ContentsCreating Accessible PDF Documents with Adobe Acrobat XI (11) Professional for Windows. 5Description. 6Overview of Creating Accessible PDF Documents with Acrobat XI. 7Creating Accessible PDF Documents from MS Office Documents. 9Structured Text in MS Word. 9Textual Descriptions for Non-Textual Content in MS Word. 11Table Headers in MS Word. 12Converting to PDF from MS Word. 13Creating the PDF Document from MS Office (Summary). 16Options for Converting Different Existing PDF Documents. 17Adobe Acrobat Accessibility. 19Enhancing Accessibility of PDF Documentsin Acrobat Pro. 21The TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 25Adding Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 26Removing Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 27Reclassifying Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 28Evaluating and Controlling Reading Order. 29Adding Alternative Text to Images in PDF Documents. 32Fixing Tables. 33Table Inspector. 33Defining Table Headers. 34Forms with Adobe Acrobat Pro. 37Creating Accessible Interactive Forms. 37Radio Buttons and Checkboxes. 39PDF Documents and Web Browsers. 41For Adobe Acrobat. 41For Adobe Reader. 41Using JAWS with Adobe Reader. 41Forms with Adobe LiveCycle Designer. 43

Creating Accessible PDF Documents with Adobe Acrobat X (10) Professional forWindows. 49Description. 50Overview of Creating Accessible PDF Documents with Acrobat X. 51Creating Accessible PDF Documents from MS Office Documents. 53Structured Text in MS Word. 53Textual Descriptions for Non-Textual Content in MS Word. 55Table Headers in MS Word. 56Converting to PDF from MS Word. 57Creating the PDF Document from MS Office (Summary). 59Options for Converting Different Existing PDF Documents. 61Enhancing Accessibility of PDF documents in Acrobat Pro. 67Cleaning Up With the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 68Adding Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 68Removing Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 70Reclassifying Content with the TouchUp Reading Order Tool. 70Evaluating and Controlling Reading Order. 71Adding Alternative Text to Images in PDF Documents. 75Defining Table Headers. 77Forms with Adobe Acrobat Pro. 79Creating Accessible Interactive Forms. 79Defining Form Content with Tags. 79Radio Buttons and Checkboxes. 80PDF Documents and Web Browsers. 80Using JAWS with Adobe Reader. 83Forms with Adobe LiveCycle Designer. 85Screen-Reader Precedence. 85Text Fields. 86Radio Buttons. 86Radio Button Groups. 86Checkboxes. 87Drop-Down Lists. 87

HTCTUFor electronic versions of training manuals, a list of upcoming trainings, and other resources, visit our website: www.htctu.netCopyright 2013 High Tech Center Training UnitThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0Unported License: eed.en US

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XICreating Accessible PDF Documents with AdobeAcrobat XI (11) Professional for WindowsPublisherAdobe SystemsRetail CostEducational discount for California Community Colleges: http://www.foundationccc.orgAdobe Online Store RequirementsNOTE: It is currently not possible to create tagged-PDF documents directlyfrom MS Office applications in Mac OS X. Mac OS X users will need to workwithin Acrobat Pro exclusively to ensure accessibility of PDF documents.Windows 1.3GHz or faster processorHTCTU5

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XI Microsoft Windows XP Home, Professional, or Tablet PC Edition withService Pack 3 (32 bit) or Service Pack 2 (64 bit); Windows Server 2003(32 bit and 64 bit; Service Pack 2 required for 64 bit); Windows Server2008 or 2008 R2 (32 bit and 64 bit); Windows Vista Home Basic, HomePremium, Business, Ultimate, or Enterprise with Service Pack 2 (32 bitand 64 bit); Windows 7 Starter, Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate,or Enterprise (32 bit and 64 bit) 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended) 1.9GB of available hard-disk space 1024x576 screen resolution DVD-ROM drive Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 or 8; Firefox 3.5 or 3.6 Video hardware acceleration (optional)Note: For 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003 R2 and Windows XP (with Service Pack 2), Microsoft Update KB930627 is required.Mac OS Intel processor Mac OS X v10.5.8 or v10.6.4 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended) 1.2GB of available hard-disk space 1024x768 screen resolution DVD-ROM drive Safari 4 for Mac OS X v10.5.8; Safari 4 or 5.0.x for Mac OS X v10.6.4DescriptionAdobe Systems PDF format is widely used online for dissemination of documents.A PDF (portable document format) file is a graphical file that is an exact image ofa document originally created by another application (e.g., MS Word file) and thenconverted by Adobe Acrobat into PDF format. A PDF document can be viewed using Adobe Reader, which is a free viewer program that provides access to the PDFdocument. The Adobe Reader viewer allows users to view and enter informationinto a PDF document (where applicable) as well as enlarge the viewing area of thedocument.6HTCTU

Accessible PDF documents can be created using the Adobe Acrobat software application in conjunction with Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint 2000 (and newer)applications. The use of Adobe Acrobat and a supported word-processing application creates a “tagged” PDF document, where visual document presentation isseparated from semantic document content. Assistive computer technology applications have the capacity to then read the “tagged” PDF document to communicateinformation to the user.Basic Use Instructions for downloading and installing the latest versions of AcrobatReader as well as additional Acrobat plug-ins to increase the functionality and accessibility can be found at: this manual focuses primarily on the use of Adobe Acrobat XI (11) Professional to make content accessible, it is possible to use versions 6.0 through 9 Standard or Professional as well (Note: Acrobat Standard does not support form development).Overview of Creating Accessible PDF Documents with Acrobat XITypically, you will either be creating a PDF document from another digital document format, such as MS Word or PowerPoint, or you will be working with a PDFdocument that has no available source document (all you have is the PDF file). Ineither case, the best option for accessibility is to start work with the source file ifpossible- but even if you can’t get the original source file, Acrobat Pro will enableyou to remedy most accessibility problems.Most PDF documents begin as some other type of document, such as MicrosoftWord or PowerPoint, or Adobe InDesign, etc. Whatever the source document for aPDF is, it is likely to be more efficient to perform the accessibility work in the native authoring environment.By making your information as accessible as possible before you convert the document to a PDF, you can help ensure that the resulting PDF can be accessible as wellas minimize any work required to make the PDF accessible within the Acrobat application.In this manual the process for creating an accessible Word document will be usedas an example of how to deal with the basic aspects of accessibility for most typical documents. Once the work is finished in Word, the process for exporting to PDFand checking for accessibility within Acrobat Pro will be covered, as well as thetools and procedures to remedy any access issues in the PDF using the tools withinAcrobat Pro.HTCTU7

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XI8

Creating Accessible PDF Documents from MS Office DocumentsStarting in MS Word for MAC OS X.If you are using a Mac OS based version of Office, you will need to work withinAcrobat Pro to ensure accessibility of your PDF documents.Starting in MS Word for Windows OSIf you are using a version of MS Office that is 2003/XP or later and running on aWindows operating system, then you have the ability to easily create accessiblePDF documents within the MS Office applications. MS Office applications can deliver a properly designed document to the Acrobat PDF conversion process as longas the author has provided the right information.When the digital information in your document is properly structured and identified,a “tagged” PDF can be created in which all of the information about the documentcan be communicated to assistive technology, allowing the content of the documentto be provided in the appropriate format for the reader, or end-user.There are three basic concerns in this process: Structured text Textual descriptions for non-textual content Header identification for data tablesWith these three issues addressed the great majority of your simple PDF documentscan be rendered in an accessible manner.Structured Text in MS WordIn order to have truly structured text, the text of your document needs to be identified by a style within the MS Word program, and not simply formatted to make thetext look a certain way. This allows for semantically defined and structured text- orin other words, by using the “Styles” pane of MS Word, you can identify the text ofyour document in a way that will provide access for users of assistive technology.Above: Styles Bar on the “Home” ribbon from MS Word.HTCTU9

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIPerhaps the most critical styles are paragraph and section headings. These elementsare the critical basic building blocks of a digital document, and should be the firstthing to focus on when considering accessibility. In MS Word, you control and manage the different styles in your document via the styles pane. By using logical heading structures in your documents you can create more usable and easier to digestinformation for all readers, as well as providing the structure needed for assistivetechnologies to deal with the content effectively.By using the styles “Heading 1”, “Heading 2”, and “Heading 3” you are actuallyindicating to the MS Word program that this piece of text is semantically differentfrom all the other text. In MS Word, all text is styled and defined as a paragraph bydefault. The name for the default paragraph style in MS Word is “Normal”.Above: Expanded Heading Pallete from MS Word.Headings are styles applied to textual information that indicates what is coming inthe following paragraph text. Heading text can be used to quickly gain an understanding of the main points a document is talking about, and headings can be organized with a ranking hierarchy, to help define main topics and sub-topics. Thoughtful use of heading styles can be good for all users, but it is especially valuable forindividuals with print disabilities who are using assistive technology to access theinformation.Heading 1 should always be used for the title of your document, and depending onthe style guide you are following, Heading 1 can be used for chapter headings aswell. While many assistive technologies can handle 6 levels of headings, it is oftennot necessary to go beyond three levels of headings in most simple documents.10

Textual Descriptions for Non-Textual Content in MS WordThe general breakdown of accessibility for digital information is that text is themost accessible form of digital content, and all other formats need to be convertedto some form of text in order to be accessible.This means that: images get textual descriptions audio files get transcriptions video files get captions complex data gets special attention.In order to be accessible, digital content that is not textual needs to be converted toelectronic text or described via electronic text. Electronic text refers to any of thecommon digital text formats such as ASCII/.txt, MS Word/.doc, HTML, etc. Sometimes digital text information is visible for sighted users, and other times digitaltext information may be delivered exclusively through non-visual digital means toa variety of technologies such as screen readers, Braille displays, document conversion systems, etc.The most common non-textual content you will find in typical MS Word documents are images. MS Word allows you to insert a description of the image withinthe image itself, and when a user of assistive technology encounters this image, thedescription will be made available as well.Above: Format Picture Dialog in MS Word.HTCTU11

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIIn order to insert a description into an image within MS Word, right click the imageand select the option to “Format Text”, and then select the tab labeled “Alt Text”and insert your description in the text field provided. Now your image is accessibleto people who can’t see it but are using assistive technologies to read the document.Table Headers in MS WordTables represent a level of complex data that can be easily taken for granted. Sighted people know that any intersection of rows and columns will have some meaningbased on the labels for those rows and columns. These labels are called headers,and when they are used properly, the relationship of tabular data can be more easilymaintained by users of assistive technologies.To identify table headers in MS Word, select the contents of the table cells that contain your header labels. Right click the selection and choose “Table Properties”, andthen select the tab for “Row”.Above: Table Properties in MS Word, Row Tab selected.12

Once you have selected the “Row” tab, you can then designate the column to “Repeat as header row at the top of each page”. This will ensure that assistive technologies will be able to identify the headers, even if the table doesn’t extend beyond asingle page.Converting to PDF from MS WordOnce you have performed the requisite work in MS Word, you can select the settings for converting to PDF and then save your document as a PDF.Before a document can be translated to the PDF document format from MS Word,it is necessary to check the conversion settings of the Adobe Acrobat PDFMakerwithin Microsoft Office. The default settings should produce a tagged PDF document from MS Word, but it is always good to ensure the settings are correct.Within the conversion settings dialog, there are four tabs: “Settings”, “Security”,“Word”, and “Bookmarks”. The options on each of these tabs can affect the accessibility and usability of your PDF document.Above: PDF Conversion settings in MS Word with Acrobat Pro XI.HTCTU13

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIAbove: PDF Conversion settings in MS Word (pre-Acrobat XI).To check conversion settings:1.Open a document in the Microsoft Office application.2.Choose Adobe PDF from the menu bar, or select the “Acrobat” ribbon(depending on your version of MS Office) and select “Change ConversionSettings” or “Preferences” (depending on your version of MS Office).Settings Tab1.Make sure that “Enable accessibility and reflow with Tagged PDF” ischecked.2.You can enable “Bookmarks” and “Links” to allow for even greater usability potential in your PDF document.Security TabIf you are going to restrict the permissions of your PDF document, be sure to enabletext access for screen reader viewing by the visually impaired.14

Above: PDF Conversion Settings (Security Tab).Word Tab1.Check the box to “Enable advanced tagging”2.Check the boxes to convert footnotes, endnotes, and cross reference linking.HTCTU15

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIAbove: PDF COnversion Settings for MS Word (Word Tab).Bookmarks TabThe Bookmarks tab allows you to include custom styles as bookmarked elementswithin your PDF document. You can also organize the bookmarks according to thesame hierarchy used for your heading styles.Creating the PDF Document from MS Office (Summary)161.Create/open the document in the Microsoft Office application.2.Use Styles and Formatting tools in MS Office to control the presentationof the document. For example, to identify headings, use the Style menu inthe Formatting toolbar to designate various headings or text content in thedocument. Styles can be manipulated under Styles and Formatting fromFormat in the menu bar.3.Describe non-textual content such as images and charts.4.Define any table headers that may be present.5.Ensure that your PDF conversion settings include support for advancedtagging and reflow.6.Name and save the file to begin the conversion process.7.Open Adobe Acrobat and view the document to verify the document wasprocessed correctly.

Options for Converting Different Existing PDF DocumentsPDF documents created using Acrobat Distiller or other basic PDF printing programs generally result in a PDF document that does not contain a document structure (i.e., no tags, or worse yet, image-based PDF). Depending on the visual layoutand design of the document, this may lead to increased difficulty for assistivecomputer technology to gain access to the document content in a logical readingfashion.The following recommendations are designed to provide guidance when having tochoose what type of method is most appropriate to create an accessible PDF document. Generally speaking, it is better to revert to the original file format (e.g., MSWord) when attempting to recreate a PDF as the document can be created with a“tagged” document structure.Recommendations when using MS Office applicationsIf the original document is available, open that file in a Microsoft Office application (if possible). Format the presentation of the document using the style elementsfound under Format on the menu bar. Remember to add appropriate image descriptions to graphics and figures. Once this process is complete, follow the directionsunder the Creating the PDF Document section.When You Don’t Have the Source DocumentIf the original document is not available, open the PDF document in Adobe Acrobat.Follow the directions in the next section, titled “Adding Tags to a PDF Document”.OCR and Image-Only PDF DocumentsIf the PDF document exists in an “Image Only” file format, it will be necessary toapply some type of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to the PDF document image to yield a document containing text content (not a graphic representation of theimage). This is similar to starting with a TIFF document from a scanner, and thenusing an OCR program such as OmniPage, or ABBY FineReader.You can use the Text Recognition tool in Acrobat to recognize the actual letters andsymbols on the page. This is an automated process and may not recognize all textcorrectly, so be sure to edit your document carefully.The Text Recognition tool in Acrobat XI may be found under the “Recognize Text”tool bar.HTCTU17

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIAbove: OCR Tools under “Recognize Text”.18

Adobe Acrobat AccessibilityAdobe Acrobat Pro XI allows for authors to create and convert accessible PDFdocuments. The following information explains the basic techniques for creatingaccessible PDF documents in general. Due to the many different ways an individualcan create a PDF document, there may be PDF documents that defy the followingadvice.Tags and Accessibility in PDF DocumentsAdobe Acrobat XI (11) allows users to create a tagged PDF document from untagged PDF files. Tagged PDF documents can provide enhanced user accessibilitydepending on the document design as well as the capacity to save a PDF documentinto alternate formats (e.g., HTML, Accessible Text, RTF, etc.). If creating electronic forms, it is necessary to use Adobe Acrobat Professional or Adobe LiveCyleDesigner (Windows OS only) to create accessible PDF-based forms.Above: Right-Margin View OptionsAdding tags manually to a PDF documentdoes have some limitations. While Acrobatcan automatically add tags to a PDF document, there is no guarantee that the document content will be tagged in the correctreading order. Documents that contain regions of high complexity, such as rich visuallayouts, may result in a tagged structure thatdoes not follow the logical reading orderof the original document. Any graphics orcharts in the PDF document may not beprocessed correctly and may be rendered as“Figures” or “Inline Shapes”. It is necessaryto identify these items and add the appropriate alternative text descriptions.Right-click on the left margin of the AcrobatXI program window to reveal the Tags viewoption:Adobe Acrobat XI (11) includes the “TouchUp Reading Order” tool that allows anauthor to specify a logical reading order of the PDF document as well as simplifythe process of adding image descriptions. The TouchUp Reading Order tool alsoincludes a Table Inspector to improve the accessibility of data tables within PDFdocuments.TouchUp Reading Order Tool is available from the Accessibility Tools menu:HTCTU19

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIAbove: Touch Up Reading Order from Accessibility Tools.Adding TagsIn Acrobat XI, the actions previously associated with menu bars are now available from different “Tool” palettes. In order to add tags, you will need to go to the“View” menu and select the “Accessibility” option from under the “Tools” section.Here’s how to add tags to your PDF document within Acrobat XI:1.Open the PDF document that does not contain the tagged structure.2.Select “Add Tags to Document” from the Accessibility Tools. This willstart the tagging process of the PDF document.3.After the program finishes processing the document, use “Save As” andsave the file with a new name.4.Open the new PDF document to check the logical order of the tagged file.Adding Alternative Text for Images after TaggingSome situations will require you to add alternative text to images or figures afteradding tags to a PDF document. See the information under the TouchUp ReadingOrder tool for instructions to add text descriptions after completing the taggingprocess in Adobe Acrobat.20

Enhancing Accessibility of PDF Documentsin Acrobat ProAcrobat Pro provides several features that can be used to enhance theaccessibility of your PDF documents, including automated assessments, and helpful instructions for remedying common accessibilityissues.Automated Accessibility TestingAcrobat Pro XI includes a “Full Check” for accessibility. Different from previousversions, the Full Check no longer includes Section 508 criteria, but rather, uses anew set of standards Adobe has adopted to help deliver a more accessible experience.Above: Full Check Dialog from Acrobat XI.Previous versions of Acrobat Pro have included a Quick Check feature as wellas the Full Check. If you are using a version of Acrobat Pro earlier than XI, the“Quick” check simply determines if there are tags present in the PDF document. Inorder to perform a detailed assessment of the accessibility of your PDF document,you will need to perform a “Full Check”.HTCTU21

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIAbove: Accessibility Checker from Pre-XI versions of Acrobat Pro.In previous versions. the Full Check automated assessment allows you to specify astandard to test the content of your PDF document against. Included are the Section508 standards, the WCAG standards, and a generalized set of criteria defined byAdobe, which seems to represent a balancing of the Section 508 and WCAG standards. In Acrobat XI, the options in the Full Check no longer specify Section 508 orWCAG, rather the concepts and criteria of these standards have been embraced andabsorbed by Adobe.Performing a Full Check1.Select “Full Check” from the Accessibility Tools2.Specify a standard to test against3.Determine whether the test will be captured as an accessibility report4.Initiate the test.The test results will be displayed after the test is complete. Any accessibility issueswill be listed, including an explanation of how to remedy the issue.22HTCTU

Above: The Accessibility Checker Results.The accessibility issues are linked to the actual content, so when you click on anitem from the list, you will be presented with the corresponding content in yourPDF document. You can also click on the “Content” view and see a detailed listing of the content that Acrobat assessed as part of your check.Above: Right-Click Menu for Content ViewerHTCTU23

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XI24HTCTU

The TouchUp Reading Order ToolThe TouchUp Reading Order tool in Adobe Acrobat XI (11) allows you to makecorrections to the document structure. After adding tags to a PDF document, theTouchUp Reading Order tool will identify blocks of text, headings, figures, tables,and formulas that are contained within the document structure. If the PDF document contains images (or figures) containing pertinent information, then use theTouchUp Reading Order tool to add the appropriate text descriptions.While it is possibleto manually add andrestructure the tags ina PDF document, it isrecommended to usethe “Add Tags to Document” function followedby the TouchUp Reading Order tool to organize the logical flow ofdocument information.Open the TouchUpReading Order tool by:1.Select the“Tools” pane and makesure the “Accessibility” Panel is displayed.(If not visible, go to“Views” and select“Accessibility” from the“Tools” panel.)2.Choose “TouchUp Reading Order”.This will open the toolpanel in which to makethe necessary corrections to the taggedinformation in the PDFdocument.Above: Touch Up Reading Order ToolHTCTU25

Creating Accessible PDF’s with Acrobat XIInformation within the PDF document will be identified as separate regions witha number in the upper left part of the region. This number identifies the logicalreading order of the text flow of the document.Above: Touch Up Reading Order Tool in Pre-XI Versions.Adding Content with the TouchUp Reading Order ToolWhen you initially open the TouchUp tool, the PDF document will display thevarious content regions and the reading order in which the regions will be recognized. However, it may be possible that during the tagging process, some contentis missed by the “Add Tags to Document” process. This req

converted by Adobe Acrobat into PDF format. A PDF document can be viewed us-ing Adobe Reader, which is a free viewer program that provides access to the PDF document. The Adobe Reader viewer allows users to view and enter information into a PDF document (where applicable) as well as enlarge the viewing area of the document.