Postal AddressGPO Box 412Melbourne 3001Tel:(03) 9851 6966Fax:(03) 9851 6163Email: he Australian Council for Health, PhysicalEducation and Recreation, Victorian Branch, Inc.Registration No. A0000871UABN 23 911 016 643Office1407 Burke RoadKew East 3102PHASE MODULEPHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND FITNESS EDUCATIONThe Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Victorian BranchGPO Box 412Melbourne Vic 3001Tel: 9851 6966 Fax: 9851 6163 ACHPER Victorian Branch, 2006. This material may not be reproduced without permission and is supplementary to the informationpresented at this professional development. No responsibility or liability whatsoever can be accepted by ACHPER Victorian Branch or theauthors for any loss, damage or injury that may arise from any person acting on any statement or information contained in this publication andto the extent permitted by law, all such liabilities are expressly excludedPage 1 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND FITNESS EDUCATIONAt the completion of this module participants will: Understand the benefits of regular physical activity for children; Know how much physical activity is recommended for children and youth; Explore ways of increasing physical activity opportunities throughout the school day; Understand where physical activity fits into the Health and Physical Education domain; Know how to increase opportunities for physical activity within physical education lessons; Explore a range of strategies for assessing student physical activity participation and knowledge; Understand the context for health and performance related fitness testing within the primary school; Understand the type of warm up activity most appropriate for primary age students; Have participated in a variety of appropriate practical activities and be familiar with resources tosupport curriculum development.SUGGESTED PROGRAMThis module is designed to be conducted over two hours according to the following program:THEORYTIMENational Physical Activity GuidelinesPhysical Activity Opportunities at SchoolPhysical Activity and Physical EducationPhysical Activity and Fitness Education withinthe curriculumAssessment strategies and fitness testingResources45 minutesPRACTICAL ACTIVITIESWarming up and cooling downStrategies to increase student activity levelsduring physical education classesIndividual activitiesPartner activitiesGroup activities and games1 hour 15 minutesPage 2 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLSWhy is physical activity important?Regular physical activity provides young people with important physical, mental and social healthbenefitsThese include: healthy growth and development; strong bones and muscles; control of weight and body composition; improved posture; improved cardiovascular health; reduced blood cholesterol; opportunities to make friends and enhance self esteem; reduced stress, depression and anxiety.Regular participation in physical activity has other benefits such as: an increase in the likelihood that physical activity will be maintained into adulthood; it creates a more positive school climate; students are less aggressive and experience fewer discipline problems (CAPHERD); it is positively associated with increased educational aspirations. This is even stronger with studentsfrom disadvantaged backgrounds (Kerr 1996); it is correlated with improvements in subjects such as mathematics (Sallis et al 1999); leading to students being more productive, more motivated, better organised and more effective inlearning and performing tasks (Kidd 1999); the reduction of the likelihood of students being involved in anti-social behaviours (Kerr 1999); a decrease in the amount of vandalism, mischief, petty crime and other negative behaviours in thecommunity (Norrie and Mustard, 1999); enhancement of social and moral development.Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Young PeopleThe prevalence of overweight and obesity among Australian children has risen dramatically in recentyears. Approximately 20 to 25 % of children aged 5-17 are now classified as overweight or obese.Children and adolescents who are overweight are more likely to be overweight and obese as adults.They have an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, some types ofcancer and gallbladder disease.Physical InactivityPhysical activity levels among Australian children are decreasing as they are exposed to an evergrowing range of sedentary alternatives to physical activities. These include television, chat rooms,mobile phones, computer games, the internet and homework.Physical inactivity increases the risk of dying prematurely, dying of heart disease and developing coloncancer and high blood pressure (Centre for Disease and Prevention).Children who are encouraged to be physically active and develop a love of participation aremore likely to maintain participation into adulthood.Page 3 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
How Much Physical Activity?The Australian Government has published physical activity recommendations for young people. Theyare available at www.healthyactive.gov.au from the Department of Health and Aging. Multiple copies ofbrochures are also available free of charge.National Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Youth Children between 5-12 years of age need at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderateto vigorous physical activity every day. Children should not spend more than two hours a day using electronic media for entertainment (egcomputer games, TV, internet) particularly during daylight hours.A combination of moderate and vigorous activities is recommended. The natural movement pattern ofchildren is an intermittent or sporadic style of activity that alternates with rest and recovery. Continuousmoderate to vigorous physical activity periods lasting more that 5 -10 minutes are rare among childrenprior to 12 years of age. Physical activities can be collected in long or short-term bouts. Different typesof activities including weight bearing activity which is important for bone health should be included.Primary school age students should be involved in several periods of moderate to vigorous physicalactivity throughout the school day including physical education classes.The diagram below provides a visual example of the types and recommended frequency and intensityof physical activity for children. (see appendix 3 for a blank student physical activity pyramid)Source: http//www.classbrain.com/artread/publish/article 31shtmlPage 4 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
Physical Activity at SchoolAll children should have the opportunity to learn how to live an active lifestyle at school. Schoolsprovide unique opportunities to provide time, facilities and guidance for physical activity for youngpeople. Schools have the mandate and responsibility for enhancing all aspects of growth anddevelopment for children and young people. Schools offer the only systematic opportunity for youngpeople to take part in and learn about physical activity. (World Health Organisation - Physical Activityand Youth)If the importance of regular physical activity is taught at school, students learn that such activity is avalued part of the education process. Activity programs are an absolute requisite for healthy youth. Thephysical education program has a clear mandate in Victoria to contribute to the total school curriculum.Teachers can play an important role in helping students: accumulate as much physical activity throughout the day as possible; accumulate knowledge about the benefits of regular participation in physical activity; learn strategies for participating in physical activity outside of school time.School leaders should develop and implement a comprehensive plan to encourage physical activitywhich includes: A sequential program of physical education that:- is timetabled and meets the mandated time for physical education for Victorian schools (Seeappendix 1);- provides all students with the opportunity to participate;- provides opportunity for moderate to vigorous physical activity on a regular basis;- teaches mastery of motor skills;- teaches knowledge about physical activity;- teaches self-management skills;- develops positive attitudes towards physical activity;- provides activities and sports that students enjoy and can pursue throughout their lives;- ensures enjoyment, self satisfaction and personal success are achieved;- features cooperative and competitive games and activities;- actively teaches cooperation, leadership skills, strategic thinking, fair play and responsibleparticipation in physical activity. Programs that provide opportunities for students to be active before and after school and duringrecess and lunch (eg Active After School Communities; Before and After School Care programs;lunch time games/sport programs facilitated by local secondary school students; activity equipmentavailable for students to use; lunchtime walk and talk club for students and staff; line markings inthe playground; motivating playground equipment). Programs that encourage active transport to and from school (eg Walking Bus; Stride and Ride;Ride 2 School; Walktober). Links to local community sports and activity organisations (eg visits by State Sporting Associationsand local sporting clubs to schools to assist with physical activity programs; Athletes in Schoolsprogram). Membership of the Schools Network - Connecting Schools and Sport Becoming a Kids - Go-For-Your-Life primary school The creation of a ‘Classroom That Moves’ by providing physical activity opportunities within theclassroom program (For example: practice measurement skills in the playground; Add a Movememory game; students act out movement verbs; take a two minute activity break between brochures/). Opportunities for staff to be physically active and a role models for students and programs thataddress staff wellbeing.Page 5 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
Strategies to involve family members in school physical activity programs (eg news letters; familyphysical activity challenges; parents undertaking coaching accreditation courses to assist withcoaching teams). Linking knowledge and understanding about physical activity to the Health Education curriculumparticularly in relation to nutrition and the dimensions of health.Physical Activity and Physical Education - What’s the Difference?Physical education programs are not the same as physical activity opportunities and initiatives. Manyschools have introduced physical activity options in their Out of School Hours Care services, before andafter school and lunchtime activities, walk/ride to school. These programs may aim to address issuessuch as obesity, school ground conflict, traffic congestion and increasing physical activity opportunities.Physical Activity initiatives cannot be included as part of the mandated time allocation forphysical education and sport.Physical education differs from physical activity initiatives because it: is a planned instructional program with educational objectives that link to curriculum documents; is conducted by teachers; aims to increase physical development and competence; integrates intellectual, social and emotional learning through movement; takes place during timetabled school time; all students participate.Participation in physical activity is an outcome of a physical education program as well as a goal.Teachers should provide considerable opportunity for physical activity in their lessons. A successfulPhysical Education curriculum will result in children choosing to pursue physical activity outside oftimetabled physical education.Where Does Physical Activity and Fitness Education Fit into the Health and Physical EducationCurriculum?The Health and Physical Education domain within the Victorian Essential Learning Standards requiresstudents to develop knowledge, skills and behaviours that enable them to: maintain good health and live a healthy lifestyle; understand the role of physical activity in ensuring good health ; engage in physical activity.The HPE Learning Focus statement has a strong focus on student participation in and knowledgeabout, physical activity.Page 6 of 247.4.2009/ja/imac2
The table below documents Learning Focus statements directly related to physical activityparticipation and knowledge.Health and Physical EducationDomainPhysical Activity and Fitness Education – Learning Focus statementsLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4They regularly engage in activities described as moderate to vigorous, such as brisk walking orrunning, active play, swimming, dance, sports and games, which increase student breathing andsweating.Students begin to develop a movement vocabulary, including movement words, ways of describingthe physical responses of their bodies to movement and the feelings associated with participation inphysical activity; they explore basic health needs that must be met to maintain or promote theirhealth and to help them grow and develop.Students are introduced to the basic principles of living an active and healthy life and begin to learnabout the importance of eating a variety of foods. They learn about how foods differ in look, taste,feel and smell and begin to understand how good food choices contribute to an active and healthylife.Students begin to understand the link between physical activity and health and learn that they needenergy to participate in physical activity. They learn to describe their physiological responses toparticipation in both moderate and vigorous activity using vocabulary such as out of breath andheart beating faster. They discuss how activities that make them huff and puff improve heart andlung function.They explore people’s needs at various stages of development and recognise that some needsapply to all stages of life.Students participate in a r
Children between 5-12 years of age need at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Children should not spend more than two hours a day using electronic media for entertainment (eg computer games, TV, internet) particularly during daylight hours.