European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational TrainingENENVocational educationand training inVocational educationand training inLuxembourgLuxembourgShort description4141 EN – TI-01-15-639-EN-N – doi:10.2801/741212Luxembourg’s vocational education and training (VET) is highlydifferentiated. Apprenticeships and school-based VET coexist.While some features may seem similar to those in other countries,taking a closer look is important to understand national conceptsand terms. Luxembourg’s education and training system reflectsits geographic and socioeconomic context: its small size, the closeties with its neighbours, its multilingual nature and high share offoreign nationals, and the well-established cooperation with socialpartners. Recently implemented reform has strengthened the linksto the labour market and brought about a shift towards competence-based and modular vocational programmes. The implementation of this reform has also revealed weaknesses in the system;evaluation of the reform will provide stakeholders with evidence ofa need for further changes.By providing an insight into its main features and highlightingrelated policy developments and challenges, this short descriptioncontributes to better understanding of VET in Luxembourg.European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational TrainingEurope 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECEPO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECETel. 30 2310490111, Fax 30 2310490020, E-mail: [email protected] description

Vocational education andtraining in LuxembourgShort descriptionLuxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015

Please cite this publication as:Cedefop (2015). Vocational education and training in Luxembourg: shortdescription. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Cedefop information series. great deal of additional information on the European Union is available onthe Internet.It can be accessed through the Europa server ( Publications Office of the European Union, 2015ISBN 978-92-896-1928-8doi: 10.2801/741212 European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), 2015All rights reserved.

The European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational Training (Cedefop) is the European Union’sreference centre for vocational education and training.We provide information on and analyses of vocational education andtraining systems, policies, research and practice.Cedefop was established in 1975by Council Regulation (EEC) No 337/75.Europe 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECEPO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECETel. 30 2310490111, Fax 30 2310490020E-mail: [email protected] James Calleja, DirectorMicheline Scheys, Chair of the Governing Board

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgForewordLuxembourg’s Presidency coincides with the beginning of a new phase inEuropean cooperation on vocational education and training (VET). In June 2015,ministers in charge of VET, the European Commission and European SocialPartners endorsed new deliverables renewing their commitment to 'raising theoverall quality and status of VET'. The renewal of this commitment comes at atime when VET for young people and adults faces high expectations andchallenges. Aspects of inclusion and excellence are under scrutiny. Participationin VET at upper secondary level has decreased across many countries, while awider variety of post-secondary or tertiary VET-oriented programmes have beencreated.Discussing its role, attractiveness and outcomes, as well as reforms andtheir impact, requires a thorough understanding of VET in its national socioeconomic context, as the example of Luxembourg illustrates: while it is often onlyassociated with the dual system (apprenticeships) like the one in Germany,differentiated VET also includes school-based programmes and features thatresemble those in France. In European and some other countries the term ‘initialVET’ would be understood in a broader sense. What we see is a system thatreflects different approaches, with European development in specific countrycontexts. This is also evident in its NQF and the respective links to EQF, or in the2008 reform which has led to a focus on learning outcomes and introduced amodular approach to the programmes that are considered vocational.Luxembourg mirrors several of the objectives and challenges that Europeancooperation in VET aims to address: finding adequate balance between VETexcellence and inclusiveness, forging stronger links with the world of work,making apprenticeship-type schemes more attractive, and ensuring access andprogression opportunities throughout people’s lives, irrespective of their linguistic,cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. It is not surprising that reform alsoaimed to improve guidance and progression opportunities. What is interesting inthis context, however, is that in Luxembourg VET choices are guided from anearly stage by performance and by the views of educational staff, learners andtheir families.As a small country, Luxembourg already exemplifies the mobility for learningand working envisaged for Europe. Cross-border learning, most widespread inhigher education, is also possible in VET and can take different forms. Besidesdifferent types of cooperation in school-based VET that exist among someneighbouring countries, ‘duality’ in several apprenticeship trades may also refer1

Vocational education and training in Luxembourgto the geographic location: a company based in Luxembourg and a VET school inGermany.The current review and fine-tuning of its 2008 reform highlights importantissues that are also relevant for policy discourse at European level: while times ofcrisis and rapid economic developments require policy-makers to act speedilyand anticipate potential further developments, the impact of reforms in educationand training only becomes visible several years down the line; evaluating reformsto see whether outcomes and impact meet the objectives set and makeadjustments where necessary is crucial.At a time, when budgetary constraints, lack of investment, quality jobs andthe reskilling and retraining of an ageing workforce continue to hold Europe back,the labour market needs wise hands: people with practical intellectual skills,along with a variety of skills to create more and better jobs. This requires strongcommitment to VET and more work-based learning opportunities at differenteducation levels. Understanding VET outcomes and impact requires adequatequantitative and qualitative data and analyses. This has led to increased demandfor country-specific information.Providing ‘systems information’ to help understand countries’ VET is at thecore of Cedefop’s research and analytical work and its contributions to policylearning. After 40 years it is as important as it was at the outset to assist theEuropean Commission, Member States and social partners in their work onmodernising VET.With this short description, Cedefop aims to contribute to betterunderstanding of Luxembourg’s highly differentiated VET.Joachim James CallejaDirector2

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgAcknowledgementsThis short description is the result of a team effort. Marion Biré, Lucie Waltzerand Christian Weiland from the Training Observatory of the National Institute forthe Development of Continuing Vocational Training in Luxembourg drafted theshort description with the support of Nadine Bastian, the national coordinator ofReferNet Luxembourg. Several national stakeholders have been also consulted(Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth; Chamber of Commerce;Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts; Chamber of Agriculture, Chamber ofEmployees; secondary education directors; Luxembourg University). Silke Gadjicoordinated drafting for Cedefop with significant input from Dmitrijs Kuļšs, Jaspervan Loo and Eleonora Schmid.3

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgTable of contentsForeword . 1Acknowledgements . 3Table of contents. 4List of boxes, figures and tables. 71.External factors influencing VET . 91.1. Demographics . 91.2. Economic background and labour market developments . 111.3. Educational attainment . 162.Provision of VET . 182.1. VET in Luxembourg’s education and training system . 182.1.1. Major VET reform of 2008 . 212.1.2. VET governance . 222.2. Secondary VET . 242.2.1. Technical programmes . 272.2.2. Vocational programmes including apprenticeship . 282.2.3. Technician programmes . 302.2.4. Developing VET programmes . 302.3. Post-secondary education: master craftsperson programmes . 312.4. VET at tertiary level . 312.4.1. Higher technician programmes . 312.4.2. Vocational bachelor programmes. 322.5. Government-regulated continuing VET. 322.5.1. Vocational secondary education for adults. 332.5.2. Language training . 352.5.3. Training for job seekers on employer demand . 352.5.4. Continuing professional development for teachers . 352.6. Reducing early leaving from education and training . 362.6.1. Remedial measures . 372.6.2. Mosaic classes . 382.6.3. Second chance schools . 382.6.4. Vocational familiarisation programmes supported byguidance . 394

Vocational education and training in Luxembourg2.6.5. Language assistance . 392.6.6. Inclusion of learners with special needs . 402.6.7. Local Action for Youth . 402.6.8. Programmes for young job seekers with low skills . 402.6.9. Guidance and counselling . 412.7. Other forms of training . 412.7.1. Training offered by professional chambers . 412.7.2. Training offered by sectoral organisations . 422.7.3. Training offered by the public employment service . 422.7.4. Training offered by communities and trade unions . 432.8. VET funding . 452.8.1. Funding initial VET . 452.8.2. Funding for individuals in higher education . 482.8.3. Funding continuing VET . 482.8.4. Funding training for unemployed and other vulnerablegroups . 483.Shaping VET qualifications . 493.1. Designing qualifications to match labour market needs. 493.2. Qualifications framework. 513.3. Validation of prior learning . 513.3.1. Validation of formal, non-formal and informal learning . 513.3.2. Recognition and equivalence of foreign diplomas . 523.4. Quality assurance . 523.4.1. Secondary education. 533.4.2. Tertiary education. 543.4.3. Continuing VET . 553.5. Transition from VET to the labour market . 564.Promoting participation in VET. 584.1. Incentives for learners and enterprises . 584.1.1. Incentives for learners . 584.1.2. Incentives for enterprises . 594.2. Guidance and counselling . 604.3. Increasing attractiveness of initial VET . 624.4. Key challenges . 625

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgList of abbreviations . 65List of references. 66Further relevant legislation . 70Websites . 71ANNEX 1.Diplomas and certificates . 72ANNEX 2.Certificates and programmes in French and English . 80ANNEX 3.National monitoring of EQAVET indicators . 81ANNEX 4.Glossary . 836

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgList of boxes, figures and tablesBoxes1. Terms . 8Figures1. Population structure by nationality (%) . 92. Population structure forecast by age (%) . 103. Employment by activity sector in 1994 and 2014 (%) . 114. Employment by place of residence and nationality in 2014 (%) . 125. Employment rate by education level, 2004-14 (%) . 146. Unemployment by age in 2008 and 2014 . 157. Unemployment rate by education level in 2008 and 2012-14 . 158. Population (15-64) by highest level of education attained in 2014 (%) . 169. VET graduates by field of study and attainment level in 2012 . 1710. VET certificates/diplomas by nationality (%) . 1711. VET in Luxembourg’s education and training system in 2014 . 1812. Early leavers from education and training 2010-14, % . 3713. Investment in education 2002-12 . 4614. School funding in 2012, % (EUR million) . 4715. Funders of public education in 2012 . 47Tables1. Employment by place of residence and activity sector in 2014 (%) . 132. VET programmes . 263. Repartition of learners in general and technical secondary education(2007/08 to 2013/14) . 274. Training offered by sectoral organisations . 427

Vocational education and training in Luxembourg ShutterstockLuxembourgArea:Capital:System of government:Population:Per capita gross domesticproduct (GDP) (nominal):Legislative power:Box 1.2 586 km2LuxembourgUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy549 680 (2014)EUR 83 400 (2013)Exercised jointly by the Chamber of Deputies,the government and the Council of StateTermsFrom a European perspective the term vocational education and training (VET) isunderstood as ‘education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge,know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or morebroadly in the labour market’ (Cedefop, 2014). Irrespective of the provider orgovernance scheme, VET can take place at secondary, post-secondary or tertiarylevel in formal education and training or non-formal settings including active labourmarket measures. VET addresses young people and adults and can be schoolbased, company-based or combine school- and company-based learning(apprenticeships).In Luxembourg, the terms initial vocational training (formation professionnelle initiale)and vocational programme tend to be reserved for specific parts of VET. VET foryoung people, offered mostly at secondary level, is nationally referred to as technicalsecondary education. It comprises lower cycle pre-VET and medium/upper cycletechnician and vocational programmes. Technical programmes are also linked to VETin this report.8

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgCHAPTER 1.External factors influencing VET1.1.DemographicsLuxembourg has 549 680 inhabitants (2014). Since 1991 the population hasincreased by 43%. Projections indicate a further increase to 0.8 millioninhabitants by 2060.Figure 1.Population structure by nationality (%)NB: 2014 estimates.Source: Statec, 2014a.Figure 1 shows that 45% of the country’s population are foreign citizens (1).Their share has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In the first half of the1960s most of the immigrants came from Italy. However, since 1966, theimmigrant population from Portugal increased from 1 100 to 82 400 in 2011 (2)(Statec, 2012) and became the largest in the country. The share of foreignnationals from neighbouring countries has also increased: the French populationgrew from 1.6% in 1961 to 6.7% in 2014 and the Belgian from 1.7% to 3.3%. Thenumber of Germans living in the country has increased by half but their share inthe total population has remained unchanged. The number of foreign nationals(1) Foreign citizens residing in Luxembourg can obtain Luxembourgish nationality bynaturalisation. Legislation requires them to attend citizenship training and to pass anoral Luxembourgish language exam.(2) The latest population census available from 2011.9

Vocational education and training in Luxembourgother than Portuguese, Italian, German, French or Belgian rose from 7 700 (2.4%of the total population) in 1961 to 59 700 (11.6%) in 2011, mostly since the1980s.The share of foreign nationals with mother tongue other than the officialGerman, French and Luxembourgish languages is high. Multilingualism is one ofthe country’s strengths but it is also a challenge for education and training(Sections 1.3 and 2.7). The high share of foreign nationals requires educationand training and labour market integration policies. A public agency forintegration (Office Luxembourgeois de l'Accueil et de l'Intégration) under theauspices of the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Regionimplements this policy. This includes providing information on training in theofficial languages (Section 2.6.5) and recognition of foreign diploma andsecondary general education (3) and vocational education and training (VET)certificates and reports (Section 3.3.2) (4).Figure 2.Population structure forecast by age (%)Source: Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2015), [accessed29.7.2015].The age structure of population is expected to change from 2020 to 2060(Figure 2). The share of older people will increase by 11 percentage points (pp)(3) General education is nationally referred to as ‘classique’ education. In the report theterm ‘general education’ is used instead.(4) This information is also easily accessible on well-known web portals such and [accessed 29.7.2015].10

Vocational education and training in Luxembourgand reach 32% by 2060. At the same time the share of 20 to 60 year-olds willdecrease by 9pp to 48%. The share of young people will decrease by 2pp to20%. An ageing population may increase the demand for continuing VET(CVET).1.2.Economic background and labour marketdevelopmentsSince mid-2012, the economy grew faster than in neighbouring countries and theeuro area. The national statistical office (Statec) projected a 2.9% GDP increasein 2014. In the first half of 2014, the economy was driven mainly by the sustainedactivity of non-financial services (Statec, 2014b). For 2015, Statec (2015) expectsfaster growth of between 3.5% and 4%.Figure 3.Employment by activity sector in 1994 and 2014 (%)Source: IGSS, 2014.The economy has undergone structural changes in the past two decades(Figure 3). The industrial economy evolved into a service economy with jobs thatoften require tertiary level qualifications. Employment in the industrial sectordecreased from 17.6% in 1994 to 8.4% in 2014. The service, professional,scientific and technical sectors have had the highest growth. Employment in theservice sector increased from 5.8% to 8.4% in 2014; in the professional, scientificand technical sectors it has more than doubled and reached 8% in 2014.11

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgAdapting VET provision to the constantly changing employment structure hasbeen a challenge. In 2014, 40% of employment was concentrated in threesectors: wholesale and retail trade, repair, accommodation and food serviceactivities (16.8%), financial and insurance activities (11.6%) and publicadministration (11.4%). This last sector includes international civil servants andteachers. In 2013, there were approximately 10 000 international civil servantsworking in Luxembourg and 9 987 teachers, of which 4 148 were in secondarygeneral and technical education (Statec, 2014a).Access to skilled craftsperson and commercial activities and some liberalprofessions is regulated. Commercial activities and skilled craftsmanship in theterritory require a business permit issued if the manager satisfies qualificationrequirements and professional integrity. Qualification requirements for skilledcraftsperson companies differ depending on the trade. For main craft trades suchas baker/confectioner, dental technician, specialist in mechatronics, the managermust have: a master craftsperson certificate (brevet de maîtrise) or a bachelordegree (if not linked to the core business it should be complemented with at leasttwo years of professional experience), or a vocational aptitude diploma (diplômed'aptitude professionnelle, DAP) completed by a managing experience of sixyears in the field. For secondary craft trades such as miller, drycleaner/launderer, heating mechanic, the manager must have a DAP or similar ina related field or three years’ professional experience in the activity (Chapter 2).Figure 4.Employment by place of residence and nationality in 2014 (%)Source: IGSS, 2014.12

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgAs shown in Figure 4, the labour market is also characterised by a highproportion of cross-border workers (43.5%), living in Belgium, Germany andFrance and working in Luxembourg. While their share of total employmentincreased by more than 1pp each year until 2009, the crisis stopped thisprogression. Since then it has remained close to 44% (Statec, 2015). Among theworking population 28.6% are Luxembourgish and 24.8% EU residents.Table 1.Employment by place of residence and activity sector in 2014 1001. of activitiesLuxembourgersAgriculture, aquaculture and fishingIndustryConstructionWholesale and retail trade, repair ofmotor vehicles and motorcycles,accommodation and food servicesTransport and storageInformation and communicationFinance and insuranceProfessional, scientific and technicalactivitiesPublic administrationHuman health and social workServicesOthersTotalSource: IGSS, 2014.In March 2014, 34.7% of resident workers were employed in publicadministration and 13.8% in healthcare and social work (Table 1). Foreignresident workers are mainly employed in the wholesale/retail trade, repair ofmotor vehicles and motorcycles, and accommodation and food services (19.9%),and in the construction sector (14.8%). Cross-border workers mainly work in thewholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles,accommodation and food services (18.8%) and in the financial and insurancesector (13.5%).The labour market has recovered since the 2008 economic crisis. In 2014,employment grew well above 2% over the year, a trend that continued at thebeginning of 2015 (Statec, 2015).Since 2003, employment has been increasing for all age groups except for20 to 24 year-olds. In this age group employment decreased from 46.6% in 2008to 35.4% in 2013, mainly due to increasing enrolment in education and training.Increase in employment has been most prominent (more than 10% in a decade)13

Vocational education and training in Luxembourgfor the 50 to 64 age cohort but still remains below the EU average. Educationalattainment has a strong impact on employment (Figure 5).Figure 5.Employment rate by education level, 2004-14 (%)NB: Resident salaries, age 20 to 64 years, ISCED 2011.Source: Eurostat, 2015. lfsa ergaed; extracted 22.5.2015.In 2014, employment of higher education graduates (83%, ISCED 5-6) was15.9pp higher than that of people with upper and post-secondary non-tertiarybackground (67.1%, ISCED 3-4) and 25.7pp higher than that of people with preprimary, primary and lower secondary education (57.3%, ISCED 0-2). For peoplewith higher levels of education, employment has slightly increased (from 81.9% in2004 to 83% in 2014). For those with medium-level education (ISCED 3-4) andfor the low- or non-qualified, it has not changed significantly.Unemployment is among the lowest in the EU but increased from 2.4% in2000 to 7.1% in 2014 (5). Since then the rate has slowly declined and is expectedto remain close to 7% in 2015, though this stabilisation may be due to anincrease in the number of beneficiaries of employment measures and not to realeconomic growth. Since the beginning of the economic crisis, the age structure ofunemployment has changed (Figure 6).(5) Public employment service (Agence pour le Développement de l’Emploi, ADEM)data.14

Vocational education and training in LuxembourgFigure 6.Unemployment by age in 2008 and 2014Source: Statec, Table B3014 Chômeurs par sexe et selon l'âge.In contrast to developments in many other European countries, the share ofyoung ( 25) unemployed decreased from 15.8% in 2008 to 12.1% in 2014 but isstill high compared to the overall unemployment rate of 7.1%. Education levelhas an important impact on unemployment (Figure 7).Figure 7.Unemployment rate by education level in 2008 and 2012-14NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.Source: Eurostat, 2015. lfsa urgaed; extracted 25.2.2015.In 2014, the unemployment rate was 10.2% among people with a maximumof lower secondary education (ISCED 0-2), 6.3% for those who have completedupper secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 3-4), and 4% for those withtertiary education (ISCED 5-6). While in 2008-14 unemployment rose significantlyamong the lower educated (3.6pp), the increase was moderate for those withtertiary education (1.6pp) and lowest for people with secondary education(0.4pp). These data are collected through the labour force survey (LFS) based onthe resident population. Due to the high share of foreign residents having studiedoutside the country, it is difficult to establish the impact of the Luxembourgish15

Vocational education and training in Luxembourgeducation system on the national labour market. In 2013, 27.7% of all jobseekers were Luxembourgers, 35.8% Portuguese and 36.5% other nationalities.1.3.Educational attainmentHigher education attainment of residents aged 15 to 64 is the highest in the EU28, while the share of low- or unqualified people is lower than the EU-28 average(Figure 8). There are generally more foreign residents with higher (tertiary)education than Luxembourgers, who – until the early 2000s – had to studyabroad (Chapter 2).Figure 8.Population (15-64) by highest level of education attained in 2014 (%)Sour

of Vocational Training (Cedefop) is the European Union's reference centre for vocational education and training. We provide information on and analyses of vocational education and training systems, policies, research and practice. Cedefop was established in 1975 by Council Regulation (EEC) No 337/75. Europe 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea .