Irrigation Master Plan 2019IMP 2019Irrigation Master Plan 2019Department of Water Resources and IrrigationMinistry of Energy, Water Resources, and IrrigationGovernment of NepalNovember 2019

Irrigation Master Plan 2019FOREWORD

Irrigation Master Plan 2019ABBREVIATIONSADBAsian Development BankADSAgriculture Development StrategyAMISAgency-Managed Irrigation SystemsAMPAsset Management PlanAND/NAgriculture Development Bank, NepalAWDAlternate Wetting and DryingCCAClimate Change AdaptationCWRCommittee on Water ResourcesDBFODesign, Build, Finance and OperateDCDeveloped CountryDEMDigital Elevation ModelDoLIDARDepartment of Local Infrastructure Development and Agriculture RoadsDoSDepartment of SurveyDoWRIDepartment of Water Resources and IrrigationDRMDisaster Risk ManagementDSRDry Seeded RiceDTWDeep Tube WellEUREuroFCsFarmer CooperativesFDCFlow Duration CurveFHRMPFlood Hazard Mapping and Risk Management ProjectFMISFarmer Managed Irrigation SystemsGCAGross Command AreaGESIGender Equality and Social InclusionGISGeographical Information SystemGONGovernment of NepalHMIPHill and Mountain Irrigation ProjectHMWAAHydraulic Modelling and Water Availability AssessmentHPPHydro Power Plant

Irrigation Master Plan 2019HVAPHigh-Value Agriculture ProjectICIDInternational Commission on Irrigation and DrainageICIMODInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentIMPIrrigation Master PlanIMTInternational Experience IndicatedIPIrrigation projectIEEInitial Environmental ExaminationISFIrrigation Service FeeIWMIInternational Water Management InstituteIWRMPIntegrated Water Resource Management ProjectJMISJoint Managed Irrigation Systemskm2Square kilometreKUBK-ISFPKisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan Karyakarm- Improved Seed for Farmers ProgramLDCLess Developed CountryLGOALocal Governance Operation ActLRMLand Resource MappingLSISLarge Scale Irrigation SystemsMCAMulti Criteria AnalysisMHBMike Hydro BasinMIIPMechanized Irrigation Innovation ProjectMIPMedium Irrigation ProjectMil.Millionmmetrem2Square metrem3Cubic metreMoEWRIMinistry of Energy, Water Resources and IrrigationMoIMinistry of IrrigationMPPMulti-Purpose ProjectNAESNepal Agricultural Extension StrategyNARCNational Agricultural Research Council

Irrigation Master Plan 2019NEANepal Electricity AuthorityNITPNon-Conventional Irrigation Technology ProjectNLUPNational Land Use ProjectNPRNepalese RupeeNWPNational Water PlanOFWMOn Farm Water ManagementPACTProject for Agriculture Commercialization and TradePADPerformance Assessment and DiagnosisPCPSPre-cast Parabolic SectionsPIMParticipatory Irrigation ManagementPPPPublic-Private PartnershipRBPRiver Basin PlanRISMFPRaising Incomes of Small and Medium Farmers ProjectSESAStrategic Environmental and Social Assessment studiesSIPSmall Irrigation ProgramSPVSpecial Purpose VehicleSRISystem of Rice IntensificationSWATSoil Water Assessment ToolTORTerms of ReferenceUSDUnited States DollarUTMUniversal Transverse MercatorVDCVillage Development CommitteeWECSWater and Energy Commission SecretariatWRPPFWater Resources Project Preparatory FacilityWRSWater Resource StrategyWUAWater User AssociationWUCWater Users CooperativeWUEWater Use Efficiency

Irrigation Master Plan 2019Table of ContentsABBREVIATIONS. 21.SECTION I: POLICY CONTEXT . 01.1Irrigation Sector and Development in Nepal . 01.2Stocktaking of Key Achievements under Irrigation Master Plan 1990 . irrigation coverage under different management systems . 3Irrigation Systems . 3Irrigation Management . 51.3Food Security Scenarios . 71.4Policy and Institutional Landscape . .102.National and sectoral policies . 10Aligning IMP 2019 with sectoral policies and plans. 12Rural Poverty . 13Food Security . 14Gender . 14Environment and Climate Change . 14Alignment with the New Constitution. 15Organizational arrangements . 20Synchronizing irrigation and flood management efforts . 22Transboundary cooperation . 22SECTION II: ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABLE LAND AND WATER RESOURCES . 242.1Irrigable Land . 242.1.1 Land Resources Mapping and Assessment . 252.2Water Resources Mapping and Assessment . 302. Water Resources . 30Ground Water Resources . 363. SECTION III: IRRIGATION MASTER PLAN 2019 . 393.1Strategic Approaches to Irrigation Master Plan 2019. 393. Priorities . 39Technological Priorities . 40Temporal Priorities . 41Goals and targets for Irrigation Master Plan 2019 . 413. Goals. 42Pathways to Achieve IMP 2019 Goals . 42Potential Projects. 43

Irrigation Master Plan oritized Projects . 52Irrigation Management . 52Infrastructure support for water augmentation . 62Maintenance of major hydraulic structures . 63Maintenance of general irrigation infrastructure . 63River Basin Planning. 64Capacity Development . 65Prioritized Research and Development Areas . 683.3Sub-national Plans. 703.4Consultation and Conflict Resolution . 704.SECTION IV: FINANCING IRRIGATION MASTER PLAN 2019 . 714.1Prioritised Large-scale Projects. 714.2Groundwater Projects . 714.3Hills and Mountain Projects . 724.4Irrigation Management, Modernisation, and Rehabilitation . 724.5Priority Flood Risk Management Projects . 734.6IMP Implementation Plan and Costs . 734.7Targets for Year-Round Irrigation . 744.8Private Sector Participation and PPP Options. 755.SECTION V: MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN . 81LARGE FORMAT MAPS LIST . 84

Irrigation Master Plan 20191.1.1SECTION I: POLICY CONTEXTIrrigation Sector and Development in Nepal1.Agriculture is an important part of the Nepali economy and social fabric, contributing an estimated27% of the GDP in 2017 (source: indexmundi) and providing employment to more than 70% of the labourforce. Approximately 40% of the total agricultural areas are irrigated. Agriculture and particularlyirrigated agriculture is facing a number of challenges and have considerable potential for improvementand expansion. While Nepal has ample water resources the challenge is how best to develop bothsurface water and groundwater resources for intensification of existing irrigated lands and fordevelopment of new lands, and to improve the performance and productivity of irrigation system moregenerally through the adoption of modern infrastructure and management methods.2.Nepal has goals for improvement and expansion of irrigated agriculture and will face increasingdemand for food over the next 25 years, the planning horizon of the IMP. Therefore, the challenge thatthe IMP addresses is to provide an investment plan that will guide the development of investment andmanagement over this period to achieve these goals.3.The report Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030 (NPC 2015) emphasizes the importance ofgrowth in per capita Gross National Income, improvement in human assets and reduced economicvulnerability in order to raise Nepal from LDC to DC status by 2022. IMP will direct irrigation planningand investment over the next 25 years to about 2044. The Plan will cover an important period in thedevelopment of Nepal, as the country approaches its expected demographic maximum in 2055 (36 Mil.people, up from about 29 Mil. in 2016). The urban population is projected to increase from 4.52 Mil. to9.97 Mil. by 2031 (an increase of 120%) and the number of cities with population greater than 100,000will increase from the present 23 to about 52. At least 30% of the population will be urban in 2031,compared with 18% now. Because of the expected high level of rural to urban migration, the bestestimate of the increase in the rural population over the period 2011-2031 is 9% and it is likely that therural growth rate could be zero, or even negative.4.In the context of an expanding economy, the quantity of food demanded increases with thegrowth of population and the demand for food changes according to consumer preference withincreasing household consumption. Urban populations have different food consumption habits fromrural populations; urban consumers take in less kilocalories but eat a greater proportion of higher value,seasonal and more perishable crops and livestock products. Rural households have diets that can deliverthe generally higher food energy required for rural lifestyles while relying on their land base for providinga reliable supply of staple foods.5.Further, and as identified in the National Planning Commission Report Demographic Changes ofNepal: Trends and Policy Implications, (2017), Nepal faces not only the challenges of rapid urbanisation,but also, within the next four decades, a progressive ageing of the population and the closure of the"demographic window of opportunity" - to equip children and those children born in the future toachieve the levels of productivity that an increased labour force dependency ratio will entail. Thewindow of opportunity, while the labour force is numerically maximized is calculated to be in the period1992-2047. The time horizon of this Master Plan is to 2044. The Plan must contain initiatives to exploitthe opportunity. The NPC report concludes "the investments now that will reap most benefits in thefuture are ones that strengthen the workforce of the future". In the agricultural sector irrigation is theobvious target for investment. Investing "now" becomes even more critical given the extended timescale required to develop the infrastructure required to manage water resources on a large scale.6.The IMP needs to be developed in this economic context. Earlier irrigation planning emphasizedthe importance of irrigation in achieving national food security but despite an increase in the irrigatedarea from 0.933 million ha (IMP 1990) to about 1.435 million irrigated ha in 2019 (IMP estimates 2019)

Irrigation Master Plan 2019the food produced and available for consumption in Nepal (i.e. total food available minus imports andexports) provided only 2,106 kcals per capita per day in 2011, implying that 17% of the national foodenergy requirement was satisfied by food imports. In 1988 Nepal was 90% food self-sufficient, so in 2011with 83% food self-sufficiency the situation was markedly worse. Fuelled by increasing householdincome from remittances, food import dependency rates are increasing, especially for non-cereals; soas non-cereals increase as a proportion of the average diet, it can be expected that this trend willcontinue, unless the agricultural sector can deliver a wider range of food crop diversity.7.These trends have significance for the IMP. In order to plan for irrigation, it is necessary to quantifythe economic context through an estimate of future food requirements of a developing economy witha growing population and an increasingly urban society. Trends in national food consumption areidentified from cited literature in the IMP Report Annex G, Part 2 (IMP Final July 2019), distinguishingbetween urban and rural diets. In summary, in 2011, 564 kg per capita per annum of food was availablewith characteristics 2,525 kcal/day, 64.4 gm per capita/day of protein, and 51.8 gm per capita/day offat. In 2031 the overall available diet of 650 kg per capita is expected to be 2,641 kcals/day, 72 gm percapita/day of protein, and 64 gm per capita/day of fat. Overall, the share of cereals in the diet declinesfrom 33% to 27% by weight and from 64% to 57% by energy. The projected diet is the weightedcomposite of urban and rural diets.8.Scenarios about how the food requirement in 2011 is met from domestic production, food stocksand trade, and how and over what time scale the future diet may be achieved are important, not for theiraccuracy but to provide indicative results of a range of development options. IMP is concerned withirrigation planning, so a key task described in this report required establishing an estimate of thecontribution of irrigation to agricultural productivity at national level. At the most optimistic level,assuming a marked deterioration of the productivity of rainfed land (due to over expansion onto marginalland in the early 2000s, followed by land abandonment and declining labour inputs due to out-migrationdriving cropping intensity down to barely over 100% at present) cropping intensity on irrigated landappears to have remained static at about 180% in the period 1999/2000 to present. Overall croppingintensity has declined from 140% to 130% in the last 25 years.9.Differential yields of irrigated and rainfed land were developed based on MoA estimates of overallyields, suggesting that incremental yields on irrigated land are less than about 25% over rainfed yields.The major benefit from irrigation is increased cropping intensity and not significant yields. A nationalirrigated cropping pattern in 2011 was established, guided by MoA's annual estimates of the proportionof cereal crops irrigated. The analysis suggests that low value cereals continue to dominate the irrigatedcropping pattern. The conclusion is that Nepal's agricultural sector has performed sluggishly over thepast two decades and fell short in meeting increasing demand for food and the different types of fooddemanded. Two technical reasons for this are likely to be inadequate, un-timely and unreliable provisionof irrigation on the existing irrigation area and insufficient investment allocated to expanding irrigationcommand area. A third, economic reason is that irrigation is not being developed in optimum locationsto give the maximum responsiveness to growing food markets.1.2Stocktaking of Key Achievements under Irrigation Master Plan 199010. The IMP follows on from the Irrigation Master Plan of 1990, which formed the basis for theplanning and implementation of development and management of the irrigation subsector over thepast 30 years.11. The 1990 Master Plan set out a program for the irrigation development intended to fulfil threeprincipal objectives: To provide a long-term strategy for the development of the irrigation subsector that isconsistent with the availability of resources and with the development policies of Nepal.

Irrigation Master Plan 2019 To develop shorter term investment programs that are consistent with the long-termstrategy, based on the identification and ranking of investment opportunities, and anassessment of urgent needs and implementation capabilities. To provide a sound database and planning methodology, to facilitate regular updating ofthe Master Plan.12. The 1990 Master Plan was a valuable instrument for irrigation planning but after nearly 30 yearssince it has been established, it is outdated in many parts. However, review of the proposed projectsreveals many are achieved, with some still under construction, or consideration in this master plan.13. The IMP was prepared within the context of the current national policy and strategic planningdocuments generated during the 1990 Master Plan period for the development and management ofirrigated agriculture and land and water resource management, and where relevant the nationaleconomy. In summary these include: Water Resources Strategy (WRS) (2002):1 the strategy set out a systematic framework forwater resources development in Nepal, included use for irrigation. Output 4 titled'Appropriate and Efficient Irrigation Available to Support Optimal, Sustainable Use of IrrigatedLand' listed challenges faced by the subsector and a series of activities to be promoted toaddress these challenges, including; improvement of system management, intensificationand diversification, capacity strengthening for planning and management, implementation ofnew irrigation systems and improved groundwater development and management. National Water Plan (NWP) (2005):2 builds on the WRS, to 'operationalize the output of theWRS'. It covers the whole water sector, inclusive of the irrigation subsector with a planninghorizon to the year 2027. The irrigation goals include 'irrigation systems planned, developedand continued for sustainable management, reliable irrigation service expanded on thebasis of sustainability and wealth creation, and appropriate and efficient irrigation availablefor the optimal use of irrigable land in a sustainable way'. The plan lists targets forimprovement in expansion of irrigated lands, cropping intensity, irrigation efficiency andcrop yields under irrigation. Irrigation Policy (2013):3 the policy document sets out the rationale for subsectordevelopment and policy objectives and approach for project development, water userassociations, irrigation service charges and irrigation system operation and maintenance. Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030 (NPC 2015): emphasizes the importance ofgrowth in per capita Gross National Income, improvements in human assets and reducingeconomic vulnerability in order to raise Nepal from the status of LDC to DC by 2020.14. Over the past thirty years there have been twelve major irrigation development projects in Nepal ata total cost of more than NPR 67 billion (approx. USD 800 million) and combined irrigated area of about570,000 ha. Annex F presents detailed description of the development projects. The projects included bothagency and farmer managed irrigation systems. These projects have included investment in infrastructurerehabilitation, command area development and IMT. The outcomes of these projects provide valuelessons for the planning and implementation of future projects to better achieve sustainable managementof systems and improvements in system performance.15. The average cost per unit area for all 12 projects is about NPR 93,000 per ha (USD 1,000 per ha) butrange from less than NPR 18,000 to more than NPR 300,000 per ha (USD 300 to 4,440 per ha). The average1Water ResourceStrategy, 2002. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, KathmanduWater Plan , 2005. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu3Irrigation Policy, 2060 (BS). Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu2National

Irrigation Master Plan 2019unit area costs are relatively modest for system development and possibly reflect the fact that theinvestments were principally focused on large structures and main canal development.1.2.1Present irrigation coverage under different management systems16. Table lists a summary of surface water irrigation systems by agro-ecological zone and managementsystem, derived from the IMP Annex B Irrigation Inventory. There are a total of about 2,254 systemswith a combined area of nearly 728,000 ha (JMIS and FMIS only), of which 81% of the irrigated area (ofsurface water systems) 591,000 ha are on the Terai. The Hill zone accounts for 15% of irrigated area andthe Mountain zone 4% of irrigated area. JMISs irrigate about 357,000 ha most of which is on the Teraiin 24 systems. FMISs account for 51% of the total surface water irrigation systems. On the Terai FMISare 33% (240,213 ha) of the area and 97% (809) by number. In the Hill and Mountain they make up 18%of the irrigated area (131,181 ha).Table 1: Irrigation coverage under different management systemsEcologicalZoneTeraiJMISFMISTotalArea (ha)Area (ha)Area 7. AMISs and JMISs are almost exclusively medium to large scale systems which encompass multiplecommunities. For these reasons they tend to have relatively large infrastructural works, often with riverbarrages and large main canals which require high levels of capital investment, normally beyond thecapacity of local communities to operate and maintain. They are also complex in terms of developingcommunity participation in O&M activities due to both social diversity between communities and largenumber of water users.18. FMISs by contrast are generally smaller and more socially homogenous. They have beendeveloped as a result of community needs by community cooperation and participation therefore arewell established and mature in terms of organisation and O&M management.1.2.2Irrigation Systems19. The IMP development activities include an inventory of irrigation systems which forms the basisof classification of system typology by agro-ecological zones (Terai, Hill and Mountain) and managementsystem.4 For the purposes of the inventory, systems are classified as having a command area of greaterthan 25 and 10 ha on the Terai and Hill/ Mountain zones respectively. The results from the inventoryshow that there are approximately 3,100 systems with a combined command area of about 1 Mil. ha.Table 2: AMIS maintained by DoWRI4The definitions of management system adopted for this report and the IMP are: Agency Managed Irrigation System (AMIS); systems principallyand largely operated by the Department of Irrigation (DoWRI), Farmer Managed Irrigation System (FMIS); systems solely developed andoperated by the beneficiary community, and Joint Managed Irrigation System (JMIS); systems developed by the DoWRI (or other governmentagency) and partially handover to the beneficiary community.

Irrigation Master Plan 2019GCANCAEcologicalRegionWaterSourceNarayani Ip16,65012,238TeraiSWBardiyaBabai Ip35,42129,500TeraiSW3BardiyaRajapur Ip17,14013,000TeraiSW4ChitawanNarayani Lift Ip5,9374,700TeraiSW5DhanushaKamala Ip12,50012,500TeraiSW6JhapaKankai Ip10,2168,000TeraiSW7KailaliRanijamara Ip11,30011,300TeraiSW8KanchanpurMahakali Phase-I Ip5,5204,800TeraiSW9KanchanpurMahakali Phase-Ii Ip8,5006,800TeraiSW10KapilbastuBanganga Ip10,7346,200TeraiSW11MorangSunsari-Morang P-3 Ip28,00023,800TeraiSW12Nawalparasi W Nepal Gandak Ip14,11210,300TeraiSW13ParsaNarayani Ip20,76116,462TeraiSW14RautahatBagmati Ip29,03523,000TeraiSW15RupandehiMarchawar Lift Ip3,5003,500TeraiSW16SaptariChandra Canal Ip13,59310,500TeraiSW17SaptariKoshi West Canal Ip14,29811,000TeraiSW18SarlahiBagmati Ip28,40322,600TeraiSW19SarlahiManusmara 1St Ip2,8282,200TeraiSW20SarlahiManusmara 2Nd Ip3,9123,000TeraiSW21SirahaKamala Ip12,50012,500TeraiSW22SunsariChanda Mohana Ip2,3621,800TeraiSW23SunsariSunsari-Morang P-3 Ip40,00034,000TeraiSW24RupandehiBhairahawa Lumbini stem Name1Bara2Total20. For these systems approximately a third are under Agency or Joint management of which themajority are large systems, greater than 1,000 ha, on the Terai (covering 90% by area), though thenumber of systems is relatively small (less than 2% of all systems). The balance of the systems under

Irrigation Master Plan 2019farmer community management are generally small per unit and occur mainly in the Hill and Mountainzones though they make up the majority by number (of the order of 98%).21. While there is limited information on the category of small systems not included in the abovementioned irrigation inventory, it is estimated that there of the order of 12,000 systems with a combinedcommand area of up to 150,000 ha. These systems, while under local community management,periodically receive assistance for repair and rehabilitation of canals and control structures and technicalassistance for capacity building on system operation and on improvements farming practices,particularly related to productivity to improve household food security and income. This assistance isprovided by several government agencies or non-government agencies - international and national.1.2.3Irrigation Management22. The reference point for the current IMP development is the Irrigation Master Plan published in1990 referred in this chapter as IMP-1990. This formed the basis of the proposed program fordevelopment of the irrigated agriculture sector from that date to the present day. IMP-1990 had threeprincipal objectives: (i) provision of a long-term strategy for development of the irrigation subsectorconsistent with water resource availability and government development policies, (ii) to develop shortterm investment programs (consistent with the strategy) based on identified and ranked investmentopportunities as well as priority needs assessment, and (iii) provision of a sound database andmethodology for further updating of the Plan. The Plan objectives were drafted within the context ofand goals of contributing to achievement of national objectives of food production and national foodself-sufficiency.523. At the time of its preparation, the agriculture sector accounted for more than 50% of GDP andmajority of national employment. While up to this time Nepal had been self-sufficient in grains, demandwas increasing due to population growth and the country was moving out of self-sufficiency.24. The IMP-1990 proposed short term investment program was focused on five areas: (i)management improvements on existing irrigation projects, (ii) development of groundwater irrigationin the Terai districts, (iii) development of small and medium surface irrigation projects (rehabilitationand new) in Terai districts, (iv) development small surface irrigation projects (rehabilitation and new) inHill and Mountain districts, and (v) development of large irrigation project in Terai districts, both as singleand multi-purpose projects. The program set out a level of intervention (area) and rates of investmentper unit area. For the large projects on the Terai it specifically cited seven single projects with acombined area of more than 115,000 ha, including the projects - Bagmati (37,000 ha), Sikta (36,070 ha)and Babai (13,500 ha). The combined area for the seven multi-purpose projects was more than 570,000ha, which included Karnali (173,950 ha), Bagmati (120,000 ha) and Sun Koshi-Kamala (175,100 ha).25. While the short term program largely focused on irrigation development, the longer term strategywas focused on the broader objectives of (i) increasing production and benefits through improvedagricultural and irrigation management, (ii) improving irrigation efficiency through improvements ininstitutions and privatisation of management, (iii) development of small and medium irrigation projects,and (iv) implementation of new large projects on the Terai (presumably in addition to those identifiedunder the short term program).26. While IMP-1990 provide

Irrigation Master Plan 2019 IMP 2019 Irrigation Master Plan 2019 Department of Water Resources and Irrigation Ministry of Energy, Water Resources, and Irrigation Government of Nepal November 2019 . Irrigation Master Plan 2019 FOREWORD. Irrigation Master Plan 2019 ABBREVIATIONS