ABF 2020

ABF 2020

Commonwealth of Australia 2016All material presented in this publication is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0Australia licence d.en).For the avoidance of doubt, this means this licence only applies to materialas set out in this document.The details of the relevant licence conditions are available on the Creative Commons website(accessible using the links provided) as is the full legal code for the CC BY 3.0 AU /legalcode).Use of the Coat of ArmsThe terms under which the Coat of Arms can be used are detailed on the website titled:It’s an Honour ).

ContentsForeword4The ABF’s role6Direction9Delivery9PartnershipsOpportunities and challenges1113Significant growth in volumes13Increasing expectations among travellers and traders14More complex risk profile15ABF resource constraints16The ABF in 2020181. Operating with clear accountabilities202. Responsive and streamlined in border processing213. Credible and consistent214. Intelligence-informed245. Agile and mobile266. Directed at frontline operations287. Operationally ready288. An effective collector of border revenue28ABF officers in 202030A generalist officer in 202030A specialist officer in 202032Travellers and traders in 202034A traveller in 202034A trusted trader in 202036Building ABF 202038Governing the change42

ForewordOn 1 July 2015 the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and theDepartment of Immigration and Border Protection were brought together intoone Department, and the Australian Border Force (ABF) was established.The ABF is the Department’s operational arm and is the inheritor of a proud historyof protecting the border and serving our community stretching as far back as Federation.This proud tradition continues today as we uphold the customs and migration legislationwith professionalism and dedication. Our blended immigration and customs teamsare broadening our capability and capacity to protect the Australian border and,most importantly, the Australian community.And while we are doing a great job today, increasingly sophisticated transnationalcriminal organisations and supply chains, an evolving threat of terrorism, and theimpact of international unrest provide a complex environment in which we must work.Coupled with significant increases in volumes of trade and travel, and the complex tasksassociated with managing immigration detention centres, we must evolve how we doour business so we can anticipate and respond to these challenges.Change also brings opportunity. To prepare for the challenges ahead, and as we seekto be a world leader in border management, we will invest in our workforce through thetraining of individuals and teams, develop more seamless and faster processes, investin new technology through such things as better mobile information tools, new equipmentand modernisation of facilities and automation of our systems.ABF 2020 outlines the challenges in our external environment and provides a clearroadmap for how we will achieve our mission and vision. It complements and sitsunder the Department’s Strategy 2020 and the Corporate Plan 2015-19, andis aligned with the Department’s broader reform programme.4ABF 2020

This document outlines eight key areas of focus for the ABF in 2020: Operating with clear accountabilities Responsible and streamlined in border processing Credible and consistent Intelligence-informed Agile and mobile Directed at frontline operations Operationally ready An effective collector of border revenue.Combined with a strong commitment from our people, these areas willposition the ABF to deliver—to the highest standard—our mission of protectingAustralia’s border and managing the movement of people and goods across it.Roman Quaedvlieg APMABF CommissionerComptroller-General5

The ABF’s roleThe integration of the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service (ACBPS)and the Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP or the Department)brought together two long and complementary lineages with a proud historyof facilitating travel, trade and migration, and protecting Australia’s border.On 1 July 2015, the ABF—the operational arm of the Department—became responsible forall existing border operations including investigations, compliance, detention (facilities andcentres), enforcement and direct support functions across Australia’s airports and seaports,and land and maritime domains in accordance with the relevant customs and migrationlegislation. ABF officers work in close partnership with our colleagues from across theDepartment—operating with clear accountabilities that reflect the essential link betweenstrategy, policy and operations.Our mission of protecting Australia’s border and managing the movement of people andgoods across it remains central to our role as Australia’s customs service. We contributeto Australia’s economic and social prosperity in our role of facilitating legitimate trade andtravel while protecting our border as a part of our commitment to national security andsafety of the Australian community.To perform these responsibilities the ABF is supported by the broader Department andworks in partnership with law enforcement agencies to protect against threats such asterrorism and transnational organised crime while also facilitating legitimate trade and travel.The ABF continues to disrupt organised criminal networks from using border entry pointssuch as airports and seaports as well as non-conventional border entry points, to smuggledrugs and other contraband into Australia. ABF officers have the skills, training, equipmentand expertise to identify and detect drugs and other contraband in luggage, parcels andcargo, no matter how well they are concealed.Like our law enforcement partners, the ABF includes individuals who are uniformed andnon-uniformed, sworn and non-sworn, all working together in blended teams with a sharedpurpose and mission. Diversity of experience, qualifications, skills and subject matterexpertise in our workforce, combined with our commitment to service and professionalism,is critical to building confidence with our partners and stakeholder agencies.6ABF 2020

Like our predecessors, Border Force officers are trained and authorised to carry a firearmif their duties require it. This is not a new capability within the ABF—firearms were carriedby Customs officers as part of operational requirements, and is authorised under section189A of the Customs Act 1901. These officers are properly credentialed and trained tothe rigorous standards of policing, and must hold a use of force permit which is validatedannually. Currently, around 810 ABF officers (about 15 per cent of the ABF workforce)hold a use of force permit.The ABF performs its responsibilities according to Australian Government prioritiesto support the Department’s four strategic objectives: Protect Australia Promote responsive migration Advance trade and revenue Lead border innovation.Border Force officers are, first and foremost, here to protect and facilitate a service forthe people who interact with the Department, including travellers, traders, visa holders,those in detention and, more broadly, the Australian community. Being part of the lawenforcement community, Border Force officers are required to uphold the highestprofessional and ethical standards at all times. The trust of the community is where theABF derives its legitimacy, is built with every interaction, and must be maintained to ensureits continued support.Ultimately, continued government and community trust allows the ABF to exercise itslegislated powers.The figure on the next page describes the ABF’s operating environment. It outlines the mainfrontline, operations support and departmental support functions required to manage theflow of goods and people across the border continuum. It also highlights to the relationshipbetween the policy, strategy and legislative direction, ABF operations and our partners.7

ABF operating environmentDirectionGovernmentpolicy directionand agendasDIBP strategyguidance andpolicy adviceOperationsGovernance of operationsFrontline operationsBorder clearanceRevenue collectionInvestigationsExecutiveCommitteeCustoms complianceStrategicCommandGroup adviceEmployer complianceEnablinglegislationVisa complianceDetentionMaritime surveillance and responseCommunity protectionWhole-of-government initiativesOperations supportOperational strategies, planning,advice and service standardsWorkforce (raise, train, sustain)Capability supportSupport Regional Processing CentresBusiness services andrelationship managementIntelligence, integrity, ICT,major capability deliveryExecutive support, HR, finance,legal, corporate serviceInternational, industry andstakeholder engagementIntegrity, Security and AssuranceDemand: Process goods and people across theborder continuum8ABF 2020PartnershipsAFPLocal lawenforcementagenciesDefenceDepartmentof Agricultureand WaterResourcesNational securitycommunityIndustryInternationalpartners

DirectionThe ABF’s direction is informed by government policy direction and agendas;Executive direction from the ABF Commissioner and the Department’sExecutive Committee, strategy and advice; and guidance from internal business.This includes guidance from Strategy 2020, ABF 2020, People Strategy 2020,capability plans and investment pathways to develop priorities, enforcement plansand performance indicators. Developing and piloting new programmes such as theAustralian Trusted Trader programme is a collaborative approach highlighting therelationships across the ABF operating environment.DeliveryGovernance of operationsThe ABF’s operational governance framework outlines operational priorities,operational planning, resource allocation and how performance will be monitored.Governance is supported through a hierarchy of governance forums, detailedin the ‘Operating with clear accountabilities’ section.Frontline operationsThe ABF’s primary purpose is to deliver a range of functions across theborder continuum, including: border clearance—facilitate legitimate trade and travel through the borderwhile detecting and providing a deterrence of the illegal movement of peopleor the unlawful movement of prohibited, restricted or regulated goods revenue collection—collect revenue for the Commonwealth Government investigations—identify, target, disrupt and dismantle serious and organisedcrime across the border continuum, often working with other law enforcementagencies under agreed Memoranda of Understanding (for example, with theAustralian Federal Police and the Australian Crime Commission) customs compliance—support traders and travellers to comply withcustoms regulations and laws, ensuring that relevant duties and taxesare correctly assessed, reported and paid9

visa compliance—foster an environment of voluntary compliance while managingnon-compliance, to reduce the risk to the community and ensure the integrityof Australia’s migration system employer compliance—workplace visits to ensure employers are only employinglegal workers, that is, non-citizens who have appropriate work conditions attachedto a valid visa detention—non-citizens who do not hold a valid visa or pose an unacceptablethreat to the Australian community (including national security, health or character risks)are subject to immigration detention maritime surveillance and response—monitor and patrol at sea, including mitigatingand eliminating threats to border integrity in Australia’s maritime jurisdiction, throughworking with our state law enforcement partners and a standing multi-agency taskforcewith the Australian Defence Force community protection—keeping Australians safe from illegal drugs and firearms andother harmful substances such as asbestos and illicit tobacco, as well as protectingvulnerable members of the community, such as victims of human trafficking andsexual servitude whole-of-government initiatives—collaborating with the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO)to combat the organisation of illegal work, visa fraud and exploitation of foreign workersthrough Taskforce Cadena.Operations supportSupport for the operations of the ABF is heavily focused on frontline operations.These functions ensure that officers have clear operational strategies, procedures,service standards, training and equipment to perform their duties.The ABF works in close partnership with other parts of the Department. The ABF is anessential contributor to the development of strategy, policy and plans that impact theDepartment, while direction for these functions is also guided by strategy, policy andlegislation. They also support the infrastructure and capabilities needed for effectiveoperations across all domains—including airports and seaports, remote locations,mail and cargo centres, and Australia’s extensive maritime domain.10ABF 2020

For example, the Australian Trusted Trader programme, led by the Department’sPolicy Group, will fundamentally change the way the ABF manages its trade facilitationand compliance activities. Collaboration and teamwork across the Department make itpossible to deliver our programmes of work such as status resolution, refugee assessmentand ABF functions to effect return or removal of people whose claims for protectionare unsuccessful.Department supportThe broader Department provides support and enabling functions including intelligence,capability development and delivery, information technology, and overall corporatesupport (such as human resources, finance, communication, property and legal services).The Department’s professional standards and integrity and assurance functions areperformed at arm’s length by the Department’s Integrity, Security and Assurance Division.PartnershipsFrontline operations work in close partnership with other organisations such as theAustralian Federal Police, state and territory police, Australian Crime Commission,Department of Defence, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources,child protection agencies and human rights organisations. Important ongoing relationshipsare maintained with intelligence agencies in the national security community includingAustralian Security Intelligence Organisation and the Australian Secret Intelligence Service;international partners; service providers; and entities that run the facilities where the ABFoperates. This includes airports, seaports, mail gateways and fast parcel facilities, anddetention centres.For example, Taskforce Cadena, a Joint Agency Taskforce with the Fair Work Ombudsman,also works closely with the Australian Federal Police, Australian Securities and InvestmentsCommission and the Australian Taxation Office, to identify, investigate and impose criminalor administrative sanctions on those breaking the law.11

The ABF also works closely with education regulators such as the Australian Skills QualityAuthority and the Tertiary Education Quality Authority, to combat systemic non-complianceof the student visa programme. The ABF undertakes investigations into education agentsand education providers who seek to undermine the programme.Through close collaboration and data sharing activities with Department of Human Servicesand Centrelink the ABF also investigates large scale fraud committed by syndicates (suchas Registered Migration Agents and marriage celebrants) who are undermining Australia’svisa programmes.The ABF also works closely with international partners to build a global border protectioncommunity that is resilient to the challenges ahead. As a member of the World CustomsOrganization, the pre-eminent customs forum in the world, the ABF makes an importantcontribution to the national security community and transnational border protectionenvironment. Through close partnerships with our international partners, such as theStatement of Intent with Indonesia, we are forging relationships that enable the sharing ofinformation and cooperation to streamline trade and further ensure the integrity of supplychains. Our capability to detect and prevent the trafficking of illegal and restricted goodsis strengthened by our close working relationships with international law enforcement,customs and immigration agencies. For example, our partnership with Thailand to targetdrug trafficking has been bolstered by our Memorandum of Understanding that enablesgreater sharing of expertise in research and drug detection methodologies.12ABF 2020

Opportunities and challengesThe ABF is an integral part of Australia’s law enforcement community and the trusted leaderfor trade and travel facilitation and customs revenue collection. The integration of formerimmigration and customs functions has enabled us to better adapt and respond as weare faced with new and evolving challenges and threats in managing the border continuum.Our blended teams have enabled us to combine our expertise, provide more careeropportunities and increase mobility. This will allow the ABF to better adapt and respondquickly to threats using new and innovative approaches.Increasing demand and volume of trade and travel will provide the Australian Governmentwith significant revenue and contribute to economic prosperity. These high volumes of tradeand travel will also bring challenges to the ABF to streamline the lawful movement of peopleand goods through the border. Pressure on the migration system, threats to our nationalsecurity such as terrorism, and the increased reach and sophistication of organised crimesuch as outlaw motorcycle gangs, will require the ABF to adapt and respond quickly to thechanging environment.Significant growth in volumesThe ABF plays a vital role in protecting the Australian community from dangerous drugsand other illegal imports, through the physical examination of goods. In the 2014–15financial year, the ABF undertook more than two million inspections of air cargo articles,more than 100,000 inspections of sea cargo containers and more than 50 millioninspections of international mail—an increase of 10 million inspections from the year before.Each week, the ABF processes more than 600,000 passengers arriving in or departingfrom Australia. Over the four years from 2014–15 to 2018–19, the number of arriving anddeparting travellers is anticipated to increase by 23 per cent. Over the same period, thenumber of air cargo consignments is expected to increase by 26 per cent and the numberof sea cargo reports by 14 per cent.13

These significant growths in volumes of both passengers and cargo will provide significantrevenue for the Australian Government. The Department is the second largest revenuecollector for the Australian Government, collecting 15.7 billion in annual revenue (2014–15).The two largest revenue sources are 11 billion from customs duty and 3.5 billion fromGST. The ABF supports this revenue collection through its customs compliance andborder operations.Increasing expectations among travellers and tradersInternational travellers expect quick and seamless transit through borders.In 2012, 30 per cent of international travellers considered a 10–20 minute wait at an airportacceptable—by 2014, this fell to 7 per cent.1 Providing a seamless experience at theborder also supports Australia’s economy by reinforcing its attractiveness as a touristdestination in an increasingly competitive global market. By 2020, tourism from Australia’stop 10 visitor countries will be worth an estimated 34 billion to the economy.2Traders also expect more streamlined processing. Multinational corporations will berunning increasingly integrated supply chains with greater expectations of time, certaintyand speed. As retailers increase ecommerce, which is expected to grow at an annualrate of 9 per cent to 40 billion by 2018,3 retailers and consumers expect shipmentsto be delivered on schedule. This increase in ecommerce, will only continue as theprevalence of mutual trade agreements is expected to continue.The continued growth of air cargo will further add to the complexity of defining thesource and destinations for imports and exports, and the risks presented by thespeed of the supply chain and limited data available, providing a significant challengefor global border agencies.The international mail environment will continue to pose an increasing level of riskas the speed of the supply chain quickens, volumes continue to increase andlimited data collectively pose a substantial challenge for global border agencies.123142014 IATA Global Passenger Survey.Tourism Research Australia, Key Facts: Tourism Data Card, April 2012.EIU, OECD, Country Statistical Agencies, BCG research within Google andWorld Economic Forum partnerships.ABF 2020

More complex risk profileOver the past decade, the border risk profile has become increasingly complex and ourrole in protecting the community from harm is now more important than ever. Developingeconomies are increasing their share of global trade and their connections with globalsupply chains. As a result, Australia will develop stronger trade relationships with a morediverse set of countries which will be governed by a network of bilateral and multilateraltrade agreements. In addition, more people will be travelling to and from a greater numberof locations. For example, traveller movements from non-traditional countries will increase,and the Asian middle class expected to grow from 525 million people in 2010 to3.2 billion by 2030.4The increase in the number of people in detention whose visa was cancelled under section501 of the Migration Act (1958) because of a history of criminality or criminal associationshas raised the risk profile of the cohort in held detention. The number of onshore visacancellations in Australia increased by 29 per cent from 2012 to 2015. Mandatory visacancellations on character grounds, breaches in the code of behaviour by non-citizensin the community and non-compliance with visa conditions have also contributed to thechanging demographic mix in the detention environment. Unlawful non-citizens whorepresent a risk to the Australian community are placed in held detention and aresubject to removal from Australia.Organised crime syndicates are operating internationally and finding increasinglysophisticated ways to identify weaknesses in border protection. For example, advancesin technology provide opportunities to infiltrate damage or circumvent border systemsand processes. Types of organised crime activity include illicit drug importations, peoplesmuggling, visa fraud and illegal work operations, illicit commodities importations andother coordinated activities designed to evade paying duties on imports such as tobacco.The Australian Crime Commission estimates conservatively that organised crime costsAustralia 15 billion in prevention and response each year.545Australian Government, Australia in the Asian Century White Paper Australian Government, 2012.Australian Crime Commission, The Cost of Serious and Organised Crime in Australia dcrime-australia-2013-14, accessed October 2015.15

Some organised criminal networks are seeking to profit by exploiting foreign workersincluding through increased instances of organised sexual servitude. The ABF is identifyingand responding to individuals that are orchestrating these activities through disruption,enforcement and litigation. The ultimate goal of these activities is to identify, recover andprotect victims.Finally, extremist ideologies, terrorist groups and foreign fighters create a substantialterrorism risk internationally and in Australia. These trends are likely to continue andincrease pressure on border authorities. The ABF must, in cooperation with otheragencies as part of a whole-of-government approach, strengthen its ability to gatherand use intelligence to nullify threats before they occur.As existing threats evolve and new threats emerge, immigration policy is likely to shift.While immigration policy is a matter for government and the Department, it will haveimplications for the ABF from border clearance to detention and removal. The ABF mustrespond to evolutions in policy and in turn contribute to strategic policy development.ABF resource constraintsWhile demand for the frontline operational activities is increasing, its annual operatingbudget is set to decrease in the period to 2020. This will put increasing pressure on theABF to manage volumes, protect the border and meet high community expectationsin terms of maintaining community health, safety, security and good order. Day-to-daypressure on airport passenger processing is already diverting resources from othertasks. By 2020, the pressure will be even greater and without us adapting we willhave to process an ever increasing volume of goods and people through the border.16ABF 2020

The ABF will be supported through innovation in our implementation and use of technology,improvements to business processes and through targeted operational intelligence.New generation SmartGates, processing both inwards and outwards passengers,will be rolled-out to existing and new international airports and seaports. Increases indigital processing, automation and the Australian Trusted Trader programme will provideefficiencies at the border relating to goods processing. The referral process for visaoverstayers will be automated to enable visa decisions made by officers at the border tobe more consistent and better supported by timely, appropriate and relevant information.Automation of this function will increase the integrity and accuracy of information collectedat the border.The ABF continues to play a vital role in protecting the Australian community fromdangerous drugs, firearms and other illegal imports using a variety of detectiontechnologies, including x-ray, and a range of sophisticated substance and trace detectiontechnologies and detector dogs. These efforts are aimed at disrupting organised criminalnetworks at the border and ensuring items such as dangerous drugs do not reach theAustralian community. All of these activities will result in greater operational efficienciesand allow officers to be deployed, via intelligence, to address higher priority activities.17

The ABF in 2020We will continue to build on the expertise and capability of our professional workforceto further consolidate our border protection role in the law enforcement community by2020. Like our law enforcement partners, ABF officers will be disciplined, highly skilled,professional, and maintain the highest standards of integrity. As Australia’s customs service,we will be trusted leaders working with domestic inter-governmental and industry partnersin border protection matters relating to trade, travel and customs revenue collection.The ABF workforce will be highly trained and suitably equipped to undertake diverseactivities working in blended teams alongside qualified specialists, such as financial anddigital forensic investigators and intelligence analysts. Members of these blended teamsbring their expertise to the operation, and working together will achieve our mission.Less than one quarter of our workforce will undertake high risk enforcementactivities—these officers will still be required to train and be equipped to use personaldefence equipment including batons, handcuffs and firearms. The carrying of firearms toprotect the border and the Australian community is not a new capability within the ABF.Firearms were carried by former Customs officers as part of operational requirementsand is authorised under section 189A of the Customs Act 1901. This will continue to bestrictly controlled. Only officers who pass appropriate psychological and physical testsand equipment training requirements will be able to undertake these duties and carry thisequipment. The use of force permit for each officer is validated annually.The ABF will be informed and efficient, disrupting threats to border integrity whilequickly processing low-risk travellers and traders. To achieve this, there will beeight key areas of focus.18ABF 2020

Key areas of focus for the ABF in 20201. O perating with clear accountabilities2. Responsive and streamlined inborder processingA clear chain of command to direct activities,with accountable leaders working across BAUoperations, incident responseAutomated transit of low risk passengersand goods through the border. Border Forceofficers responsive to client and industry needs3. Credible and consistent4. Intelligence informedThe trusted representative of Australia acrossthe border continuum – a culture centredon integrity and professionalism in clientinteractions and relationships with industryand partnersOperational interventions targeted basedon robust analysis, with intelligence officersinforming day-to-day priorities5. Agile and mobile6. Directed at frontline operationsA well-trained workforce able to respondquickly to emerging priorities, with structuredcareer paths and opportunities formobility experiencesA clean split between ABF delivery,ABF support and Department support –with the vast majority of Border Force officersin frontline operational roles7. Operationally ready8. An effective collector of border revenueBorder Force officers provided with the rightequipment and tools to execute their lawenforcement dutiesDeliver on government policy by enforcingtrade compliance to collect targeted revenue19

1. Operating with clear accountabilitiesBy 2020, ABF officers will be adept at working in both permanent teams as part ofday-to-day operations, as well as specialised teams, including incident responses, namedoperations, and joint taskforces. The ABF will have clear and established accountabilitystructures in each of these scenarios, from a

stakeholder engagement Integrity, Security and Assurance: Demand: Process goods and people across the : border continuum: 9: Direction: The ABF's direction is informed by government policy direction and agendas; Executive direction from the ABF Commissioner and the Department's