5Gantt Chart FormatObjectivesUpon completion of this chapter, using P3e, you should be able to: Utilize layoutsModify columnsModify barsShow relationshipsModify sight linesModify row heightUse activity codesGroup and sort activitiesSummarize activitiesFilter activitiesOne of the major advantages of using the computer for schedulingconstruction project management applications is the ease of modifyingon-screen and hard-copy printouts of the schedule to communicateinformation in the clearest way possible. This includes changing theappearance and content of columns, bars, row heights, sight lines, etc.;organizing the information using activity codes; and selecting particularactivities included in the schedule using filtering. All this flexibilityassures that P3e can produce a schedule in the format and with theinformation to fit the multiple scheduling needs of a complex project.LAYOUTSThe appearance of the on-screen schedule depends on its layout. A layoutis a stored format of your schedule that keeps visual elements such as theformat of activity bars, row heights, site lines, columns, the organizationof activities, and screen colors. To select layouts, click on the View mainpull-down menu (Figure 5–1).The options under Layout are: Open, Save, and Save As. These layoutoptions provide you with the ability to change the visual appearance of118

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–1119View Main Pull-Down Menuscreens and to keep these changes intact when the program is restarted.Also, multiple screens (and therefore hard copies) of different layout formats can be saved and reused.Save.P3e automatically saves changes to activity data such as addingor editing activities. To save changes to the appearance of a layout, suchas changing the column data, modifying bar sizes and colors, or displaying the activity form, use this Save option, under Layout, from theView main pull-down menu.Save As.The Save As selection from the Layout options opens theSave Layout As dialog box (Figure 5–2). When you first create a layout,use the Save As command to assign a new Layout Name (Sample Schedule Layout in Figure 5–2).Open. The Open selection from the Layout options opens the OpenLayout dialog box (Figure 5–3). Here you can open an existing layout.P3e opens only one layout at a time for each project. In Figure 5–3, the

120Chapter 5Figure 5–2Save Layout As Dialog BoxFigure 5–3Open Layout Dialog BoxDefault WBS Layout has been selected. The fields available within theOpen Layout dialog box to help in selecting a layout are:Layout The Layout field lists the name of each available layout.User The User field lists the login name of the user who created thelayout.Apply The Apply button is used to preview the layout without closing the Open Layout dialog box.

Gantt Chart Format121Delete The Delete button is used to delete the selected layout fromthe Open Layout dialog box.Import You can import a layout from a different database or user tothe current one. Layouts are not project specific. They are user anddatabase specific. Also, Import can be used to quickly create a newlayout or to transfer a similar one; you can then rename it and modifyit. The Import layout command opens the Import dialog box (Figure5–4). Select the file that contains the layout you want to import andthen click the Open button. P3e’s layout files have a .PLF (PrimaveraLayout File) format. P3e appends a “1” to the layout name when it isimported if a duplicate layout name already exists.Export The Export button is used to export the layout and save it asa .PLF file.ZOOMAnother feature provided by P3e for modifying the on-screen Gantt chartis the Zoom feature. This feature allows you to modify the magnificationof the information provided on the screen. Zooming in on a Gantt chart(Figure 5–1) displays a shorter range of time, or it makes the informationappearing in the bar chart portion of the screen appear larger. To use thezoom-in feature, click on the Zoom In button (Figure 5–1) of the Activity Toolbar. Zooming out on a Gantt chart (Figure 5–1) displays a largerrange of time, or it makes the information appearing in the bar chartportion of the screen appear smaller. To use the zoom-out feature, clickon the Zoom Out button (Figure 5–1) of the Activity Toolbar.Figure 5–4Import Layout Dialog Box

122Chapter 5COLUMNSLook at the Columns and Column title location in Figure 5–5. To modifythe on-screen columns configuration, select Columns from the Viewmain pull-down menu. The Columns dialog box will appear (Figure5–6). Before modifying a column, look at the columns as they arepresently configured for the Sample Schedule. Close the Columns dialogbox to return to the on-screen Gantt chart. Click and drag the mouse onthe vertical split bar to expose the columns behind the Gantt chart (Figure 5–7). All the columns appearing in Figure 5–7 are in the DisplayColumns field in Figure 5–6. Columns can also appear without the Ganttchart. From the View main pull-down menu, select Show on Top. Thenselect the Activity Table option. The activity table screen shows onlyselected tabular information.The column title as it appears in Figure 5–7 may be edited. To change acolumn title, select the title to be changed from the Display Columnsfield of the Columns dialog box (Figure 5–6). Note that the Activity IDtitle has been selected. Then click on the Edit Title button of theFigure 5–5View Main Pull-Down Menu

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–6Columns Dialog BoxFigure 5–7Sample Schedule—Columns Exposed123Columns dialog box, and the Edit Column Title dialog box will appear(Figure 5–8). Here the New Title, column Width, and Alignment of theselected column can be changed.To add a new column to the existing display (Figure 5–7), the columnmust be added to the Display Columns field of the Columns dialog box(Figure 5–6). Click on the Available Columns button and then on theExpand All option. Now, all possible P3e new column titles will appear

124Chapter 5Figure 5–8Edit Column Title Dialog Box(Figure 5–9). To add a new column from the Available Columns (nondisplayed) field to the Displayed Columns field, first select the columnto be moved (Actual Duration). Then from the Display Column field,select the column that the moved column will appear after, in this casethe Remaining Duration title is selected. Then click on the arrow buttonpointing toward the Display Column field. Note that in Figure 5–9, theActual Duration column title now appears after the Remaining Duration title. Click the OK button of the Columns dialog box. Figure 5–10shows the exposed columns of the Sample Schedule with the new column (Actual Duration) appearing after the Remaining Durationcolumn.Figure 5–9Columns Dialog Box—New Column Added

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–10125Sample Schedule—Column AddedBARSLook at the bars location in Figure 5–10. To modify the on-screen barsconfiguration, select Bars from the View main pull-down menu (see Figure 5–5). The Bars dialog box will appear (Figure 5–11).You can use the Bars dialog box to add or delete bars, specify which barsare visible, position of the bars, and modify the bar pattern or colors ofthe Gantt chart. Note, from Figure 5–11, that there are presently threebars checked as visible for display on the Sample Schedule screen. TheActual Work, Remaining Work, and Critical Remaining Work bars arechecked under the Display column. These columns will be the visiblebars on-screen. By scrolling down the available bar options in Figure5–11, the Current Bar Labels and the Summary Bar are also checked to bevisible. The Bars dialog box (Figure 5–11) fields are:Display A mark in the checkbox indicates that the specified bar willbe visible in the on-screen Gantt chart. The Critical Remaining Workbar (Figure 5–11) is shown in Figure 5–13 since there is a mark in itsDisplay checkbox.Name Click the desired bar to select it. Double click the Name fieldto change the bar name.Timescale The Timescale field represents the timescale data that thebar represents. The Timescale data bar options are: Remaining Bar,Current Bar, % Complete Bar, Plan Bar, Actual Bar, Baseline Bar, Early

126Chapter 5Figure 5–11Bars Dialog BoxFigure 5–12Bars Dialog Box—Endpoints

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–13127Sample Schedule—Endpoints AddedBar, Late Bar, Float Bar, and Negative Float Bar. Double click theTimescale to change it.Filter The Filter field denotes the possible filter applied to the dataitem represented by the bar type. The pre-configured P3e Filter activity data item options are: Completed, Critical, Has Finish Constraint,Has Start Constraint, In Progress, Level of Effort, Milestone, NegativeFloat, New Feedback to Review, New What-If, Non-critical, Normal,Not Started, and Status to Review. New filters may be added to thesepre-configured P3e filters.Preview This shows how the bar will appear in the on-screen Ganttchart.The Bars dialog box (Figure 5–11) has two tabs for modifying the displayoptions of a selected bar in the current Gantt chart. The first tab is the BarStyle tab. The Bar Style tab options can be used to modify the bar andendpoints Shape, Color, and Pattern. The center three fields are for thebar, and the three fields on both sides of the center fields are for the

128Chapter 5endpoints. Note that in Figure 5–12, a downward pointing triangle isselected for the endpoints for the Critical Remaining Work bar. Figure5–13 shows the results on the Sample Schedule with the endpoints modified. Compare Figure 5–13, after the endpoint changes, with Figure 5–5made before the endpoint changes.The second tab of the Bars dialog box is the Bar Labels tab appearing inFigure 5–14. The Bar Labels tab is used to change the bar labels in thecurrent Gantt chart. Note that, in Figure 5–14, the bar Current Bar Labelsis selected for evaluating the bar label for the Sample Schedule. The BarLabels tab (Figure 5–14) fields/buttons are:Position Double click this field to change the position of the barlabel. The possible positions are: left, right, top, bottom, and center.Label Double click this field to choose a database field for theselected bar’s label. Note that in Figure 5–15, the bar Label has beenchanged from Activity Name (Figure 5–13) to Early Start.Add Click the Add button (Figure 5–14) to add a bar label to theselected bar. Even though the bar Current Bar Labels is selected formodifying the bar label for the Sample Schedule, any of the bars canhave a label attached.Figure 5–14Bars Dialog Box—Bar Labels Tab

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–15129Sample Schedule—Bar Changes MadeDelete Click the Delete button (Figure 5–14) to delete a bar labelfrom the selected bar.The Bars dialog box (Figure 5–14) has a number of buttons on the rightside of the dialog box for manipulating changes made to the dialog box.The Bars dialog box (Figure 5–14) buttons are:OKAccepts changes made to the Bars dialog box and closes it.Cancel Cancels changes made to the Bars dialog box and closes it.Apply Click this button to preview changes made to the Bars dialogbox without closing the dialog box.Add Click this button to add a bar to the Bars dialog box.Delete Click this button to delete the selected bar from the Barsdialog box. To remove the selected bar from the on-screen display

130Chapter 5without deleting it, remove the check from the checkbox in theDisplay field for that bar.Copy From To apply the Gantt settings from another layout to thecurrent activity layout, click this button.Shift Up Click this button to move the selected bar up one positionin the Bars dialog box.Shift Down Click this button to move the selected bar down oneposition in the Bars dialog box.Options This button will be discussed in the upcoming sections onrelationship lines and horizontal lines in this chapter.Default Click this button to apply P3e’s default Gantt chart settings.Compare Figure 5–15 to Figure 5–13, note the Summary Bar is no longervisible.RELATIONSHIP LINESAnother feature in P3e to modify the on-screen Gantt chart is Relationships. As discussed earlier, the successor and predecessor relationshipsassigned can be shown on-screen. This is very handy for evaluating thelogic relationships. To actually see all the relationship lines on the screenrather than trying to figure them out from some table or dialogbox makes the logic relationships much easier to understand. To do this,click on View and select Bars. Then, from the Bars dialog box, select theOptions button and the Bar Chart Options dialog box will appear(Figure 5–16). Click on the Show Relationships checkbox to select it.Figure 5–17 is the Sample Schedule with relationships showing.Figure 5–16Bar Chart Options Dialog Box

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–17131Sample ScheduleCompare Figure 5–17 with the relationships showing to Figure 5–15without relationships.SIGHT LINESA P3e formatting option that makes the on-screen bar chart and hardcopy printouts much easier to read is sight lines. The on-screen horizontal lines are labeled in Figure 5–17. The horizontal lines make it easier torelate the bars to the activity rows of the on-screen Gantt chart. To changethe horizontal on-screen lines, select Bars from the View main pulldown menu. Then from the Bars dialog box, select the Options buttonand the Bar Chart Options dialog box will appear (Figure 5–16). Underthe Horizontal Lines portion of the dialog box, the on-screen horizontallines can be modified. Compare Figure 5–17, with the Show Minor Linesevery set at 2, to Figure 5–13, with this setting at 5.

132Chapter 5Another handy feature of the Bar Chart Options dialog box (Figure5–16) is the Show Legend option. Note that when this option is selectedthe bar legend will appear on-screen (Figure 5–17).FONT, ROW HEIGHT, AND COLORThe ability to change the font size for on-screen text is a handy feature forgraphic presentation modifications. To change the on-screen text font,select the Table Font and Colors option from the View main pull-downmenu. The Table Font and Colors dialog box will appear (Figure 5–18).Select the Font button to make modifications.Changing the row height provides more spacing between activities.Another advantage of being able to change the row height is it enablesyou to adjust the number of activities on a single page for getting hardcopy prints. Compare Figure 5–17, with the Row Height set at 18, toFigure 5–19, with the Row Height set at 30.A P3e formatting option that gives the on-screen bar chart and hard-copyprintouts a personal touch is the ability to change background colors.The ability to change the color of P3e components is a powerful tool inpresentations and helps create a company image. To change the background screen color scheme select Table Font and Colors from the Viewmain pull-down menu. The Table Font and Colors dialog box willappear (Figure 5–19).Click on the Color button to reveal a color palette for selecting the onscreen background color. Figure 5–20 is an example of the P3e screenchanged in color.Figure 5–18Table Font and Colors Dialog Box

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–19133Sample Schedule—Row Height ModifiedACTIVITY CODESActivity codes and their values allow you to filter, group, sort, and reportactivity information according to your particular needs. P3e supportstwo types of activity codes, global activity codes and project activitycodes. You can assign global activity codes and values to activities in allprojects. You can assign project activity codes and values to activitiesonly in the project for which the codes were created.Sometimes it is useful to organize the project by another sort rather thanby activity ID (Figure 5–20). For instance, you may want to look at theproject by crew—laborer crew versus carpentry crew. Click on the Enterprise main pull-down menu; select Activity Codes and the ActivityCodes dialog box will appear (Figure 5–21). In the Activity Codes dialogbox (Figure 5–21), click on either the Global or Project checkboxes to

134Chapter 5Figure 5–20Sample Schedule—Background Color Modifiedmake the new activity code either global (assigned to all projects in thedatabase) or project-specific only.Note that, from Figure 5–21, under the Select Activity Code, no sortoption has been selected. By clicking the down arrow box, an activitycode used for sorting can be selected. When there are no activity codesdefined in the system, or you need to add a new activity code, click onthe Modify button of the Activity Codes dialog box and the ActivityCode Definitions dialog box will appear (Figure 5–22).Under the Activity Code Name field of the Activity Code Definitionsdialog box (Figure 5–22), a new activity code sort field named Responsibility is created. By clicking the Responsibility Activity Code field toselect it and then closing the dialog box, the Responsibility code for theSAMP project appears under the Select Activity Code field (Figure5–23).

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–21Activity Codes Dialog BoxFigure 5–22Activity Code Definitions Dialog Box135

136Chapter 5Figure 5–23Activity Codes Dialog Box—Code SelectedIf another P3e schedule has been completed and you are pleased with theway the Activity Codes are defined, the Copy and Paste buttons can beused. Many companies use the same or a similar coding system for everyproject. It is much faster to transfer these codes to each new project thanto re-enter them.Under the Code Value field of the Activity Codes dialog box (Figure5–23), select the Add button to create the new activity code sort fields forthe Carpenter and Laborer Crews. Under the Code Value field type inCARP, and then type Carpentry Crew under the Description field. Follow the same procedure to add the new Laborer Crew activity code.Now that the new activity code sort fields have been created, select theClose button of the Activity Codes dialog box (Figure 5–23) to close thedialog box.Activity Details. The next step is to identify each activity by responsibility. Click on the first activity to be identified. In Figure 5–24, ActivityA1000 has been highlighted. Click on the View main pull-down menu

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–24137Assign Activity Codes Dialog Boxand select Show on Bottom and then Activity Details. If you accessActivity Details and not all of the form is exposed, move your cursor tothe view control line. The cursor image will change from an arrow to twoshort double lines. By depressing and holding down the left mouse button, you expose all the Activity Details information.Click the Codes tab of the Activity Details form to expose the activitycode information about the selected activity. Then click on the Assignbutton and the Assign Activity Codes dialog box will appear (Figure5–24). The CARP Activity Code: Responsibility is selected for ActivityA1000 of the SAMP project. Note that, by selecting it, the CARP Responsibility now appears on Activity Details for Activity A1000 (Figure5–24). Simply click on the next activity and assign its activity code forResponsibility. Continue the process until all activities have beenassigned an activity code.

138Chapter 5GROUP AND SORTTo view the on-screen Gantt chart by responsibility, click on the Viewmain pull-down menu. Select Group and Sort and the Group and Sortdialog box will appear (Figure 5–25). Click on the level 1 field under theGroup By column, and a menu will appear for selecting the group andsort possibilities. In Figure 5–25, Responsibility has been selected for thelevel 1 sort. Note the levels of sort can go nine levels deep. So, if ActivityID were chosen as the level 2 sort, P3e would sort all activities byResponsibility and then by Activity ID. Notice that the groups can becustomized by Font & Colors. Here, the Apply button is clicked to preview the change. Click on the OK button to accept the sort change.Compare Figure 5–26, sorted by responsibility, to Figure 5–17, sorted byactivity ID. Activities A1000, A1010, A1040, and A1050 were defined asCarpentry Crew responsibilities. Activities A1020, 1A030, and A1060were defined as Laborer Crew responsibilities. The communicationsadvantages are obvious. The sort capabilities of P3e make it a great communications tool. Once the information is input, with minor changes, itcan be resorted to provide different members of the project team with thescheduling data sorted for their particular needs.SUMMARIZESometimes it is useful to summarize the project by sorted information.In this way, instead of looking at hundreds of detail activities, projectFigure 5–25Group and Sort Dialog Box

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–26139Sample Schedule—Grouped by Responsibilitymanagement personnel can look at a few summary activities that are theresult of all the detail activities. Note from Figure 5–27 that the Summarybars for Responsibility already appear on the on-screen bar chart. Thesummary bar can be made visible through the Bar options available fromthe View main pull-down menu.In Figure 5–27 the Sample Schedule in sorted by two groups; CarpentryCrew and Laborer Crew. By clicking the – checkbox beside a group, thegroup’s activities are summarized into a single activity. Compare Figure5–28, where the group Laborer Crew is summarized, to Figure 5–27, withno summary. P3e’s summary feature is a very handy feature for providing only the needed information to different users of the schedule information. To make the hidden activities visible again, click the checkboxbeside the group that was summarized. Another convenient way to control summary bars within P3e is to use the Expand All and Collapse Alloptions available for the View main pull-down menu.

140Chapter 5Figure 5–27Sample Schedule—Summary BarsFILTERThe Filters option can be useful for filtering the project activities and forshowing on-screen and hard-copy printouts of only a portion of theactivities sorted by some identifier. In this way, instead of looking athundreds of detailed activities, project management personnel can lookat only the activities meeting the sort criteria. For example, you maywant to look at only Carpentry responsibility of the Sample Schedule.Click on the View main pull-down menu and select Filter (see Figure5–1). The Filters dialog box will appear (Figure 5–29).As can be seen from the Filters dialog box (Figure 5–29), P3e has a number of predefined filter options. Also, this dialog box can be used todefine a new filter criterion. To create a new filter, click on the New button of the Filters dialog box (Figure 5–29) and the Filter dialog box willappear (Figure 5–30). Note that the new filter, Responsibility, is definedunder Filter Name. Three fields must be used to define the filter criteria.They are: Parameter By clicking the down arrow in the open field under theParameter column, a menu window will open for selection of the filter criteria. The Responsibility activity code, as defined earlier in thischapter, will appear as one of the options available from the menu.Click on Responsibility to select it. Is Is establishes the relationship between criteria defined in theParameter field and the Value field. The options available for the Isfield depend upon the Parameter selected. Value The Value field is used to define which option or options ofthe Parameter to make visible on the screen. When the activity code ofResponsibility was created earlier in the chapter, two values forResponsibility were created. The values were Carpentry Crew(CARP) and Laborer Crew (LAB). Under the Value field (Figure 5–30)the CARP value was selected.

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–28141Sample Schedule—SummarizedFigure 5–29Filters Dialog BoxThe new filter, Responsibility, has been created that will limit activitiesappearing on the screen to only the activities where responsibility is limited to the carpentry crew. Click the OK button of the Filter dialog box(Figure 5–30) to save the new filter. Note that when the new filter issaved, you will be returned to the Filters dialog box (Figure 5–31). Nowthe new user-defined filter Responsibility appears at the bottom of thepossible filter options. By clicking in the Select checkbox by Responsibility, and then clicking the OK button, you are returned to the Ganttchart with the new filter criteria in effect. Compare Figure 5–32, which isfiltered to limit visible activities only to Carpentry Crew activities, toFigure 5–27, which has no filter limit upon visible activities.

142Chapter 5Figure 5–30Filter Dialog Box—Filter AddedFigure 5–31Filters Dialog Box

Gantt Chart FormatFigure 5–32143Sample Schedule—FilteredEXERCISES1. Modify the Zoom feature of the on-screen P3e Gantt chart created inExercise 1 of Chapter 4.2. Modify the Columns feature of the on-screen P3e Gantt chart createdin Exercise 2 of Chapter 4.3. Modify the Bars feature of the on-screen P3e Gantt chart created inExercise 3 of Chapter 4.4. Modify the Sight Lines feature of the on-screen P3e Gantt chartcreated in Exercise 4 of Chapter 4.5. Create an Activity Codes feature for the on-screen P3e Gantt chartcreated in Exercise 5 of Chapter 4.6. Use the Organize feature for the on-screen P3e Gantt chart created inExercise 6 of Chapter 4.7. Use the Summarize feature for the on-screen P3e Gantt chart createdin Exercise 7 of Chapter 4.8. Small Commercial Concrete Block Building—On-Screen GanttChartUsing the on-screen Gantt chart for the small commercial concreteblock building created in Exercise 9 of Chapter 4, use the followingP3e features to modify its appearance:A. ZoomB. ColumnsC. BarsD. Sight linesE. Row height

144Chapter 59. Large Commercial Building—On-Screen Gantt ChartUsing the on-screen Gantt chart for the large commercial building created in Exercise 9 of Chapter 4, use the following P3e features to modify its appearance:A. Screen colorsB. Activity codesC. OrganizeD. SummarizeE. Filter

Zooming in on a Gantt chart (Figure 5-1) displays a shorter range of time, or it makes the information appearing in the bar chart portion of the screen appear larger. To use the zoom-in feature, click on the Zoom Inbutton (Figure 5-1) of the Activ-ity Toolbar. Zooming out on a Gantt chart (Figure 5-1) displays a larger