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EXPORT GRADING RULESFORSOUTHERN PINE LUMBEREFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1982SUPERCEDES THE GCC ‘23Copyright 1981 bySouthern Pine Inspection BureauPensacola, FL

FOREWORDManufacturers, exporters and importers of Southern Pine lumber and timber have traditionallyused GCC ’23 Rules to conduct their business. Since GCC ’23 Rules provide for a heartwoodcontent that is no longer available, these EXPORT RULES are issued to provide for the grades thatare being shipped. Shipment may be any species of Southern Pine.

GENERAL RULES1. In the absence of special contract, exception or specification, Southern Pine lumber ortimber sold or bought under this Export Rule shall be subject to provisions includedherein to applicable provisions of SPIB Standard Grading Rules. Southern Pine lumber andtimber conforming to this Export Rule is eligible for grade-marking.2. All lumber shall contain only sound wood, free from any form of decay except as gradespecifications limit or include.3. Rough lumber shall be well manufactured, square butted with saw and full to size exceptas grade specifications provide.4. Unless otherwise specified in the contract of purchase and sale, all lumber shall be roughand shall not be less than the size requirement as provided in the individual gradecategories. Dressed and worked lumber sizes, unless otherwise specified, shall be thosepublished in the latest edition of the SPIB Standard Grading Rules.5. In the measurement of a knot, the average of the maximum and minimum diameterdetermines the size of a knot unless otherwise specified.6. When the term “percent” is used in relation to defects, reference is made to pieces; forexample, “eighty percent free from knots” means that 80 of every 100 pieces shall befree from knots except in the limitation as to percentage free of knots. No account shallbe taken of knots 1/3 (or less) of the diameter of the maximum knot allowed in thegrade, provided that knots covered by this exception are sound and do not exceed themaximum diameter of 3/4” .7. Wane shall be measured across its face, unless otherwise specified and the limits apply torough and dressed alike unless otherwise specified. In grades allowing wane, same maybe anywhere on the corners of the piece and need not be continuous, but the aggregatemust not exceed the total allowance.8. Lumber shall be considered bright if the discoloration is such that it can be eliminated byreasonable dressing or planing, or if the discoloration does not exceed 1/5 the width ofthe piece.9. When the terms “no sap stain permitted” or “free from sap stain” are used in gradedescriptions, it is construed to mean that lumber contains no visible or concealed sapstain.10. Medium grain lumber averages on either one end or the other not less than 4 annualrings per inch, measured over a portion of the radial line from the pith as required indense, paragraph 12.

11. Dense grain lumber averages on either one end or the other not less than 6 annual ringsper inch and not less than 1/3 summerwood, measured over a radial line from the pith asdescribed in paragraph 12. Contrast in color between springwood and summerwoodshall be distinct. Pieces that average not less than 4 annual rings per inch shall beaccepted as dense if they average 1/2 or more summerwood.12. Measurement of density shall be made in such a way as to insure that the measuredradial line is representative. Measurement shall be made over a continuous length ofthree inches or as nearly three inches as is available. The length shall be centrally locatedin side cut (pithless) pieces. In pieces containing the pith, the measurement may excludean inner portion of the radius amounting to 1/4 of the least nominal dimension of thepiece.13. Heartwood or sapwood, or a combination of both, is permitted in the grades described inthis grading rule except as specifically required or restricted. Red heart, if firm or sound,is not a defect, unless expressly excluded in the particular grade herein described.14. Inspection of lumber is not an exact science because it is based on a visual inspection ofeach piece and on the judgement of the grader, but these rules are sufficiently explicit toestablish 5% below grade as a reasonable variation in judgement between inspectors;therefore a variation of not more than 5% of the quantity upon reinspection shall notdisturb the original inspection. Lumber must be inspected for grade in the form in whichit was shipped; any subsequent change in manufacture or mill work will relieve the sellerof responsibility of recognizing any grade complaint.

20KILN DRIED SAPSSizes (Rough):7/8” x 3” and wider through 3” x 3” and widerMoisture Content: 19% or lessLengths: 10’ and up; 5% 8’ and 9’ allowed. If lineal average required it must be specified.Characteristics permitted and limiting provisions for both wide faces shall be: Checks – medium surface checks (not over 1/32’ wide and not over 10” long) Compression Wood – prohibited if in readily identifiable and damaging form Firm red heart – not over 25% of face area Knots – sound and tight, limited to one 1-1/8” in 4” widths, one 1-1/4” in 6” widths, one1-1/2” in 8” and one 1-3/4” for 10” and wider, to each 6’ of length or fraction thereof;provided that 70% of the pieces shall be free of knots.(The distribution of knots need not be proportionate, i.e., one to each 6’ or fractionthereof means that a piece 24’ long may have four knots anywhere in the piece, and notone knot in each separate 6’.) Pitch – not over 25% of face area, pitch pockets over 1/4” wide shall be considered equalto a 1’ knot Scantness – must be full nominal thickness, but allowing width to be 3/8” scant ofnominal in 3” to 6” widths and 1/2” scant of nominal in 8” to 12” widths Shakes – none permitted Splits – permitted in the ends only and length may not exceed the width of the piece Stain – no sap stain permitted Wane – 20% of the pieces will permit wane not to exceed 1/6 the width and 1/2 thethickness and extending 1/6 the length of the piece on one corner, or the equivalent ontwo or more corners. The remaining 80% of the shipment must be free of wane Warp – medium if under 2” thick; very light if 2” and over

FINISH and BOARDSSizes (Rough):7/8” x 3” and wider through 3” x 3” and widerMoisture Content: 15% or lessLengths: 10’ and up; 7% 8’ and /or 9’ allowed and 5% 6’ and/or 7’ allowed. If lineal averagerequired, it must be specifiedThere are three grades of Finish: C&Btr Both Faces, C&Btr and D. There is one grade of Boards:No. 2 Export Boards:30C&BTR BOTH FACESThis quality is required to meet the requirements of the C&Btr on both faces except that throughchecks are not permitted.31C&BTR FINISHCharacteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Checks – medium surface checks (not over 1/32” wide and not over 10” long); throughchecks not over 1/32” wide are allowed if not longer than width of piece Compression wood – prohibited if in readily identifiable and damaging form Firm red heart – on not over 25% of face Holes – average of not over 6 pin holes (1/16” or less) per surface foot Knots – sound or firm and tight, limited to small size (not over 3/4”) except one medium(over 3/4” and not over 1-1/2”) allowed also in 5” and 6” widths, and two medium inwidths over 6”, but sum of diameter of all knots in any 4’ length must not exceed twicediameter of maximum single knot allowed Scantness – rough must be full nominal thickness, but allowing width to be 3/8” scant ofnominal in 3” to 6” widths and 1/2” scant of nominal in 8” to 12” widths. When surfaced:Standard C manufacture; very light face and edge skip for 6” or equivalent area if not fullwidth Pitch – light pitch only, small closed pitch pockets, except one medium allowed also in 5”and 6” widths, and two medium in widths over 6”; medium pitch streaks Pith – small (3/4 square inch or less) Shakes – light (not over 1/32” wide) if not through and not longer than width of piece Splits – short (not longer than width of piece) Stain – no sap stain permitted

32Wane – not to exceed 1/8” deep or 1/2” wideWarp – medium if under 2” thick, very light if 2” and over (Reverse side not lower than DFinish)D FINISHCharacteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Checks – large surface checks (not over 1/16” wide and not over 20” long); mediumthrough checks (not over 1/32” wide and not over 10” long); large through checks if faceside is otherwise C&Btr Compression wood – not restricted Firm red heart – on entire face Holes – an average of not over 12 pin holes (1/16” or less) per surface foot Knots – decayed small knots (not over 3/4”) permitted if their surface is smooth and evenwith the surrounding surface; sound, firm, encased and pith knots limited to small size in2”, 3” and 4” widths, medium (not over 1-1/2”) in 5” and 6” widths, and 2” in 8”, 10” and12” widths; all knots must be tight; sum of diameters of all knots in any 4’ of length mustnot exceed twice diameter of maximum single knot allowed Scantness – rough must be full nominal thickness, but allowing width to be 3/8” scant ofnominal in 3” to 6” widths and 1/2” scant of nominal in 8” to 12” widths. When surfaced:Standard D manufacture; light skip not to exceed 10% of face; hit or miss on edges exceptscant width from skip not over 1/32” for each inch of nominal width. Pitch, pitch pockets, pitch streaks – medium pitch, medium closed pitch pockets andmedium pitch streaks; if face side otherwise as good as C&Btr, large pitch streaks orequivalent in heavy pitch, and one large closed pitch pocket in 5” and 6” widths or two inwidths over 6” allowed; medium through pitch pockets allowed also if face sideotherwise as good as C&Btr Pith – not longer than 1/6 length of piece Shakes – light (not over 1/32” wide) if not through Splits – medium (not over 1/6 length of piece) Stain – no sap stain permitted Wane – not to exceed either 1/4” deep or 1/8 width or 1/3 length Warp – heavy warp if under 2” thick; light warp if 2” and over(Reverse side shall be free of defects which might prevent its use for the purposeintended under these rules except that the diameter of sound knots may not exceed ½the width and decayed knots may not exceed 1/4 the width. Wane on reverse sidelimited to 1/2” deep and may not exceed either 1/4 the width or 2” wide)

33No. 2 EXPORT BOARDSSizes (Rough):1” X 2” and wider through 1-1/2” X 2” and wider(This grade is usually shipped as a dressed or worked item but if shipped rough, the thicknessmay not be scant of nominal but allowing width to be 3/8” scant of nominal in 3” to 6” widths,1/2” scant of nominal in 8” and wider.)Characteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Decay – in streaks of heart-center decay not to exceed 1/2” wide by 1/4 the length ofpiece, or equivalent in unsound red heart Holes – pin holes (1/16” or less) Knots – sound, firm and encased knots, but must be tight and limited to:Nominal WidthAllowable Knot 1/2”8”3”10”3”12”3-1/2” Manufacture – Standard “E” Pitch, Pitch Pockets and Pitch Streaks – not limited Pith – not limited Shakes, Check and Splits – not limited, except through shakes , through checks, and splitslimited to 1/6 the length of piece – but must be close fitting Skips – medium skip allowed on face not to exceed 25% of the face. Hit or miss (1/16”)dressing on reverse side. Hit or miss on edge may be scant in width up to 1/8” Stain – light on not over 20% of face of any piece Wane – not to exceed either 1/4” deep or 1/8 width or 1/3 length of face and limited to1/2” deep on reverse side; in dressed and matched wane shall not be so deep as toextend into the tongue or over 1/2 the thickness of top lip of groove, or for over 1/2 thethickness of face lap on ship lap Warp – heavy(Reverse side shall be free of defects which might prevent its use for sheathing and othergeneral used except that sound knots are permitted. In worked and matched lumber,wane on reverse side may destroy the tongue or lower lip or the bottom lap for 1/6 thelength providing the wane does not exceed 1/3 the width except short wane dippermitted provided it does not enter either tongue or groove or extend more than 1/2the thickness of the bottom lap.)

40EXPORT DIMENSION SPECIFICATIONSSizes (Rough):2” X 2” and wider through 4” X 4” and wider40.1There are two grade qualities of export dimension: No. 1 Export and No. 2 Export(These grades are usually shipped as a dressed or worked item but if shipped rough, thethickness may not be scant of nominal but allowing width to be 3/8” scant of nominal in 3” to 6”widths and 1/2” scant of nominal in 8” and wider.)40.2Lengths: 10’ and longer except 5% of 6’ and 7% of 8’ permitted40.3Moisture content: 19% or less41No. 1 EXPORTCharacteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Check – surface seasoning check, not limited. Through checks at ends are limited as splits Knots – sound, firm and encased knots, tight and well-spaced, are permitted in size not toexceed the following or equivalent displacement:NominalAt EdgeCenterlineWidthsWide FaceWide 3-1/8”4”*In 3 X 4 and 4 X 4 sizes, a 1-1/2” knot is permitted anywhere on the 4” face Manufacture – Standard “E”

42Pitch and Pitch Streaks – not limitedPockets – pitch or bark – not limitedShakes – on ends lmited to 1/2 the thickness. Away from ends several heart shakes up to2’ long, none throughSkips – hit and miss skips in 10% of piecesSlope of grain – 1” in 10”Splits – equal in length to width of the pieceStain – light on not over 20% of face of any pieceWane – 1/4 the thickness, 1/4 the width. 5% of the pieces may have wane up to 1/2 thethickness and 1/3 the width for 1/4 the lengthWarp – 1/2 of mediumNo. 2 EXPORTCharacteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Checks – seasoning checks are not limited. Through checks at ends are limited as splits Knots – sound and tight knots are permitted in the following sizes or their equivalentdisplacement:Nominal WidthAnywhere on Wide 1/2”10”4-1/4”12”4-3/4” Manufacture – Standard “E” Pitch and Pitch Streaks – not limited Pockets – pitch and/or bark – not limited Shakes – on ends limited to 1/2 the thickness. Away from ends, through heart shakesmay be 3’ long or up to 1/4 the length, whichever is greater Skips – allowing up to 1/8” undersize in thickness and width Slope of grain – 1” in 4” Splits – equal to width of piece Stain – light on not over 20% of face of any piece Unsound Wood – in spots or streaks limited to 1/3 the thickness and 1/3 the width Wane – 1/4 the thickness, 1/4 the width. 5% of the pieces may have wane up to 1/2 thethickness and 1/3 the width for 1/4 the length Warp – light

50EXPORT PRIMESizes (Rough):1-1/2” X 4” and wider through 4” X 4” and widerMoisture Content: 19% or lessLengths: 8’ and longer. If lineal average required, it must be specified.Characteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be:Medium grain to dense grain required Checks – in thicknesses of 2-1/2” and less large surface checks (not over 1/16” wide andnot over 20” long); in 3” and thicker, checks limited to 1/8” wide and 20” long. Nothrough checks permitted except through at ends limited as split Firm red heart – not to exceed 25% of the area of the face Compression wood – prohibited if in readily identifiable and damaging form Knots – 70% of the pieces free of knots on one side and two edges. Knots up to 2”diameter permitted on the face side of the remaining 30% if sound, tight and wellscattered. Knots on reverse side, if sound, tight and well scattered may be up to 2” indiameter. Pitch – pitch, pitch pocket not considered a defect Scantness – must be full nominal thickness, but allowing width to be 3/8” scant ofnominal in 4” to 6” widths and 1/2” scant of nominal in 8” to 12” widths. When surfaced:Light face skip for 6” or equivalent area if less than full width, medium narrow face skip Shakes – through shake prohibited except if at ends through shake limited as split Splits – permitted at ends only and length may not exceed the width of piece Stain – no sap stain permitted Wane – 20% of the pieces will permit wane not to exceed 1/6 the width and 1/2 thethickness and extending 1/6 the length of the piece on one corner, or the equivalent ontwo or more corners Warp – heavy if under 2”thick, light if 2” and over60MERCHANTABLE SAWN TIMBERSSizes (Rough):6” X 6” and largerMoisture Content: any stage of seasoning

Lengths: 10’ and longer. Lineal average must be specified if requiredMerchantable Sawn Timbers must be dense grain, and admit: Checks – large surface checks Compression wood – prohibited if in readily identifiable and damaging form Firm red heart – not to exceed 25% of area of the face on which it appears Holes – none permitted Knots – sound and tight if well scattered not to exceed the following:Nominal WidthSize ofof 3-1/8”Over 12”3-1/2” Pitch – pitch and pitch pockets no defect Scantness – must be full nominal size unless otherwise specified Shakes – must be free from shakes extending to the surface Splits – none permitted Stain – sap stain no defect Unsound Wood – none permitted Wane – 1/6 width of any face and not to exceed 1/3 the length except wane notexceeding 5/8” across the face is not considered as wane Warp – very light(Note: Merchantable Sawn Timbers do not limit or restrict sapwood; however, if heartwoodis to be required it must be specified.)70SAWN FLITCHESSizes (Rough):1” X 6” and wider (average) though 4” X 6” and wider (average)Measurements: Flitches should be sawn full so they will be full nominal thickness after drying.Flitches less than full thickness after drying shall be measured as the next lower nominalthickness and not reduced in grade.The width of a flitch is measured at mid-length of the piece on the narrow face and the width forpurposed of tall shall be the width of the narrow face plus one wane. Widths containing fractionsless than 1/2” shall be lowered to the next inch, and fractions 1/2” or more shall be counted asthe next higher inch.

Moisture Content: 19% or lessLengths: 10’ and longer. Lineal average must be specified if required.Flitches are usually sawn from butt or No. 1 logs free of visual defects such as knots, unsoundwood or other growth characteristics that affect quality. Flitches must be medium to densegrain.Characteristics permitted and limiting provisions shall be: Checks – large surface checks (not over 1/16” wide and not over 20” long.) No throughchecks permitted. Compression wood – prohibited if in readily identifiable and damaging form Firm red heart – not over 25% of face area Holes – none permitted Knots – 80% of the pieces must be free of knots on one face and two edges. Sound andtight knots up to 1-1/2” diameter allowed on the face side of the remaining 20% if wellscattered. On the reverse side, sound and tight knots up to 1-1/2” diameter; providedthey do not touch the edge. Spike knots not allowed on either face. Pitch – pitch and pitch pockets no defect Scantness – must be full nominal thickness Shakes – none permitted Splits – permitted in ends only and length may not exceed the average width of piece Stain – no sap stain permitted(Note: Heartwood is permitted but no minimum is required.)

1. In the absence of special contract, exception or specification, Southern Pine lumber or timber sold or bought under this Export Rule shall be subject to provisions included herein to applicable provisions of SPIB Standard Grading Rules. Southern Pine lumber and timber conforming to this Export Rule is eligible for grade-marking. 2.