International Project on Technical and Vocational EducationProjet international pour l'enseignement technique et professionnelEstablishing Partnershipin Technical and Vocational EducationCo-operation between Educational Institutions and Enterprisesin Technical and Vocational EducationA Seminar for Key Personnel from Africa and AsiaBerlin, Germany, 02-12 May 1995

The International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) is a project of the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Its purpose is to contribute to the development andimprovement of technical and vocational education in Member States.UNEVOC works in three programme areas:Programme Area A deals with the international exchange of experience and the promotion of studies on policy issues.It is devoted to system development in technical and vocational education.Programme Area B is devoted to strengthening national research and development capabilities, that is to the development of infrastructures.Programme Area C concerns access to data bases and documentation and strengthening of the UNEVOC Network, inother words, with information and communication.Under Programme Area B, UNESCO held, in co-operation with the German Foundation for International Development (DSE), an International Seminar for Key Personnel on "Co-operation between Educational Institutions andEnterprises in Technical and Vocational Education" in Berlin, Germany, from 02-12 May 1995. The German Foundation for International Development (DSE) is an institution which provides a forum for dialogue ondevelopment policy and the initial and advanced training of specialists and executive personnel from developing andtransitional countries. The institutional donor is the German Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development(BMZ). Since 1960, the DSE has given advanced professional training to more than 100 000 decision makers, specialists andexecutive personnel from more than 140 countries.The Industrial Occupations Promotion Centre (ZGB) of the DSE offers advanced training in the field of vocational training.The ZGB's programmes aim to give more people in the developing countries access to vocational training opportunities, improve the efficiency of vocational training in the developing countries, support the introduction and further development of in-plant forms of vocational training in the sectors of industry, craftsand services, promote co-operation between school and in-plant vocational training agencies (dual approach), make it easier for target groups on the brink of poverty in the informal sector to set up their own business by undergoingcrafts-oriented basic vocational training, support the processes of reform in the countries of Eastern Europe by promoting vocational training.More information can be obtained from:German Foundation for International Development Š Industrial Occupations Promotion Centre ŠKäthe-Kollwitz-Str. 15 Š D-68169 Mannheim Š Germany Š 6 [ 49] (621) 3902-132 This report was prepared by UNESCO'sUNEVOC Implementation Unit in Berlin Fehrbelliner Platz 3 10707 Berlin Germany6 [ 49] (30) 86 49 15 41 Electronic Mail: [email protected] World wide web: UNESCO 1996Date of this reprint: January 1999Document Nr ED/IUG/005

Establishing Partnership in Technical and Vocational EducationPage 1ForewordThis is a comprehensive report on a significant activity of UNESCO within its International Project on Technical andVocational Education (UNEVOC). It has been undertaken by UNEVOC Berlin. It addresses a pre-eminent issuefacing the world of education today; namely, the essential need for co-operation between educational institutions andenterprises in preparing people for, and maintaining them within, the world of work.The rate of change within the social, political and economic arenas of the world today demands from us proactive andcreative responses. The thrust of the UNEVOC Project is to encourage and give scope to such responses, as theyrelate to the world of work. One strategy that it uses in this endeavour is to provide for the exchange of ideas andexperiences among leaders within technical and vocational education and within the world of work in the membercountries of the UNEVOC Project. This document records in detail such exchange of ideas and provides for theirdissemination. Further, it addresses the problems and issues relating to such co-operation from the perspective ofvery different contexts in which they occur.Co-ordination of effort in this area of human endeavour is essential if we are to avoid unnecessary duplication and thewastage of human and other resources. To assist such co-ordination, the participants in the Seminar, of which this isthe Report, reported on relevant developments in their countries and regions; representatives from the internationalscene added their ideas and experiences, thus extending well beyond the boundaries of the participants' countries.I am pleased to state that UNESCO has not only taken the "Conclusions and Recommendations" (page 139) intoaccount, but that a number of suggestions have actually been included in the 1996-1997 Work Plan of UNEVOC.Furthermore, UNESCO is about to use the seminar as a model for a similar activity to be organized in francophoneAfrica in 1996.May I use this opportunity to thank all participants in the seminar for their valuable contributions. They have enabledUNEVOC Berlin to present this substantial report, thus making the substance and findings of the seminar available toall those who were unable to attend.I commend the report to you. I believe that it has considerable potential as a resource to guide the perceptions andactivities of people whose responsibility it is to integrate, as far as is appropriate and possible, formal and informaleducation, as it pertains to the world of work, with the efforts of work enterprises, in order to create and maintain aneffective and efficient work force.Colin N. PowerAssistant Director General for EducationUNESCO

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Establishing Partnership in Technical and Vocational EducationPage 3Table of ContentsForeword .11 Introduction.51.1 About UNEVOC.51.2 Greeting Addresses .7UNESCO, Mr H. KRÖNNER . 7German Foundation for International Development, Mr H. BURK . 7German Commission for UNESCO, Mr K. HÜFNER . 81.3 Objectives, Contents and Results.102 Co-operation between Educational Institutions and Enterprises in Technical andVocational Education: African Experiences .192.1 Abstracts of Participants' Presentations .202.2 South Africa: The National Training Strategy Initiative by R. EBERLEIN .272.3 South Africa: The ESKOM Approach by R. VERSTER .322.4 Nigeria: The Perspective of an Educational Institution by F. A. ODUGBESAN .382.5 Nigeria: The Perspective of an Employer by B. A. O. POPOOLA .422.6 Uganda: Co-operation Links by E. LUGUJJO and B. M. MANYINDO .442.7 Uganda: The Realities of Co-operation - Uganda Polytechnic Kyambogoby A. J. J. RWENDEIRE and B. MANYINDO .482.8 Uganda: Pilot Project on Co-operation by E. LUGUJJO and B. MANYINDO .522.9 Swaziland: Co-operation by L. B. LUKHELE .652.10 Swaziland: Connecting Schools and Enterprises - A Model for Secondary VocationalEducation by C. B. S. MNDEBELE and L B. LUKHELE .672.11 Swaziland: Enhancing Co-operation by C. B. S. MNDEBELE and L B. LUKHELE .752.12 Kenya: Co-operation in Technical and Vocational Education by B. W. KERRE .943 Dual, Co-operative Training Systems - An Alternative for Advanced DevelopingCountries in Asia? by M. WALLENBORN .1004 International Co-operation - Contributions of International and German Experts.1054.1 An Analytical Framework.105A Comparison of the Main Types of Vocational Training Systems by W.-D. GREINERT. 1054.2 Selected Examples from the German Dual System.112A Critical Analysis of Some Prerequisites and Features of the German Dual Systemby J. IWANOWITSCH . 112Standards in Vocational Training - Development of Vocational Curricula in Germanyby H. TUTSCHNER . 114BIBB - Common Address for Technical and Vocational Education by U. LAUR-ERNST . 117Pilot Schemes: The Example of Women in Male Dominated Vocations by B. WOLF . 118Training of Trainers by the German Federal Institute for Vocational Training (BIBB) by R. SELKA. 1194.3 International Assistance - The Concepts of Some Donors.124Abstract of the ILO Study "Toward Strategic Training Partnership between the State and Enterprises"by A. MITCHELL . 124Some Guidelines for Enhancing Co-operation with Enterprises by J. REICHLING . 126Sector Concept - Vocational Training of the FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION ANDDEVELOPMENT. 1275 Conclusions and Recommendations from the African Group .139Appendices.143Agenda.143Programme .144List of Participants.145Guidelines for Case Studies by R. B. HOBART .151The Role of Case Studies within the UNEVOC Project . 151Case Studies on "Policy and Legislation in Technical and Vocational Education to EnhanceCo-operation with the World of Work". 152Case Studies on "Co-operation Between Educational Institutions and Enterprises at the TrainingLevel". 157Convention on Technical and Vocational Education .161

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IntroductionPage 5Programme Areas11.1IntroductionAbout UNEVOCWhat is UNEVOC?The International Project on Technical and VocationalEducation (UNEVOC) is a project of the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO). Its purpose is to contribute to the development and improvement of technical and vocational education in Member States. Based on a decision taken atthe twenty-sixth session of the General Conference ofUNESCO in 1991, UNEVOC was launched in 1992.BackgroundThe idea to launch a comprehensive project in technicaland vocational education within UNESCO dates back to1987. That year, UNESCO held its first InternationalCongress for the Development and Improvement ofTechnical and Vocational Education in Berlin, Germany.Strong support was shown for the suggestion that mechanisms be established for the international exchange ofinformation on technical and vocational education. Itwas proposed that UNESCO support the establishmentof an international centre for research and developmentin technical and vocational education.The General Conference of UNESCO at its twenty-fifthsession in 1989, took two important decisions related totechnical and vocational education: The General Conference adopted the Convention onTechnical and Vocational Education. This standardsetting instrument provides a coherent set of conceptsand guidelines for the development of technical andvocational education in Member States, withparticular regard to assuming public responsibility forframing policies and defining strategies of technicaland vocational education, considered to be an integralpart of the education system and for the promotion ofinternational co-operation. Furthermore, the General Conference invited theDirector-General of UNESCO to carry out a feasibility study on the establishment of an InternationalCentre for Technical and Vocational Education.This feasibility study recommended that UNESCO'sactivities in technical and vocational education shouldconcentrate on matters of technical and vocational education as a component of the overall education system.Based on that feasibility study, which was completedearly in 1991, the General Conference of UNESCOdecided, at its twenty-sixth session in 1991, to launch thefirst phase of a UNESCO International Project onTechnical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).In accordance with that decision, UNEVOC wasdesigned to contribute to the development of systems oftechnical and vocational education, to promote infrastructures in research, developmentand planning, and to facilitate information and communication in thesefields.Structures and MechanismsUNEVOC is carried out under the responsibility of theEducation Sector of UNESCO at its Headquarters inParis.An International Advisory Committee has been established by UNESCO to advise the Organization on thepreparation and implementation of the UNEVOCprogramme.Many activities within UNEVOC are being executed ona regional basis and UNESCO's Regional Offices play animportant role in the implementation of the project: Africa:Regional Office for Education in Africa (BREDA) Arab States:Regional Office for Education in the Arab States(UNEDBAS) Asia and the Pacific:Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific(PROAP) Latin America and the Caribbean:Regional Office for Education in Latin America andthe Caribbean (OREALC).Following the decision on UNEVOC taken by theGeneral Conference in 1991, the Government of theFederal Republic of Germany offered to host an Implementation Unit in Berlin, in the immediate vicinity of theGerman Federal Institute for Vocational Training(BIBB).On 17 July 1992, UNESCO and the Government of theFederal Republic of Germany concluded an agreementon UNEVOC. In this agreement, the Government of theFederal Republic of Germany offered to matchUNESCO's budgetary input into the project, thusdoubling the overall budget. In addition, UNESCO andGermany agreed to establish a project implementationunit in Berlin. Germany has generously providedpremises for this Unit and the budget for office furnitureand data processing and telecommunication facilities, aswell as other initial equipment.The Berlin Unit was officially opened on the occasion ofthe first session of the International Advisory Committeein September 1993. It supports the overall planning ofUNEVOC and is responsible for the implementation ofcertain activities specified in the UNEVOC programme.

Page 6IntroductionThe "Seminar on Co-operation between EducationalInstitutions and Enterprises in Technical and VocationalEducation" has been carried out by UNEVOC Berlin.The Programme for 1994-1995According to a decision taken by UNESCO's MemberStates in 1991 and reaffirmed in November, 1994,UNEVOC works in three programme areas: Programme Area A deals with the internationalexchange of experience and the promotion of studieson policy issues. It is devoted to system developmentin technical and vocational education. Programme Area B is devoted to strengtheningnational research and development capabilities, that isto the development of infrastructures. Programme Area C concerns access to data bases anddocumentation, and strengthening of the UNEVOCNetwork, in other words, with information andcommunication.P rog ram m e A rea AS ystem d evelo pm en tP rog ram m e A rea BP rog ram m e A re a CInform ationC o m m u n icationN etw ork in gIn frastructuresProgramme Areas of UNEVOCSystem DevelopmentThe basic concept behind Programme Area A is toenhance the role and status of technical and vocationaleducation within national education systems.UNESCO held a consultation in 1993 with experts fromdifferent regions of the world in order to identify some ofthe factors which determine role and status of technicaland vocational education. A series of case studies hasbeen prepared on the relevance of these factors withingiven national education systems.In order to promote co-operation between educationalauthorities and the world of work in technical and vocational education, studies have been conducted in selectedcountries on existing policies and legislation whichenhance such co-operation. Regional symposia served topresent the experience gathered to policy-makers.Finally, surveys have been carried out on the relevanceof vocational information and guidance for the equalaccess of girls and women to technical and vocationaleducation. The results have been used as a contributionto the Fourth World Conference on Women inSeptember 1995.InfrastructuresProgramme Area B is devoted to strengthening nationalresearch and development capabilities, that is to thedevelopment of infrastructures. In 1993, UNESCO helda workshop which convened experts from all the regionsof the world. Participants compared different methods ofdevelopment of vocational curricula. The results havebeen evaluated in the regions. Follow-up activities havebeen implemented.Special emphasis is being made on the process of international transfer and adaptation of existing curricula.Differences in applied technologies, in norms, in legislation, in teacher training, etc. have to be taken intoaccount when curricula are to be adapted to a new environment. UNESCO has facilitated the documenting ofmethods applied and experience gathered in the course ofsuch curriculum adaptation.Co-operation between educational institutions and enterprises is needed not only at the system level, but also atthe training level. The work place provides a valuableenvironment for systematic vocational learning. Buthow can this potential be utilised for the improvement oftraining? UNESCO initiated a series of studies onmechanisms for co-operation between educational institutions and enterprises, and made the results widelyavailable.Within this Programme Area, the International Seminarfor Key Personnel on "Co-operation between Educational Institutions and Enterprises in Technical andVocational Education" has been held.Information and CommunicationProgramme Area C deals with access to data bases anddocumentation and with the strengthening of theUNEVOC Network. This concept includes, in particular, the development of information and communication structures among specialised institutions. Theprogramme is devoted to enriching the flow ofinformation between specialised institutions in theMember States, as well as increasing the transparency ofinformation and enhancing access to data bases anddocumentation. UNEVOC will not compete withspecialised documentation centres, but rather will assistMember States in efficiently using existing data anddocumentation.The "UNEVOC Directory" of leading national andregional institutions active in research, development andplanning in technical and vocational education has beenprepared and disseminated.UNEVOC INFO, which is published quarterly in Englishand French, is one of the activities under ProgrammeArea C.Documents dealing with specific topics in technical andvocational education are being prepared and disseminated.

Introduction1.2Greeting AddressesThe organising agencies as well as representatives fromthe host country addressed participants on May 10, 1995:UNESCO, Mr H. KRÖNNERMr Hans KRÖNNER has been Chief of UNEVOC Berlin since itsinception in 1993.Mr Burk, Director of the Industrial OccupationsPromotion Centre of the German Foundation for International Development (DSE);Prof. Hüfner, Vice-President of the German Commissionfor UNESCO;Prof. Standke, President of the Berlin Committee forUNESCO;Participants in the joint DSE/UNEVOC Seminar;Ladies and Gentlemen,I wish to welcome all of you this afternoon. I welcomeyou on behalf of the Assistant Director General forEducation of UNESCO, Mr Colin N. Power, who hadintended to come here, but had to stay in Paris for theExecutive Board Meeting that starts this week.Mr Power has conveyed the following message to all ofus:I should like to take the opportunity of underlining theimportance UNESCO places on technical and vocationaleducation. There is no doubt that the world today ischanging at a rapid pace and a significant contribution tothis change is the further development of technical andvocational education. Socio-economic developmentdepends largely upon the availability and quality of thetechnical and vocational education provided and theUNEVOC Project has been conceived by UNESCO as apositive attempt to support this action in its Member States.I should like to make the following observations to theparticipants present at this gathering tonight. It is obviousthat we are seeking educationalists throughout the world toassist us in supporting and encouraging the development oftechnical and vocational education. I am convinced thatthis venture greatly depends upon the support it receives inthe various regions of the world. This present seminar hasbeen organised for the benefit of Africa and Asia and thePacific and it is hoped that the experience gained can bedisseminated to other regions of the world.I am sure that this seminar has been productive and hasprovided you with new fields for thought and I should liketo encourage you to further develop and disseminate thesenew ideas in your own country and/or region for thefuture."Ladies and Gentlemen,We are approaching the final phase of our two-weeks’Seminar on Co-operation between Educational Institutions and Enterprises in Technical and VocationalEducation. Eight countries from Asia and five countriesPage 7from Africa have participated. These two world regionsrepresent 75 % of the world population.We found out that, in spite of many differences in theirsocio-economic and cultural backgrounds, there arecertain commonalties concerning their needs in futuredevelopment of technical and vocational education. Itwas felt that in both regions there was an urgent need tochange the image and status of technical and vocationaleducation. It was suggested that Attention-FocusingInitiatives should be taken, such as declaring the year1997 as the year of technical and vocational education,or by organising a Skills Olympic as a benchmarkexercise to rate systems of technical and vocationaleducation.The quality of UNESCO's programme largely dependson the input from its Member States.Likewise, the atmosphere and results of a seminar largelyreflect the input and commitment of its participants,including the resource persons. I am glad to say that wehad a highly productive seminar in a very friendly andco-operative atmosphere over the last ten days. Closeco-operation between UNESCO and the GermanFoundation for International Development (DSE)certainly contributed its share to the success of theseminar.I wish to thank all of you for your active participationand for the commitment that you have shown to ourcommon objective: To shape systems of technical andvocational education that will better serve both theindividual fulfilment as well as the development of oursocieties and economies as a whole.Thank you all.German Foundation for InternationalDevelopment, Mr H. BURKMr Herbert BURK is the Director of the Industrial OccupationsPromotion Centre (ZGB) of the German Foundation for International Development (DSE) in Mannheim, Germany.Professor Hüfner, Professor Standke, my special dearcolleague Mr Krönner, Ladies and Gentlemen participating in this seminar.First, I would like to register the fact that this seminar isa result of discussions between myself and Mr Krönnerhere in Berlin concerning the tasks of UNEVOC andDSE/ZGB. When we discussed our plans for the year1995 we found out that UNEVOC was planning asimilar seminar for African countries to that which theDSE/ZGB was planning for Asian countries. The topicwas on vocational education and training. The strategywas the co-operation between educational institutionsand enterprises. So we discovered that we had a similartopic and strategy. The target groups were high ranking

Page 8decision makers from educational institutions and enterprises, and their associations. As I have indicated, wewere planning it for the Asian region, and Mr Krönnerwas planning it for the African region. So we had theinspiration to bring these two groups together and toorganise a common event for one week here in Berlin.I must say that I am very much convinced that this ideawas a good one. I am very impressed by the effectiveand harmonious working together of each group.Ladies and gentlemen, you are participating in a first-offevent. You are witnessing the co-operation between thenew organisation UNEVOC, and the ZGB/DSE that hasbeen already established for many years.Personally, I feel that it is high time to strengthen the cooperation between the multilateral agencies likeUNESCO, ILO, the World Bank etc. and the bilateralagencies like the DSE, GTZ etc., that are working for theGermany Ministry for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment.I have been working in the field of vocational educationand training since 1970. Before that I worked in Africaand in India, for more than 10 years. I came to realisethat all too often we confuse our partners because weintroduce different approaches, different policies anddifferent training options.Instead of that we should try to co-ordinate our effortsand harmonise our policies and strategies. Only then canwe reach a better result and a synergetic effect.This does not mean that we should neglect completelyour own mandates. The mandate of UNEVOC is different from the mandate of the DSE/ZGB, and the mandateof UNESCO is different from that of the InternationalLabour Organisation.But there is nothing wrong, as I see it, if the DSE makesavailable the experience of Germany and its "DualTraining System" and if UNEVOC makes available amore global strategy of "Co-operation".The exchange of these two groups has clearly shown thatthis is an enrichment and gives a clearer understanding ofwhat is meant by such co-operation between privateenterprises and state educational institutions in aparticular country.Such seminars as this can help us to understand thevarious systems in their social and economic contextsand help us to find out in what ways we can develop thesystems further. By a better insight we are able toimprove vocational education and training.I will not talk on. I wish you a wonderful evening and allthe best in your deliberations.IntroductionGerman Commission for UNESCO,Mr K. HÜFNERProf. Dr Klaus HÜFNER is the Vice President of the GermanCommission for UNESCO and lecturer for economics at theFree University of BerlinDear participants,dear friends,lieber Hans Krönner,This year we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the end ofthe Second World War. We also celebrate the 50thbirthday of the United Nations and of UNESCO.Today’s world is certainly different from the oneimagined 50 years ago by the authors of the Charter ofthe United Nations. It i

improve the efficiency of vocational training in the developing countries, support the introduction and further development of in-plant forms of vocational training in the sectors of industry, crafts and services, promote co-operation between school and in-plant vocational training agencies (dual approach),