View metadata, citation and similar papers at to you byCOREprovided by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE): E-JournalsInnovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.orgProposed Methodology for Crowdsourcing and AgileDevelopmentHimanshu Pandey1Dr. Santosh Kumar2Dr. V.K Singh 31.School of Computer Science & Engineering, Research Scholar, MUIT, Lucknow, U.P, India2.School of Computer Science & Engineering, Associate Professor, MUIT, Lucknow, U.P, India3.School of Computer Science & Engineering, Professor, BBDNIIT, Lucknow, U.P, IndiaAbstractIn this research work, devised a methodology for ‘crowdsourcing’ focused on incorporating these methods toAgile Development in software engineering. The whole SDLC model for crowdsourcing is developed and triedto be integrated with Agile. This is done in order to speed up the process of Agile Development as Agile is aRapid Application Development (RAD) based software engineering methodology. The ‘workers’ of thecrowdsourcing process are individually assigned the Roles of the Agile methods that function upon the Agiletasks and produce the deliverables.Keywords: Crowdsourcing, Requirement Elicitation, Tasks Hierarchy Diagram, Concurrent Task ModelFigure 1. Proposed Methodology1. IntroductionThe proposed CrowdSourcing Methodology is the first step towards devising a process for gradually designingCrowdSourced application. Our first step in developing an understanding of the crowdsourcing phenomenon wasthe study of some of the seminal works in this area. This established a common vocabulary and understandingamong the researchers about the concept of crowdsourcing. Due to the specific intricacies of softwaredevelopment, crowdsourcing in a software context is different from other contexts, as represented by, forinstance, AMT. Clearly, this has implications for what aspects of crowdsourcing should be studied in a softwaredevelopment context. To that end, based on a traditional literature review we identified a number of key44

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.orgconcerns in crowdsourcing software development. As this set of concerns represents one dimension of ourresearch framework, we briefly reiterate these in Section 2.1; a more extensive description can be found in ref.[31]. Furthermore, since crowdsourcing involves a number of actors, or stakeholders, it is useful to take differentstakeholder perspectives so as to study crowdsourcing software development from different stakeholders’ views.We identified three different perspectives, namely that of customers, workers and the platform representing anonline ‘market’.1.1 CrowdSourcing Methodology (CRM)To construct the initial Methods of CRM, the designer takes the list of terms or concepts and organizes them intotasks and solutions and produces an initial where tasks are the goals to achieve and solutions are the bottom upbuilders for the final product. For example, taking Research Journal Paper Submission Process (RJPSP) as thecase study, first the Requirements are elicited. Then the process of Analysis begins that incorporates Interviewsand selection of Participants. The participants later are assigned to workers. A Task Hierarchy Diagraminvolving Minsky’s Model of Task Reduction. After Task Reduction is done, Roles are assigned and Use Casesare elaborated. Roles are further refined in that the specific task is allocated to specific Role(s).The process ofDesign and implementation of CRS then proceeds ultimately converging to the final Crowd Sourced Product.2. Literature ReviewAlam, S. L., and Campbell, J. [2], investigates discoveries from an interpretive contextual investigation researchof a non-benefit crowdsourcing activity inside the Australian Newspapers Digitization Project (ANDP). In lightof administration systems for IT administration and Open Source Software, the administration componentsactualized inside ANDP are inspected. A mix of proactive and receptive, formal and casual social instrumentswere found to assume a basic part for effective crowdsourcing administration. The discoveries show thesignificance of the part of social administration components in crowdsourcing administration and fortify thesignificance of comprehensive partner interest and correspondence. Amrollahi, A., Ghapanchi, A., and TalaeiKhoei[3], presents an in-advance contextual investigation of utilizing the crowdsourcing model to execute theopen methodology idea in an Australian college. We utilize the standards of Design Science ResearchMethodology (DSRM) for open vital arranging by utilizing the crowdsourcing model and assess the technique bylooking at the nature of resultant arrangement in conveying its goal. Amini, S., Lin, J., Hong, J., Lindqvist, J.,and Zhang[4], thinking about the expansive and developing number of portable applications, our imaginedbenefit expands on crowdsourcing, virtualization, and computerization to empower substantial scale examinationof applications. AppScanner gives end-clients more reasonable data in regards to what portable applications aretruly doing on their gadgets. Anderson, M.[5] outlines the real difficulties that obstruct to successfullyconsolidate crowd sourcing into existing business condition to develop another type of participation. We lay outresearch challenges in most vital territories: the procedure plan and check, outline of run of the mill examples tohelp business portions finished by nonconcurrent swarm contribution through unidentified accomplices,improvement of work processes administration framework usefulness to suit swarm sourcing exercises. Thearticle by Brabham D.C [6,7,8]contends that the crowdsourcing model, an effective, Web-based, disseminatedcritical thinking and generation display for business, is a fitting model for empowering the subject interestprocess out in the open arranging ventures. This article starts with an investigation of the difficulties of opencooperation in urban arranging ventures, especially in the tackling of innovative arrangements. Bücheler, T., andSieg, J. [9] examine the relevance of Crowdsourcing and a few strategies from Open Innovation to the logicalstrategy and fundamental science in a non-benefit condition. Chen, L., and Liu, D[10], find a U-formedconnection between the accommodation time and winning in the two kinds of challenges. Social capital lifts thelikelihood of winning a group evaluated challenge just if the social capital is adequately high. Chen, Z., and Luo,B.[11],report a preparatory report on crowdsourcing testing for instructive ventures. We present three businessprogramming items as instructive testing ventures, which are crowdsourced by our showing emotionallysupportive network. We call this "Semi Crowdsourcing Test" (QCT) on the grounds that the competitor laborersare understudies, who have certain social relations. The examination comes about are urging and show to beadvantageous to both the understudies and industry in QCT ventures. Geiger, D., Seedorf, S., Schulze, T.,Nickerson, R. C., and Schader, M[13], centers only around an authoritative point of view and on the systemsaccessible to these associations. The subsequent measurements are preselection of patrons, availability ofcompanion commitments, accumulation of commitments, and compensation for commitments. By grouping theprocedures of 46 crowdsourcing illustrations, we recognize 19 unmistakable process composes. A consequentbunch investigation demonstrates general examples among these sorts and shows a connection to specificutilizations of crowdsourcing. Graber, M. A., and Graber, A[14], will show that the crowdsourcing model ofresearch can possibly make hurt members, controls the member into proceeded with support, and uses membersas exploratory subjects. We presume that conventions depending on this model require institutional audit board(IRB) investigation. Hetmank, L.[15], endeavors to pick up a superior comprehension of what crowdsourcing45

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.orgframeworks are and what regular plan angles are considered in the improvement of such frameworks. In thispaper, the creator led a deliberate writing audit in the space of crowdsourcing frameworks. Metropolis Model isKazman, R., and Chen, H-M [17], endeavor to depict and recommend the standards encompassing how suchframeworks may be made and supported. It offers a bound together rationale for thinking about and overseeingframework improvement for the two noteworthy types of crowdsourced frameworks: OSS improvement what'smore, group based administration frameworks. Kittur, A., Chi, E.H., and Suh, B [18],explore the utility of asmaller scale undertaking market for gathering client estimations, and talk about outline contemplations forcreating remote miniaturized scale client assessment assignments. Albeit small scale undertaking markets haveawesome potential for quickly gathering client estimations at low costs, we found that exceptional care isrequired in planning errands so as to outfit the capacities of the approach. Peng, X., Babar, M.A., and Ebert,C.[23],consolidating best practices from open source improvement furthermore, outsourcing, crowdsourcinginfluences and animates vitality toward disseminated esteem creation. Its ubiquity as it were keeps on developing:more than 600,000 individuals have enlisted on the TopCoder site up until now, and 15 percent of them havetaken part in at any rate one calculation rivalry. Zhao, Y., and Zhu, Q.[24] looks to introduce a basic examinationof the substrate of crowdsourcing research by reviewing the scene of existing investigations, includinghypothetical establishments, inquire about techniques, and research foci, and distinguishes a few imperativeresearch bearings for IS researchers from three points of view - the member, association, and framework - andwhich warrant additionally think about. This examination adds to the IS writing and gives experiences toscientists, originators, strategy producers, and chiefs to better comprehend different issues in crowdsourcingframeworks and activities. Zogaj, S., Bretschneider, U., and Leimeister[26], demonstrates that testCloud facesthree fundamental difficulties, these are: dealing with the procedure, dealing with the group and dealing with theinnovation. For each measurement, we diagram instruments that testCloud applies for confronting the difficultiesrelated with crowdsourcing ventures.3. Analysis3.1 Requirements ElicitationIt becomes an unavoidable activity to elicit the user requirements before moving to the next steps of the CRM.Interviews, level of participation and platform on which the CRM has to run are brought on Paper. The processconsists of1. Requirement Discovery2. Requirements Classification and Organization3. Requirements Prioritization and Negotiation4. Requirements Specification.These steps are shown in the figure below:Figure 2. Requirement Elicitation in CRM46

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.org3.2 Identify Tasks with Tasks Hierarchy DiagramFigure 3. Tasks Hierarchy Diagram3.3 Assigning RolesThe general case transformation of goals to roles is one-to-one, with each goal mapping to a role. However, thereare situations where it is useful to have a single role be responsible for multiple goals, including convenience orefficiency. One mapping of the goals from our previous example to a set of roles is shown below. PaperDB Partitioner Assigner Reviewer Collector DecisionMaker3.4 Adding Use CasesCoordinatorCoordinatorFigure 4. Use Case Development47

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.org3.5 Refining RolesRoles are refined in this stage. There are already lots of roles which are application specific and have beenassigned to entities. Now in this stage grouping of roles in the order of similarity and action, identified roles arerefined in groups.4 DESIGN4.1Architectural Design Coordination and Communication of TasksThe tasks allotted to the worker are streamlined and prepared to be distributed to them.4.2 Concurrent Task Model (State M/C of concurrent Tasks)SubmitPapersAccept (n,d) (n,d)Assign (n,d)RejectWhere, : Transition Functionn: no. of papersd: destinationFigure 5. Concurrent task model4.3 Physical Design Task SchedulingTask Scheduling is done by extracting meaning from the state machines. Tasks are assigned to the workers inaccordance with the roles.Platform Articulation amongst Workers is what the basic need of an AGILE Project.In crowd sourcing an agile project mainly involves:1. Requester2. Platform3. CrowdThe requester is itself the SCRUM entity that manages the Agile Process Development.Here the iterations, like a chronograph are periodically assigned to variable and fluctuating crowds. Crowds aresources to some kind of computational resources that can be CPU Cycles, Memory, battery power or somethingelse that in any way can be pulled from the crowds. The idea is to meet few or many of the requirements to bemet by the SCRUM because ‘Sprinting’ in Agile software development requires many iterations and when theproject load exceeds the maximum capacity of the development Servers, it becomes a no choice option else tocrowdsource the project.5. IMPLEMENTATION of SCRUM IN CROWDSOURCINGScrum belongs to the family of agile software development methods that have attracted significant attentionamong software practitioners during last five years. Whereas the Extreme Programming method [6] that has beenwidely accepted as one of the most important agile approaches has a definite programming flavour (pairprogramming, coding standards, test driven development, refactoring, continuous integration), Scrumconcentrates on managing software projects.Scrum starts with the premise that software development is too complex and unpredictable to be plannedexactly in advance. Instead, empirical process control must be applied to ensure visibility, inspection, andadaptation. The different environmental and technical variables (such as time frame, quality, requirements,resources, implementation technologies and tools, and even development methods) must be controlled constantlyin order to be able to adapt to changes flexibly. This is achieved through an iterative and incrementaldevelopment process.48

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.orgFigure 6. Detailed Scrum flow6. Coding and MaintenanceOSS (Open Source Software) like Python is used for coding. Python 3.2.3 is preferred with DJANGO as frontend and SQLite as backend. Security is provided by user / role basis.7. ConclusionIn this paper, the authors have devised model for Agile Software Development using Crowd-Sourcing. This isparticularly done in order to duct the SDLC phases through workers in crowdsourcing. A methodology has beendesigned for the same. Agile is based on RAD, so in order to increase the velocity of the development of anyAgile product, crowdsourcing is utilized. As future scope efficiency and velocity of Agile SoftwareDevelopment is aimed to be maximized.ReferencesAfuah, A., and Tucci, C.L. 2012. "Crowdsourcing as a Solution to Distant Search," Academy of ManagementReview (37:3), pp. 355-375.Alam, S. L., and Campbell, J. "Role of Relational Mechanisms in Crowdsourcing Governance: An InterpretiveAnalysis,") 2013.Amrollahi, A., Ghapanchi, A., and Talaei-Khoei, A. "Using Crowdsourcing Tools for Implementing OpenStrategy: A Case Study in Education," Twentieth Americas Conference on Information System (AMCIS2014), 2014, pp. 1-7.Amini, S., Lin, J., Hong, J., Lindqvist, J., and Zhang, J. 2012. "Towards Scalable Evaluation of MobileApplications through Crowdsourcing and Automation," CMU-CyLab-12-006, Carnegie Mellon University).Anderson, M. "Crowdsourcing Higher Education: A Design Proposal for Distributed Learning," MERLOTJournal of Online Learning and Teaching (7:4) 2011, pp 576-590.Brabham, D. C. "Crowdsourcing the public participation process for planning projects," Planning Theory (8:3)2009, pp 242-262.Brabham, D.C. 2008. "Crowdsourcing as a Model of Problem Solving," Convergence: The International Journalof Research into New Media Technologies (14:1), pp. 75-90.Brabham, D.C. 2012. "The Myth of Amateur Crowds: A Critical Discourse Analysis of CrowdsourcingCoverage," Information, Communication & Society (15:3), pp. 394-410.Bücheler, T., and Sieg, J. H. "Understanding science 2.0: crowdsourcing and open innovation in the scientificmethod," Procedia Computer Science (7) 2011, pp 327-329.Chen, L., and Liu, D. "Comparing Strategies for Winning Expert-rated and Crowd-rated CrowdsourcingContests: First Findings,") 2012.Chen, Z., and Luo, B. 2014. "Quasi-Crowdsourcing Testing for Educational Projects," Companion Proceedingsof the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering: ACM, pp. 272-27549

Innovative Systems Design and EngineeringISSN 2222-1727 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2871 (Online)Vol.9, No.2, 2018www.iiste.orgDoan, A., Ramakrishnan, R., and Halevy, A.Y. 2011. "Crowdsourcing Systems on the WorldWide Web,"Communications of the ACM (54:4), pp. 86-96.Geiger, D., Seedorf, S., Schulze, T., Nickerson, R. C., and Schader, M. "Managing the Crowd: Towards aTaxonomy of Crowdsourcing Processes," AMCIS, 2011.Graber, M. A., and Graber, A. "Internet-based crowdsourcing and research ethics: the case for IRB review,"Journal of medical ethics (39:2) 2013, pp 115-118.Hetmank, L. "Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems-A Systematic Literature Review,"Wirtschaftsinformatik, 2013, p. 4.Howe, J. "The rise of crowdsourcing," Wired magazine (14:6) 2006b, pp 1-4. Kaufmann, N., Schulze, T., andVeit, D. "More than fun and money. Worker Motivation in Crowdsourcing-A Study on Mechanical Turk,"AMCIS, 2011.Kazman, R., and Chen, H.-M. 2009. "The Metropolis Model a New Logic for Development of CrowdsourcedSystems," Communications of the ACM (52:7), pp. 76-84.Kittur, A., Chi, E.H., and Suh, B. 2008. "Crowdsourcing User Studies with Mechanical Turk," CHI '08Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (453-456).LaToza, T.D., Towne, W.B., Van Der Hoek, A., and Herbsleb, J.D. 2013. "Crowd Development," Cooperativeand Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE), 2013 6th International Workshop on: IEEE, pp.85-88.Leimeister, J.M., Huber, M., Bretschneider, U., and Krcmar, H. 2009. "Leveraging Crowdsourcing: ActivationSupporting Components for It-Based Ideas Competition," Journal of management information systems(26:1), pp. 197-224.Li, K., Xiao, J., Wang, Y., and Wang, Q. 2013. "Analysis of the Key Factors for Software Quality inCrowdsourcing Development: An Empirical Study on Topcoder. Com," Computer Software andApplications Conference (COMPSAC), 2013 IEEE 37th Annual: IEEE, pp. 812-817.Pastore, F., Mariani, L., and Fraser, G. 2013. "Crowdoracles: Can the Crowd Solve the Oracle Problem,"International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST).Peng, X., Babar, M.A., and Ebert, C. 2014. "Collaborative Software Development Platforms forCrowdsourcing," IEEE software (31:2), pp. 30-36.Wu, W., Tsai, W.T., and Li, W. 2013b. "Creative Software Crowdsourcing: From Components and AlgorithmDevelopment to Project Concept Formations," International Journal of Creative Computing (1:1), pp. 57-91.Zhao, Y., and Zhu, Q. 2012. "Evaluation on Crowdsourcing Research: Current Status and Future Direction,"Information Systems Frontiers), pp. 1-18.Zogaj, S., Bretschneider, U., and Leimeister, J.M. 2014. "Managing Crowdsourced Software Testing: A CaseStudy Based Insight on the Challenges of a Crowdsourcing Intermediary," Journal of Business Economics(84:3), pp. 375-405.50

Agile Development in software engineering. The whole SDLC model for crowdsourcing is developed and tried to be integrated with Agile. This is done in order to speed up the process of Agile Development as Agile is a Rapid Application Development (RAD) based software engineering methodology. The 'workers' of the