al. [39] experimentallyformulated a correlation between the density and thermalconductivity, and reported that the thermal conductivityincreased with increasing density.The variation of density with the temperature isgiven in Figure 5. From this, it can be seen that the density decreased with an increase in temperature. Themaximum density (Sample code: L1) was observedat 160 C. At 180 and 200 C the density of the sampledecreased 4.72 % and 12.95 %, respectively. Figure 5.shows that an increase in the amount of FA brings abouta reduction in the sample body density. The main reasonfor such a trend is porous nature of the FA, which is apozzolanic material. Generally, the density of the samplesincreases with increasing C content of the sample, a resultthat is mainly associated with the relatively high densityof C in comparison to FA. The increase in ELO contentis resulted in a decrease in density of the samples. Thesamples are revealed the lowest density values for 50%ELO replacement. The densities of samples are increased by 2.08-17.53 % for 40% ELO replacement and1.42-9.88 % for 45% ELO replacement.Thermal conductivityThe variation of thermal conductivity of sampleswith ELO and FA is shown in Figure 6. This figuredemonstrates that the highest value of the thermalconductivity is obtained for samples produced with60% C. Further, the graph declines drastically withincreasing FA, and the maximum reduction in thethermal conductivity of sample occurred at the maximumFA (60%). For 40%, 50% and 60% FA, the reductionswere 4.23%, 8.99% and 17.19%, respectively, comparedto the corresponding the sample with 30% FA and 50%ELO processed at 2000C. This is because the thermalconductivity decreased with increasing FA content. Thereduction in thermal conductivity of sample by means ofFA is probably related to the increase of porosity due tothe addition of FA in ELO–C, the lower specific gravityof FA, and partly to the amorphous structure of FA, sincethe thermal conductivity of crystalline silica is about15 times that of amorphous [40], it is natural for thesamples with amorphous silica to have lower conductivity [41, 42].The thermal conductivity values of samples measured at three different process temperatures (160, 180and 200 C) have been shown in Figure 6. The minimumthermal conductivity of samples made at 160 180 and200 C were 0.418, 0380 and 0.313 W/mK, respectively.The lowest value of thermal conductivity, 0.313 W/mK,is measured for the sample with a 60% FA/30% C/10%P ratio and 50% ELO processed at 200 C. The highestvalue of thermal conductivity, 0.472 W/mK, is obtainedfor the sample with 30% FA/60% C/ 10% P ratio and40% ELO treated at 160oC. The high process temperaturedecreased the thermal conductivity of sample andthe reductions were 9.09% (at 180 oC) and 25.11% (at200oC), respectively, compared to the samples at 160 oC.This is probably related to the increase of porosity dueto the high process temperature. Reduction in thermalconductivity causes a reduction in density [43].Likewise, the samples are revealed the lowestthermal conductivity values with ELO content of 50%.The thermal conductivities of samples are increased by5.50–8.21 % with ELO content of 40 and 3.07-5.15%with ELO content of 45% at 200 oC. Thus we can saythat in our study ELO (50% by weight of sample) andFA (60% by weight of sample) at 200 C are decreasedthermal conductivity by 21.75%.When the C usage increased, that is, the amountsof FA used decreased, the thermal conductivity risesaccordingly. This is because of the high density and lowporous properties of the C.The thermal conductivityfor the sample with a 60% FA/30% C/ 10% P ratio and50% ELO processed at 200oC, is 0.313 W/m K, whichis much less than the 0.378 W/m K for the sample witha 30% FA/60% C/ 10% P ratio and 50% ELO processedat 200 C.This can be explained by the low porousstructure, which lead to the high thermal conductivity.Table 6. The thermal conductivity values measured by Shotherm QTM Aparatus in different materials [26, 44].MaterialGypsum thin plaster (Perlite)Gypsum rough plaster (Perlite)Plaster With Cement (Perlite)Gypsum Block(Perlite)Cement Block(Perlite)StrophoreYtongBrick WallSample with ELO, FA, C and P188Measure ValuesValues in LiteratureDensity(gr/cm3)Tavr( C)k(W/mK)Density(gr/cm3)Tavr( 30.972–Ceramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)

Development of the insulation materials from coal fly ash, perlite, clay and linseed oilDecreasing the amounts of C will increase the thermalconductivity of the sample. The increases in thermalconductivity induced by 40, 50 and 60% C are 9.01,13.53 and 20.76% compared to the corresponding thesample with 30% C and 50% ELO processed at 200 C,respectiThermal conductivies of some types of plastermaterials used at present [44] and the most useful of thesamples prepared by ELO, FA, P and C in this study aregiven at Table 6. It can be seen this table that the thermalconductivity coefficient of insulation samples made byELO, FA, P and C are less than the some values stated atT.S.E. standards.Compressive strengthFigure 7 shows the compressive strength of thesamples at various process temperatures (160, 180 and200 C). The process temperature is affected the strengthof samples to a considerable extent. As seen in the figure,compared to 160 C, the effects of the high processtemperature on the compressive strength of the sampleis negative. The samples produced at 160oC show higherstrength than the samples produced at 180 and 200 C.The compressive strength values are inverselyproportionate with the percentages ELO and FA. Thestrength dramatically decreases with an increase in thereplacement level of ELO and FA. The rate of increasein the compressive strength of the sample is higher whenthe amount of the C content increases. The FA reducedcompressive strength of sample at all process temperature.Reductions were very high at 200 C, but with decreasein process temperature the reduction percent decreased.Reductions at 160 C with 50% ELO were 1.03%, 2.27%and 3.61% for 40%, 50% and 60% FA, respectively,compared to the corresponding the samples with 30% FA.Reduction rate decreased significantly with increasingprocess temperature. Thus, at 200 C with 50% ELO,these values reduced to 2.01%, 4.03% and 6.15% for40%, 50% and 60% FA, respectively. These observationsare consistent with the results of other studies [45-50].Balo and coworkers produced composite materials withdifferent epoxidized vegetable oils–FA–C and analyzedthe physical-mechanical properties of these materials.Their use as an insulation material investigated. Whenincreasing the FA ratio and increasing the epoxidizedvegetable oil ratio, low compressive-tensile strength,low thermal conductivity, and high abrasion loss obtained [45-48]. The minimum thermal conductivity of0.273 W/mK is observed with the samples containingepoxidized soybean oil–FA–C. It is increased withthe decrease of epoxidized soybean oil and FA. Thecompressive and tensile strengths are varied from 13.53to 6.31 MPa and 1.287 to 0.879 MPa, respectively [49].The minimum thermal conductivity of 0.255 W/mK isobserved with the samples containing epoxidized palmCeramics – Silikáty 54 (2) 182-191 (2010)a) 160 Cb) 180 Cc) 200 CFigure 8. The tensile strength - ELO percent relation in thesamples.189

Balo F., Ucar A., Yücel H. L.oil–FA–C. The compressive and tensile strengths arevaried from 4.26 to 1.5 MPa and 0.722 to 0.428 MPa,respectively [50].Thus, it can be said that samplecontaining FA showed a reduction in strength at 160, 180and 200 oC as a function of weight percentage. This canbe directly related to the properties of FA that decreasethe compressive strength of sample and required lowprocess temperature. In addition, the process temperatureof the sample is an important factor influencing thecompressive strength of various samples [50]. The bestsample properties with the samples containing epoxidizedolive oil–FA–C are determinated as follows: thermalconductivity of 0.258 W/mK, compressive strength of4.37 MPa, tensile strength of 0.731 MPa, abrasion lossof 1.04% and mass of 198.72 g. The lowest value of thethermal conductivity, compressive-tensile strength andmass in produces was obtained for sample produced with50% epoxidized olive oil /70% FA/30%C. The lowestvalue of the abrasive loss was determinate for sampleproduced with 40% epoxidized olive oil /30% FA/70%C [51].The effect of ELO on compressive strength isalso significant. The maximum compressive strengthof samples made with 40%, 45% and 50% ELO at160 C were 10.01, 9.83 and 9.68 MPa, respectively.The compressive strength of sample decreased withincreasing of ELO. Reductions for samples producedwith 60% FA at 200oC compressive strength were 1.83%and 4% for 45% and 50% ELO, respectively, comparedto the corresponding the samples with 40% ELO.Increasing the process temperature resulted in a decreaseof reduction values of compressive strength due to highvolume ELO, compared to the sample made with 50%ELO at 200oC compressive strength.The use of C in samples improves the compressivestrength of these products. The results show the positiveeffect of C on the compressive strength of sample. Thehighest compressive strength and the density were measured in the sample with 40% ELO processed at 160 C[sample code: L1 (10.01 MPa)], which contain highestamount of C. The compressive strengths decreased 1.39,3.09 and 4.99%, for samples with 40% ELO processedat 160 C due to 50, 40 and 30% C, respectively. Thecompressive strength of the sample with 60% C and 40%ELO processed at 160 C was found to be 2.89% higherthan that of sample processed at 1800C and 7.09% higherthan that of sample processed at 200 C. The compressivestrength [sample code: L30 (9.33 MPa)] of sample with30% C and 50% ELO processed at 1600C was found tobe 6.75% higher than that of sample processed at 1800Cand 10.18% higher than that of sample processed at2000C. Sample L1 had the highest compressive strengthwhich was 6.79% higher than that of sample L30 and16.28% higher than that of sample L36. The compressivestrengths of the all series samples were about three timeslower than that of the traditional bricks with cement.190Tensile strengthThe tensile strength values are obtained by usingEquation (2) and the compressive strength values. Thesevalues are plotted in Figure 8. The interpretations ofgraphs connected with the tensile strength values aresimilar to the compressive strength values. The tensilestrength values are varied between 1.013 and 1.107 MPa.CONCLUSIONSIn this study we demonstrated that it is possible toutilize fly ash, perlite, clay and epoxidized linseed oilas alternative raw material resources for the productionof the insulation material. On the basis of the resultsreported in the present investigation, the followingconclusion can be drawn:1. The addition of FA and ELO into insulation materialcomposition decreases the compressive-tensilestrength and thermal conductivity coefficient values.2. The lowest value of thermal conductivity is measuredfor the sample processed at 200 C. The highest valuesof com

manufactured with 20% perlite and some epoxy resin. The unit weight, compressive strength, heat conductivity and porosity ratio were 980 kg/m3, 3.46 MPa, 0.22 kcal/m h 1C and 71.2%, respectively [22]. According to a study on refractory perlite/clay bricks, the combination of 85% perlite aggregate and 15% clay by volume were used