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RHEL Strategic MigrationPlanningFrom Unix and WindowsMichael LessardSolutions ArchitectRichard SéguinFederal Account ManagerChristine StegerCanada Sales Manager

Intros & ObjectivesRed Hat OverviewUnix migrationWindows migrationQuestions2

Red Hat Overview

Red Hat - OverviewCompany Vital StatsHeadquarters in Raleigh, NCFounded in 1993Over 3,200 employees in 65 offices worldwide, 75 employees in CanadaCash and investments: 959 millionDebt: 0FY10 revenues: 748 million, 15% increase from FY09IPO, 1999 (NYSE: RHT)Added to the S&P 500 in July 2009Forbes 504

Red Hat - Overview5

Red Hat - Overview Red Hat is the trusted, Market share leader in Open Source 1000 Certified Hardware Platforms 2200 Certified ISV & 3500 Certified Applications 75% of Red Hat customers plan to EXPAND their Red Hat footprint23% plan to maintain current levels (Piper Jaffray 2009 survey) Top Quartile Performance 40% annual growth rate over the past 5 yearsNo. 11 on Forbes' 2009 survey of the 25 fastest-growing US Tech companiesAdded to the S&P 500 in July7

From Unix to Linux

Three Main Objections to Unix/RISC Migrations Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86hardware doesn’t have the Reliability,Availability, and Serviceability (RAS)features required by my mission-criticalapplications.Linux can’t vertically scale to meet mymost demanding, high-performanceworkloads.Migrating applications off of RISCplatforms is expensive, difficult, and ahigh-risk endeavor.Migration is not rocket science!(but it’s probably more complex than you think!)

RAS Features

A Focus on RAS: Hardware-Level-Only [RHEL 5] Hardware-Only is a Good Thing! Memory and Interconnect Typically better performanceTypically better reliabilitySometimes a feature can only be done in HWThe economics need to be rightBetter handling of memory and interconnecterrorsSoftware handling could have resulted insystem halt!These are features found in higher-endproprietary platforms Now available on more efficient mainstreamplatformsMemoryIntel SMI Lane FailoverIntel SMI Clock Fail OverIntel SMI Packet RetryIntel Scalable Memory InterconnectQPIQPI Self-HealingIntel QPI Protocol ProtectionIntel QPI Packet RetryQPI Clock Fail Over

A Focus on RAS: New With RHEL 5.5 CPU/Socket and I/O Hub All of these features were enabled inearlier versions of RHEL 5But these features are just nowcoming out in hardwareWe have had several releases tobullet-proof this supportHardware-Only Plus RHEL 5enablement moves the bar evenhigherI/O HubPCI-E Hot PlugCPU/SocketOS CPU OnliningPartitioning Via VirtualizationElectronically Isolated PartitioningMemoryQPI

A Focus on RAS: Coming in RHEL 6 Red Hat is working with Intel upstream toharden these features in time for RHEL 6: Memory CPU/Socket Machine Check Architecture (MCA) recoveryCorrupt Data ContainmentCorrected Machine Check Interrupt (CMCI)Physical CPU Board Hot Add/removeI/O HubCPU/SocketIntel Quickpath Interconnect Inter-socket Memory MirroringFailed DIMM IsolationPhysical Memory Board Hot AddDynamic Memory MigrationDynamic/OS Memory On-lining (capacity change)Demand and Patrol scrubbingMirrored Memory Board Hot Add/RemoveQPI Viral ModeI/O Hub Physical IOH Hot AddDynamic/OS IOH On-lining (capacity change)MemoryQPI

Scalability

Nehalem-EX – Extreme Scalability 4 Sockets / 64 ThreadsIntel Scalable MemoryInterconnect with Buffers2X Memory Capacity 16 DIMMs per Socket 64 DIMMs per platform 1 Terabyte of memoryAdvanced Virtualization& I/O Technologies(4skt)

Nehalem-EX Performance Highlights Early benchmarks are promising: Dell SPECint on PE R810 (360) vs. Sun SPARC T5440 (338) Dell PowerEdge R910 server achieved a SPECfp rate base2006score of 482, an 89.8 percent increase over the Sun SPARCEnterprise T5440 server with a score of 254Dell PowerEdge R910 server achieved a SPECjbb2005 score of1,868,708, a 122.1 percent increase over the Sun SPARC EnterpriseT5440 serverNEC 8-socket running SAS benchmark But at 1/5 the cost!Linear scaling, SAS is extremely pleased with the resultsSAP Benchmarks using KVM virtualization showing linear guestscaling, and linear socket scaling

Results – Comparing I/O ThroughputsRHEL5.4z w NEC Intel EX 64 coreUsing SAS mixed analytics IO workloadPerformance (2x load, 2x Time IO)2000180016001400120032 core64 core10008006004002000SAS Real TimeAve Sustained MB/sPeak MB/sTotal IO in GBTwice more load, twice more resources, constant elapsedtime linear scalability!

Risk Elimination

The Strategic Migration Planning Process123Unix to RHEL Ecosystem Analysis – Mapping the Unixecosystem into the RHEL ecosystem and creating a RHELStandard Operating Environment (SOE)Functional Applications Analysis – High level analysis ofbusiness applications to be migrated.Organizational Readiness & Risk Analysis – Analysis oforganizational readiness factors, project risks, and riskmitigation strategies.4Strategic Migration Roadmap Creation – Combiningeverything into a single, holistic roadmap for migration.5Migration Implementation – Execution of the StrategicMigration Roadmap.

Phase I: Unix to RHEL Ecosystem Analysis Examine existing Unix ecosystem anddetermine the equivalent capabilities inthe RHEL ecosystem.Create a gap analysis and plan toaddress all gaps (if needed).Create a Standard OperatingEnvironment (SOE), an organization'sstandard implementation of RHEL,including base operating system, acustom configuration, standardapplications, software updates andservice packs.

Ecosystem Mapping ScenariosBuilt-in Functionality to Builtin FunctionalitySolaris Infrastructure App toRHEL Infrastructure AppSolaris Infrastructure Applicationto RHEL FunctionalitySolaris Functionality to RHELInfrastructure Application

Common Ecosystem Component Mappings

Phase II: Functional Applications Analysis Analyze complexity and size of existingfunctional applications to determinemacro-level migration difficulty.Analyze application migrationdependencies, including tightly coupledinterfaces and co-resident applications.Examine possible deployment scenariosfor each application and its associatedtesting and staging environments basedon the four generic deployment patternsCreate high-level functional migrationapplication cost analysis

Deployment ScenariosConsolidationAggregationDispersionCloud Migration

Phase III: Organizational Readiness & Risk Analysis Examine organizational readinessfactors including skill gaps, ITgovernance processes, andacceptance factors.Perform situational SWOT analysis todetermine current-state migrationstrengths and weaknesses as well asfuture opportunities and threats.Analyze technical risks inherent inmany migrations.Create Risk Mitigation Strategy toaddress and limit the impact ofidentified risks.

Phase IV: Strategic Migration Roadmap Creation Create final list of applicationworkloads to be migrated.Perform consolidated server,deployment, and virtualizationanalysis.Examine hardware redeploymentscenarios and opportunities.Create detailed training plan toaddress all identified skill gaps.Create detailed direct cost estimatefor the entire migration.Create master Migration Roadmap

Unix to RHEL MigrationTechnical Considerations

Technical Migration Considerations Development Environment Kernel Tuning Security Filesystems Debugging, Tracing, Profiling Software Management Virtualization 3rd Party Application Considerations

Development Environment Code Compilation Differences in compilers & flags (gcc vs. cc) Versions of make (make, nmake, gmake) Linker option differences System-specific APIs such as Solaris “doors” can causeissuesEndianness – the “NUXI” problem Systems can be “big-endian”, “middle-endian”, or “littleendian”A date analogy: US date format is middle-endian: 10/06/2009 EU date format is little-endian: 06/10/2009 Big-endian date format would be: 2009/10/06For the most part, SPARC, PA-RISC, and IBM Powerare big-endianLinux / X86 is little-endianCan cause lots of problems, particularly in programsthat access large amounts of shared memory .

Kernel Tuning In many cases, RHEL’s kernel can be tuneddynamically without rebootingIn Solaris, kernel changes are done in/etc/system and require a reboot to take effectSome instant changes are possible in Solaristhrough tools such as ndd, adb, DtraceIn Linux, pseudo-filesystem /proc is the kernel'smemory, available for instant modificationChanges can persist reboots in /etc/sysctl.conf

Security BART-like functionality available throughAIDE (Advanced Intrusion DetectionEnvironment)Tripwire also availableSecurity Enhanced Linux (SELinux) codeveloped by the NSA is included with allversions of RHELNo separate “insecure” version of RHEL(Solaris vs. “Secure Solaris”)Common Criteria/EAL4 certificationServices are disabled by default even afterinstalled or configured to listen to localhost

File Systems Solaris: Primarily ZFS and UFS RHEL: EXT3/4, LVM, GFS, XFS LVM – Logical Volume Manager Physical Volume physical partition / diskVolume Group collection of volumes /disksLogical Volume allocated “slice” from theVolume Group pool of available spaceFilesystem is then created on the LVCan be resized live (extend/reduce) andextra PVs can be added or removed liveSnapshot capabilityGFS – Global File System Clustered LVM

Debugging, Tracing, Profiling Solaris – Dtrace is very popular and powerfulRHEL and Linux community use SystemTap andOprofile – RH has core developers on both teamsSystemTap: Scripting language with full control structuresMillions of probe points in kernel & user spacesProbe arbitrary statements in codeSymbolically extract arbitrary data at probe pointEnd-user extendable probe library (tapsets)Protected probe execution environmentDivision by zero, null pointer, infinite loop protectionOprofile: System-wide profiling of all running codeUnobtrusive, low overhead, no recompilationPost-profile analysis

Software Management Linux software is packaged for ease ofadministration in RPM format RPM contains all patches, scripts,documentation, informationDatabase keeps track of changes, time stamps,checksums, etc.Built on dependency mechanism Was “Red Hat Package Manager” now just“RPM Package Manager”Try to install Package A. It depends onPackage B. Both will automatically be installedif needed.GUI frontend and YUM available to solvedependenciesSatellite can handle updates, rollbacks, etc.

Virtualization Kernel Virtual Machine uses Intel's VT-x CPUextensions to offload virtualization tasks to theCPUEffectively provides new privilege levelRemoves need for hypervisor to scan andrewrite kernel code Extended Page Tables in Nahalem I/O Offloading (VT-D) – PCI Pass-through Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR/IOV) – SplitPCI devices into virtual ones Uses mature, stable, and proven kernel Same security and performance as RHEL

3rd Party Application Considerations Thousands of 3rd party applications are certified on RHEL Check Red Hat Software Catalog: e.htmlCheck ISV site

Unix to RHEL MigrationCustomer Success Stories

Customer Success StoriesCity of ChicagoCarving Out CostMigrated their mission critical Oracle databaseenvironment to Red Hat Enterprise Linux on HPservers because they needed to:Reduce server hardware, maintenance and operatingcosts Prove Linux could effectively run enterprise-levelapplications Increase flexibility in choosing hardware vendors forsignificant potential cost savings Red Hat solution successfully delivered in the originalenvironment, addressing all the initial migration driversand has further enabled City of Chicago to expandthese benefits to other areas.

Customer Success Stories (cont.)Whole FoodsManagement & ScaleMigrated to a Red Hat solution to obtain an easy-to-use andreliable systems management solution that enabledincreased productivity and reduced costs. Whole Foodsneeded:A cost-effective operating platform A complementary management solution Scalability to keep with the company's rapid growth Increased security, manageability, and availability ofbusiness-critical applications Cheaper, faster, more reliable system Added enhanced capacity A system that guarantees security and reliability Experienced increased performance and internal-usersatisfaction of homegrown applications, including orderprocessing applications.

Customer Success Stories (cont.)NYSE EuronextInnovating ForSuccessMigrated to Red Hat solutions so NYSE Euronextcould focus on diversifying its product base anddeveloping a global platform for trading. To achievethis, they needed:To overcome the challenges with integrating variedtrading platforms from multiple acquisitions Produce a simplified and optimized technologyarchitecture Enhance the effectiveness of its technology throughincorporation of features needed Have a solution that was reliable and flexible enoughto produce the fast-paced performance demanded bythe industry. Hear about their results at:http://customers.redhat.com/2008/05/12/nyse/

Windows Migration

Your Double-Edged ChallengePerformanceMust be fastMust ScaleNeed to move from proprietary RISCmachines to industry-standard x86serversCostWant ability to take advantageof multicore x86 hardwareWould like to deployvirtualization for further savingsWindows? No. Red Hat Enterprise Linux .

SPECjbb2005 BenchmarkJava faster on Red Hat Enterprise Linuxthan on Windows

TPC Benchmark resultsRed Hat Enterprise Linux:Faster and less expensive than Windows

OS choices for the Content Management serverAttributes/requirements: Allow multiple users to access to shared content cluster Support adding users with minimal interuption or costContent Management Servers(clustered)Red HatMicrosoftRed Hat Enterprise Linux StandardWindows Server 2008 Enterprise* Edition- 799 Subscription/Server- All updates and patches included- Web based support unlimited Incidents- Unlimited number of users- 3999 License per server- Add 20%/yr Software Assurance- Phone support requires- Requires the purchase of Client Access-Licenses (CALs) to support more than 25users ( 200 for each additional 5 users)*- Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition license includes 25 CALs46

Operating system costs for CMS serverRed Hat Enterprise Linuxcostsremain fixed regardless of thenumber of users beingsupported47

Questions ?

7 Red Hat is the trusted, Market share leader in Open Source 1000 Certified Hardware Platforms 2200 Certified ISV & 3500 Certified Applications 75% of Red Hat customers plan to EXPAND their Red Hat footprint 23% plan to maintain current levels (Piper Jaffray 2009 survey) Top Quartile Performance 40% annual growth rate over the past 5 years